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1. Table 1 shows the proton number and nucleon number for atoms P, Q and R.

Jadual 1 menunjukkan nombor proron dan nombor nukleon bagi atom P, Q dan R. Atom P Q R Proton number 16 17 17 Table 1 Jadual 1 Nucleon number 32 35 37

a) (i) What is meant by proton number? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan nombor proton? ............................................................................................................................................... [ 1 mark] (ii) What is the number of neutrons in atom Q? Apakah bilangan neutron dalam atom Q? ............................................................................................................................................. [ 1 mark] b) Which atoms are isotopes? Explain your answer. Atom- atom yang manakah adalah isotop? Terangkan jawapan anda. .................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................... [ 2 marks] c) (i) Write the electron arrangement for atom R. Tuliskan susunan elektron bagi atom R. ................................................................................................................................................ [ 1 mark] (ii) Draw the electron arrangement of atom R. Lukiskan susunan elektron bagi atom R.

[2 marks]

....... answer the following questions.... L and M in the Periodic Table....................... ……………………………………………………………………………… ...............................................(iii) State the number of valence electrons for atom R............. D.............. ……………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark] (b) When a small piece of element A is put into water...................................................... alkaline solution is formed and hydrogen gas is released........... ............ J............ Nyatakan bilangan elektron valens bagi atom R........ Diagram 1 shows the location of seven elements A............................................ 1 A L 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 D E J G Diagram 1 Using the letters in the Periodic Table of the elements in the Diagram 1....... G........... E............... [1 mark] 2...... (a) (i) Which of the element is chemically unreactive? ……………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark] (ii) Give one reason for your answer in a(i)........................................ These are not the actual symbols of the elements.. [1 mark] (v) State how the ion in (c)(iv) is formed..... [1 mark] (iv) Write the formula of ion formed from atom R........... ................... (i) Write the chemical equation for the above statement........................ Tuliskan formula ion yang terbentuk daripada atom R............................. Nyatakan bagaimana ion dalam (c)(iv) terbentuk...................... ...

……………………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark] (d) Why are elements A and L placed in the same group? ……………………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark] (e) Element D reacts with element E to form a compound. D. [2 marks] (iii) Why the compound in d (ii) cannot conduct electricity in any state.[1 mark] (ii) State one precaution that must be taken while carrying out the experiment using element A. (i) Write the chemical formula of this compound. G. ………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark] (ii) Draw the diagram of electron arrangement for the compound that is formed between D and E. [1 mark] (c) Arrange A.. J and L according to the increase in size of the atom. E. [1 mark] . …………………………………………………………………………….

................................... Tulis setengah persamaan untuk tindak balas yang berlaku pada katod........................ .................................................................... Diagram 2 shows the set-up of apparatus to investigate the electrolysis of concentrated sodium salt solution....... ............................................................. .................... Namakan gas kuning-kehijauan yang dibebaskan pada anod. Namakan gas tidak berwarna yang dibebaskan pada katod..................... .... [ 1 mark ] [ 1 markah ] (ii) Give one test to identify the gas at 3(a)(i) ........... [ 2 marks ] [ 2 markah ] (b) (i) Name the colourless gas that is released at cathode.................. Namakan larutan garam natrium yang digunakan dalam tindak balas.......................... ...3............................ Diagram 1 Diagram 2 Rajah 2 (a) (i) Name the yellowish green gas that is released at anode................................................................................. [ 1 mark ] [ 1 markah ] (c) (i) Name sodium salt solution that was used... [ 1 mark ] [ 1 markah ] (ii) Write a half-equation for reaction that occurs at cathode..................................................... ........................................ ……………………………………………………………………………............. Berikan satu ujian bagi mengenalpasti gas di 3(a)(i)............................................................................ Rajah 2 menunjukkan susunan radas bagi mengkaji elektrolisis larutan garam natrium pekat.........................

..............................2 menunjukkan susunan rajah yang digunakan bagi menentukan formula empirik bagi oksida plumbum oxide of lead oksida plumbum dry hydrogen hidrogen kering Figure 3.................1 shows the apparatus set up used in an experiment to determine the empirical formula for an oxide of lead Rajah 3....... ……………………………………………………………………………… [ 2 marks ] [ 2 markah ] (ii) Give a suggestion how to produce sodium in this experiment.................. [ 1 mark ] [ 1 markah ] (d) (i) Describe why no sodium is produced from this experiment............................................14 g Jisim plumbum (a) What is meant by empirical formula ? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan formula empirik ? ........................ ..................[ 1 mark ] [ 1 markah ] (ii) State ions which present in 3(c)(i) solution........................... Figure 3. ..........78 g Jisim oksida plumbum Mass of lead = 4.................................................................. Nyatakan ion-ion yang terdapat dalam larutan di 3(c)(i).................................1 The following data was obtained based on the experiment : Data berikut diperolehi berdasarkan suatu ekperimen Mass of an oxide of lead = 4...... [ 1 mark ] [1 markah ] 4............ Berikan cadangan bagaimana natrium boleh dihasilkan dalam eksperimen ini.. .... Huraikan kenapa tiada natrium yang dihasilkan daripada eksperimen ini...1 Rajah 3...................................................

..................... [ 1 mark ] (b) Name one substance that can be used to dry the hydrogen gas........................................................................................... Berdasarkan keputusan di atas............................ [ 2 marks ] (e) Based on the above result............................................... Namakan bahan yang boleh digunakan untuk mengeringkan gas hidrogen........................................................................................................................................................ ………………………………………………………………………………….................................... [ 1 mark] (d) How to ensure the reaction is complete ? Bagaimana anda memastikan tindak balas adalah lengkap? .. ................................................. [ 1 mark] (c) Why does the hydrogen gas need to be passed through the combustion tube for a few minutes before heating ? Mengapakah gas hidrogen dialirkan ke dalam tiub pembakaran beberapa minit sebelum pemanasan ? ........................…………………………………………………………………………………...................................... ..........] ........... Determine the empirical formula for oxide of lead ? Tentukan formula empirik bagi oksida plumbum ? [Relative atomic mass for O = 16 and Pb = 207] [Jisim atom relatif bagi O = 16 and Pb = 207...........

..... Al2O Aluminium Oxide... Al2O2O3 Hydrocarbon Y Hidrokarbon Y + H2(g) / Ni / Heat + H2(g) / Ni / Panaskan Hydrocarbon Z Hidrokarbon Z Diagram 5...[ 4 marks ] (f) Why does the empirical formula of magnesium oxide cannot be determined using the above method ? Mengapa formula empirik magnesium oksida tidak boleh ditentukan menggunakan kaedah di atas ? ................ Carbon dioxide + water Karbon dioksida + air I Propan-1-ol Propan-1-ol Oxidation Pengoksida n Compound X Sebatian X Aluminium oxide....... Al 3 Aluminium oxida...... [ 1 mark ] (ii) Draw the structural formula for propan-1-ol Lukiskan formula struktur bagi propan-1-ol ........................Al2O3 3 II Aluminium oksida... Rajah 5........1 (a) (i) Name the homologous series for propan-1-ol.....1 Rajah 5........1 menunjukkan perubahan bagi sebatian organik dari satu siri homolog kepada siri homolog lain dan sifat kimianya............. [ 1 mark ] 5............1 shows the conversion of organic compounds from one homologous series to another and its chemical properties. Diagram 5............. …………………………………………………………………………................... Namakan siri homolog bagi propan-1ol..

[ 1 mark ] (b) Write the chemical equation for conversion I Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi perubahan I …………………………………………………………………………………. [ 1 mark ] (ii) Draw the set. Lukiskan susunan radas yang boleh digunakan perubahan II. ..up of apparatus that can be used in conversion II..... [ 2 marks ] (c) Name compound X Namakan sebatian X …………………………………………………………………………………. [ 1 mark ] (d) (i) Name the reaction for conversion II Namakan tindak balas bagi perubahan II ……………………………………………………………………………..

Terangkan. …………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… [ 2 marks ] . Heksena dan heksana adalah sebatian dalam siri homolog yang sama seperti hidrokarbon Y dan hidrokarbon Z Rajah di bawah menunjukkan pembakaran heksena dan heksana dalam udara Soot Jelaga Filter paper Kertas turas Porcelain dish Mangkuk pijar Hexene Heksena Hexane Heksana Compare the sootiness of hexane and hexene. Diagram below shows the burning of hexene and hexane in air. Bandingkan kejelagaan bagi heksana dan heksena.[ 2 marks ] (e) Hexene and hexane are compounds in the same homologous series as hydrocarbon Y and hydrocarbon Z. Explain.

00 cm3 potassium hydroxide solution + phenolphthalein indicator FIGURE / RAJAH 5 It was observed that 20.6.1 mol dm (a) State the colour change of the solution in the conical flask at the end point.00 larutan kalium hidroksida 0. Namakan garam yang terbentuk dalam eksperimen ini. …. [ 1 mark] (b) Name the salt formed in this experiment.. Rajah 5 menunjukkan susunan alat radas untuk proses penitratan larutan Potassium Hidroksida dengan Asid sulfurik. [ 1 mark] .00 cm3 of 0. Didapati bahawa 20. 0.…………………………………………………………………………………………. Namakan jenis tindak balas yang berlaku. [ 1 mark] (c) (i) Name the type of reaction occurred. Nyatakan perubahan warna larutan dalam kelalang kon pada takat akhir... Diagram 5 shows the set-up of apparatus for titration of potassium hydroxide solution with sulphuric acid.1 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid 50.. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….00 cm3 asid sulfurik diperlukan untuk meneutralkan dengan lengkap 50. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….1 mol dm-3 of potassium hydroxide solution.00 cm3 of sulphuric acid is needed to neutralize completely 50.

. Hitungkan kemolaran larutan kalium hidroksida tersebut.1 menunjukkan susunan atom dalam kuprum tulen dan gangsa.………. (a) Aeroplane is made from an alloy of aluminium.1 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid needed is twice the volume of 0. Diagram 7. Kapalterbang dibuat daripada sejenis aloi bagi aluminium. Diagram 7. didapati bahawa isipadu asid hidroklorik 0.…………………………………………………………………………….1 mol dm-3 digunakan untuk untuk mentitrat 50. [ 2 marks] (d) Calculate the molarity of the potassium hydroxide solution. …………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………. Tuliskan persamaan bagi tindak balas yang berlaku di (c)(i). (b) . Gangsa ialah sejenis aloi bagi kuprum. Explain why? Jika asid hidroklorik 0.1 mol dm-3 yang diperlukan adalah dua kali ganda isipadu asid sulfurik 0.1 mol dm-3 ..1 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid.00 cm3 larutan kalium hidroksida tersebut.00 cm3 of potassium hydroxide solution. Apakah nama bagi aloi itu? Terangkan mengapa aluminium yang berketumpatan rendah tidak sesuai untuk pembinaan kapal terbang.(ii)Write an equation for the reaction occurred in (c)(i). it is found that the volume of the 0. What is the name of this alloy? Explain why the low density aluminium is not suitable for building aeroplane.1 shows the arrangement of atoms in pure copper and bronze. [ 3 marks] (e) If 0. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….1 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid is used to titrate with 50. Terangkan mengapa? ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. [ 2 marks] SECTION B 7. [3 marks] Bronze is an alloy of copper.

2 (i) Name part A and part B of the anions.2 shows the structure of anion parts of a soap and a detergent. Explain your answer. Namakan bahagian A dan bahagian B dalam anion itu. [6 marks] (c) Diagram 7.1 Rajah 7. State the solubility of part A and part B in the cleansing action. Terangkan mengapa gangsa lebih keras daripada kuprum tulen. .1 (i) Name the atom X.2 Rajah 7.Copper atom Atom kuprum Diagram 7.2 Anion of a soap Anion of a detergent Part A Part B Diagram 7.2 Diagram 7. Atom X [ 1 mark] (ii) Explain why bronze is harder than pure copper.2 in hard water. Namakan atom X.2 menunjukan struktur bagi bahagian anion bagi satu sabun dan satu detergen. [4 marks] (ii) Compare the effectiveness of the cleansing action of the two anions shows in the diagram 7. Anion-anion ini terdiri daripada bahagian A dan bahagian B seperti ditunjukan dalam diagram 7. These anions consist of part A and part B as shown in the diagram 7. Nyatakan keterlarutan bahagian A dan bahagian B dalam tindakan pembersihan.

[7 marks] You are given solid potassium chloride salt.2 dalam air liat. yang mana merupakan garam yang tak terlarutkan? Namakan tindak balas bagi menyediakan garam yang tak terlarutkan.5] [10 marks] SECTION C The thermochemical equation for the combustion of butanol is given as follows: Persamaan termokimia bagi pembakaran butanol adalah seperti berikut. Huraikan bagaimana anda boleh menyediakan garam tak terlarutkan yang disebutkan di atas dalam makmal. Jadual berikut menunjukkan nama bagi dua jenis garam. In your answer. Di antara garam yang diberikan di atas. C=12. write the ionic equation to represent the reaction.5 mol dm-3 menggunakan kelalang volumetrik berisipadu 250 cm3 di dalam makmal [Jisim atom relatif .5] Anda diberikan pepejal garam kalium klorida. tuliskan persamaan ion bagi mewakili tindakbalas tersebut. [6 marks] 8 (a) (i) What is meant by salt? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan garam? [1 mark] The table shows the names for two type of salts. Cl = 35. Huraikan bagaimana anda boleh menyediakan larutan kalium klorida dengan kepekatan 0. K= 39 . .Write an ionic equation to show the reaction of anion of soap in hard water. Terangkan jawapan anda. K=39. Lead(II) chloride Plumbum(II) klorida (ii) Copper(II) sulphate Kuprum(II) sulfat Which of the salts given is an insoluble salt? Name the reaction used to prepare insoluble salt. Describe how you would prepare potassium chloride solution of concentration 0. specific heat capacity of water = 4. Dalam jawapan anda.2 Jg-1 oC-1] ∆H = -2679 kJmol-1 9. Cl = 35. C 4H 9OH + 6O 2 4CO 2 + 5H 2O [Relative atomic mass : H=1. [2 marks] (iii) (b) Describe how you would prepare the insoluble salt above in the laboratory.5 mol dm-3 using a 250 cm3 volumetric flask in laboratory [Relative atomic mass . Tulis satu persamaan ion bagi tindak balas anion bagi sabun dalam air liat. Bandingkan keberkesanan bagi tindakan pembersihan dua anion yang ditunjukkan dalam rajah7. O=16.

[3 marks] (b) Calculate the mass of butanol that must be burnt to raise the temperature of 400 cm3 of water by 25°C. Kira jisim butanol yang perlu dibakar untuk menaikkan suhu 400 cm3 air sebanyak 25°C. Jawapan anda mestilah mengandungi: (i) apparatus set-up susunan radas yang digunakan [2 marks] (ii) procedure of the experiment prosedur eksperimen [6 marks (iii) (iv) data obtained from the experiment data yang diperolehi daripada eksperimen [2 marks] calculation of heat of combustion of butanol. penghitungan haba pembakaran butanol. Your answer should include: Huraikan satu eksperimen untuk menentukan haba pembakaran butanol. [3 marks] (c) Describe an experiment to determine the heat of combustion of butanol.(a) Write three interpretations or statements that can be obtained from the above equation. Tuliskan tiga interpretasi atau kenyataan yang boleh dibuat dari persamaan di atas. [4 marks] .

[3 marks] (iii) Based on the above equation. (a) Define oxidation and reduction in terms of tranfer of electrons. explain the redox reaction in term of the change of oxidation number . Cu in the electrochemical series of metal. W(s) + Cu(NO3)2 (aq) → Cu (s) + W(NO3)2(aq) (i) Suggest a metal of W.10. oksida logam Y (Y2O3). serbuk karbon dan radas-radas yang diperlukan. Dengan bantuan gambarajah huraikan eksperimen untuk . carbon powder and apparatus needed. Your answer should consist of the following:  Diagram showing the set up of apparatus  Procedure of the experiment  Observation  Chemical equation. Anda dibekalkan dengan oksida logam X (XO). Takrifkan pengoksidaan dan penurunan dari segi pemindahan elektron. Cu(NO3)2. Dengan merujuk pada tindak balas di atas. terangkan maksud tindak balas redoks dari segi perubahan nombor pengoksidaan. Describe an experiment to verify the above statement. [2 marks] (b) The chemical equation below shows the reaction between metal W and copper(II) nitrate solution. [1 mark] (ii) State three information from the above equation which are related to the position of metal W and copper. Cadangkan satu logam bagi W. Nyatakan tiga maklumat yang boleh disimpulkan dari persamaan di atas yang berkaitan dengan kedudukan logam W dan kuprum. Persamaan kimia di bawah menunjukkan tindak balas kimia antara logam W dengan larutan kuprum(II) nitrat. Cu dalam siri elektrokimia. Kedudukan karbon adalah di atas logam X dan di bawah logam Y dalam Siri Kereaktifan logam You are provided with oxide of metal X (XO). oxide of metal Y (Y2O3). [4 marks] (C) (c) The position of carbon is above metal X and below metal Y in the Reactivity Series of metal.

Jawapan anda mesti melibatkan segala pemerhatian dan persamaan tindakbalas yang sewajarnya.  Gambar rajah menunjukkan susunan radas  Prosedur eksperimen  Pemerhatian  Persamaan kimia. [10 marks] .mengesahkan kenyataan di atas adalah benar.