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# Summary – Fourier Series (Chapter 8) 1.

Suppose that a CT signal x ( t ) is defined for the interval _

T T ≤ t ≤ . We can 2 2 ⎧ T T ⎫ view the signal as a vector, where the points ⎨ x ( t ), − ≤ t ≤ ⎬ are coefficients ⎩ 2 2 ⎭ of the vector with respect to a “time basis.” If we change the basis from small € € sections of time to complex exponentials, we get a different set of coefficients for representing the signal – specifically, we have € ∞ T T j 2π k t T x(t) = X [k] e , − ≤ t ≤ where 2 2 k=−∞ (I). T 2 1 X [k] = x ( t ) e− j 2 π k t T dt, k = 0,±1,±2,… T

−T 2

{ X [k ], k = 0,±1,±2,…} is called the set of Fourier Series coefficients for x (t ) on
T T the interval _ ≤ t ≤ . 2 2 €

€ 2. Now suppose we consider −∞ ≤ t ≤ ∞ in the first equation in (I). Each of the complex exponentials in the sum is periodic with period T , so the sum is also € periodic with period T . Let x p ( t ) denote that periodic signal – note that over the T T single period _ € t ≤ , we have x p ( t ) = x ( t ) . So, we have the Fourier Series ≤ 2 2 € for the periodic signal x p ( t ) , defined by € €

x p (t) =

k ∑ X [€ ] e j 2 π k t T , − ∞ ≤ t ≤ ∞ where
k=−∞ T 2

(II).

1 X [k] = T

∫ x p (t) e− j 2 π k t T dt, k = 0,±1,±2,…
−T 2

k 3. The complex exponential e j 2 π k t T has frequency f k = Hz. So we can think T €the sum in the first equation in (II) as generating x t by summing together of p( ) components at different frequencies. The coefficient of the component at € k € frequency f k = is the k -th Fourier Series coefficient X [ k ] . So, the set of T € Fourier Series coefficients and their corresponding frequencies (that is, ( X [k ], f k ), k = 0,±1,±2,... forms the frequency domain representation (or € € € spectrum) for x t . (Note that X 0 is the size of the dc component (that is, the

{

}

p(

)

[]

average value) of x p ( t ) ; X [1] is the coefficient of the component at the 1 fundamental frequency f1 = Hz; etc.) T € €

. A plot of X [ k ] vs. Parseval’s Relation says ∞ 2 −T 2 X [ k ] . 1 6. k = ±1. So.1... 2 2π k 2 € 1 € X [k ] = . Then € € 1 j 1 X [0] = . we usually plot the magnitude spectrum ( X [ k ] vs. Even when the signal x p ( t ) is real-valued. f ) and the phase spectrum ( ∠ X [ k ] vs.±2..4.±2. then X [ −k ] = X * [ k ] .. (So: we can interpret that we can also find average power by Px = € k=−∞ € ∑ € ..) € € € 5. X [ k ] = . So. it can have complex-valued Fourier Series coefficients. f ). If x p ( t ) is real-valued. (see if you can derive this). ∠ X [ k ] = for k > 0. € € € € € (Example: Consider the periodic signal x p ( t ) having a fundamental frequency of 10 Hz. X[0] = .. f (that is. 0 ≤ t ≤ 0. The average power in x p ( t ) is Px = € T T 2 2 € ∫ x ( t ) dt . k = ±1. defined over one period by x p ( t ) = 10t. and 2π k π π € ∠ X [0] = 0. Plots of the 2 2 magnitude spectrum and phase spectrum are shown below. a stem plot showing X [ k ] at frequency f k ) is called the spectrum plot. and ∠ X [ k ] = − for k < 0 .

)   T 2   (Example:  In  the  example  in  Item  4  above:  the  power  in  the  dc  component  is   2 1 X [ 0 ] =  Watt.)   4 4! 16! 2 k=!2 .3133  Watt.  and  the  total  average  power  in  the  frequency  band   !20 " f " 20 Hz   4 2 2 1 1 1 is   " X [ k ] = + 2 2 + 2 = 0.X [ k ]  as  the  average  power  that  is  contained  in  the  component  at  frequency   fk = k  Hz.