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UNIT I – NATURE AND CONCEPT OF RESEARCH 1. Definition of Research <BOOK> Research is an art of scientific investigation.

It is regarded as a systematic effort to gain new knowledge. The dictionary meaning of research is “a careful investigation or enquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge According to Clifford Woody, “Research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.” Research is creative work undertaken systematically to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. According to Martin Shuttleworth, “In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.” According to Creswell, “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: Pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question. The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as "a studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws". The word research is derived from the Middle French "recherche", which means "to go about seeking", the term itself being derived from the Old French term "recerchier" a compound word from "re-" + "cerchier", or "sercher", meaning 'search'. The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577. 2. Different types/kinds of Research <BOOK> Definitions are …. 1. Basic Researches …. Ex: a. b. c. d. e. Applied Researches are those that probe into the unknown using directly the results to a current problem. <BOOK> It is use of basic research or past theories, knowledge and methods for solving an existing problem. It deals with practical problems. It is opposed to pure research which is not problem-oriented but for the increase in knowledge which may or may not be used in future. Ex: a. b.


It is a collection of research designs which use manipulation and controlled testing to understand causal processes..wikipedia. 4. and how. http://www. It is about recording.answers. including contradictory beliefs.html Example: Does drawing improve children’s memory for an event? http://www. analysing and attempting to uncover the deeper meaning and significance of human behaviour and Example: How do adolescents spend their time? http://www.researchmethod.pdf 8. http://wiki. also known as statistical research. describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being e.pdf 6.cmu. Descriptive research answers the questionswho.c.andrew. Correlation Research Method. what. 5.alzheimer-europe. gives an indication of how one variable may predict another. http://www. This is a decision-oriented research involving the application of the steps of the scientific method in response to an immediate need to improve existing behaviours and emotions. It usually involves collecting and converting data into numerical form so that statistical calculations can be made and conclusions drawn. <BOOK> Pure researches …. when.andrew. http://en. d. Experimental research is a systematic and scientific approach to the scientific method where the scientist manipulates variables. Empirical Research ….alzheimer-europe. .cmu.pdf 9. <BOOK> Descriptive example: are children’s friendships related to their relationships with siblings? http://www. a statistical measure of a relationship between two or more variables. Quantitative research is generally associated with the positivist/postpositivist paradigm.experiment-resources. 3. Qualitative research is the approach usually associated with the social constructivist paradigm which emphasises the socially constructed nature of reality. Developmental research.

htm 14.disability. law. interpretation or evaluation of existing literature in order to establish current knowledge on a subject http://www. Speculative Sometimes research is implemented strategically. Evaluation research is research conducted to measure the effectiveness or performance of a program. where researchers take account of current situations and speculate as to their future implications. Clinical trials are research studies undertaken to determine better ways to 3. Literature review is a critical examination. patterns and links occur. for example a new policy.disability.wa. concept or campaign in achieving its screen for. Epidemiological research is concerned with the description of health and welfare in populations through the collection of data related to health and the frequency. patterns and links between variables. treatment regime or the introduction of a new .au/Research/Definitions/ResearchTypes. http://www. Research of this nature might speculate as to what these implications might be and develop a programme of inquiry that can inform future responses to these issues. diagnose or treat Evaluative To evaluate the impact of http://www.htm summarisation.    Descriptive Descriptive work aims to gather information that illuminates relationships.answers. http://wiki. Purposes/aims of research <BOOK> Other purposes/aims of research :   Exploratory This type of research investigates an area or issue on which little previous work has been carried http://www. issues or phenomena through observation and and deliberate intervention to improve practice. Explanatory Explanatory research aims to show why relationships.wa.htm 15. distribution and determinants of disease in populations.  system. event. Predictive The purpose of this type of research is to develop a model that predicts the likely course of events given particular intervening variables or circumstances.disability.wa. Action research is a methodology that combines action and research to examine specific questions. with the aim of improving health.disability.htm 13.

Theoretical / Conceptual Framework <BOOK> . Major Parts of Major Research Reports <BOOK> 5. Subtopics of chapter 1 <BOOK> 6.4.