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1.

Decoder circuit using CD4511 c a t h o d e 5 V
3 2 1 0 5 4
H I

c h u n g
0
1 V D D3 L T 4 B I 6 3 2 1 0 5 8 L E G N 5 4 1 1

1 1 1 1 9 1 1

1 3 4

6

V D D L T 4 5 B I

a b c d e f g

1 1

G

5 L E 8 N D

D C B A

1 K X 8

6 2 1 7

0

S 1

6 2 1 7

D C B A

7-Segment Led decoder circuits: Common Cathode : 2. Decoding and display with TTL 74247

A n o d e

c h u n g

1 5 0 X 1 7
3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 1 1 1 1 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 9 1 1 5 8 L E G N D 7 1 6 D D3 L T 4 4 2 4 7 B I V 5 4 5 4

a b c d e f g

3 4

5 L E 8 7 G N D

D C B A

3 3 0 X 8

6 2 1 7

0

S 1

6 2 1 7

D C B A

a b c d e f g

1

6

V D D L T 7 4 2 4 B I

a b c d e f g D 4 5

1 1 1 1 9 1 1

S 8

5 V

HI

S 8

1

3. Counter circuit 0 to 23 using IC 7490

5 V

A n o d e

1 5 0 X 1 7
3 2 1 0 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 1 1 1 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 9 1 1 5 4

H I

c h u n g

1 6 3 4

V D L T B I

D

7 4 2 4 7

G

L E N D

5 8

5 8

L E G N

V

D

7 4 2 4 7

1 6 D D 3 L T 4 B I

a b c d e f g

D C B A

6 2 1 7

Decoding Decoding and Decoding and g i adisplay a v a display i m a v a g i a and i m display h 7segment i e n d h i e n t h i l e d 7segment t h i l e 7segment Led a n 7 7 Led d o Led d o a n
D 1 L E

5 V
1 12 9 8 11 5 C LKB Q A Q B Q C Q D VC C U L 1 4 K A 2

5 V
1 12 9 8 11 5 U L 1 4 K A D 2

6 2 1 7

0

D C B A

a b c d e f g

5 V

D U 3 G 500K C 3 0 . 0 1 R 1 1 0 K

C LKB Q A Q B Q C Q D

VC C

7 R 01 R 02

4 9 C0

7 4 R 01 R 02

9 0 C

3 2

O

R ST VC C

R 2 1 5 0

4 8

H I

D TL M

S

C

7 H

U

5 T H T R

5 5 6 R2 G

R 91 R 92 G N D

R 91 R 92 G N D

6 7 10

6 7 10

2 3

2 3

G N D

C V

R 3 1 0 C0 0

C C

1

5 2 . 0 1

0

1

2

4. Counter circuit 0 to 59 using IC 7490 Decoding and a g i a i m display n h i e t h 7segment 7 Led d o a n

v i

aDecodingi and a v a g i a m display n l e dh i e t h i l e d 7segment 7 d o a n Led 5 V

5 V

HI

D L

1 E D U 3 G C 3 0 . 0 1 R 1 1 0 K

5 V
1 12 9 8 11 5 B A B C D U L K 1 A 4 2 VC C C LK Q Q Q Q

1 12 9 8 11

VC C

C LK Q Q Q Q

B A B C D

U L K 1 A 4

2

R ST VC C

R 2 1 5 0 3 D 2 O

4 8

D TL M

S

C

7 H 500K 5 6 R2 G

7 R 01 R 02

4

9 C0

5

7 R 01 R 02

4

9

0C

U

5 T H T R

5

R 91 R 92 G N D

R 91 R 92 G N D

6 7 10

6 7 10

2 3

2 3

G N D

C V

R 3 1 0 C0 0 . 0

C C

1

5 2 1

0

5. Counter UP/DOWN

5 V

R 5 R 1 7 R 5 0 0 K T T M 1 1 5 C 2 6

6

1 R 05

6

2

0 r e s e t U U 7 1 2 6 D D D D 3

16 3 4

u H G

p 5 1 4 R 1 3 4 C C C

16 11

KU

2 4 8 S 7 L H R M R G C

1

HI

3
A B C D 2E F G 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 0 9 41 7 5 1 4 1 5 0 x 7

o r

8

RST VCC

5

5 35 O U

GND CV

6 2 C 1

T d

o

w

n

L L

3 Q 20 R Q 61 Q 72 Q 3 K D

GND P1 P0 P2 P3

K

8 1 15 10 9

0

. 0

1 7 4 1 9 2 / 4 0 1 9 2

0
3

8 5

GND RBI

VCC LT B I/R B O 0 1 72 3 4

L

VCC LO AD K

D

Count number of Cars in/out Garage using IR 5 V 5 V R 2 R 1 R 1 1 0 0 3 0 0 K L D C D D I R l e 2 d t h 0 u 1 .6. 0 E 5 D 1 1 I R 7 HI HI HI 7 5 0 U 3 A 2 4 L S 1 4 16 11 D L 1 E VCC LO AD 16 4 3 5 5 V U 7 1 2 6 D D D D 2 5 V R 2 R 4 1 0 0 7 6 0 5 7 C 4 L C LR 2 VC C B I/R B O LT RBI 0 HI 0 4 C L 3 DQ 0 2 L S Q 1 1 69 Q 27 K UQ 3 K GND 0 1 2 3 7 7 X 1 5 0 3 2 1 07 5 4 R 2 1 0 0 K C 0 L 2 . 0 u D E 6 D 3 1 4 L U 5 B 14 GND S 1 4 4 8 1 A 1 B 1 S C 2 14 D 9 E 1 F 1 G D L E 3 D I R D l e 4 d t h I R 7 4 L 0 0 0 8 4 .

0 C 1 1 M 5 2 1 0 3 2 1 7 4 0 8 h i e n t h i 2 4 g i o h i e n t h i 1 6 0 p h u t g i a i m a v a h i e n t h i l e d 7 d o a n 5 V 1 12 9 8 11 5 5 C LK B Q A Q B Q C Q D V C C U L K 2 g i a i m a v a g i a i m a v a h i e n t h i l e h i e n d t h i l e d 7 d o a n 7 d o a n 5 V 1 12 9 8 11 C LK B Q A Q B Q C Q D V C C U L K 2 g i a i m a v a h i e n t h i l e d 7 d o a n 5 V 5 V 1 12 9 8 11 5 C LK B Q A Q B Q C Q D V C C U L K 2 5 1 12 9 8 11 7 R 01 R 02 4 9 C 0 1 4 A 7 R 01 R 02 4 9 0 C 1 4 A 7 R 01 R 02 4 9 C 0 1 4 A C LK B Q A Q B Q C Q D V C C U L K 2 7 R 01 R 02 4 9 0 C 1 4 A R 91 R 92 G N D R 91 R 92 G N D R 91 R 92 G N D 6 7 10 6 7 10 6 7 10 0 6 U 5 B 5 4 7 4 0 8 8.7. MAÏCH GIAÛI MAÕ PHÍM SOÁ 1 5 6 7 10 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 R 91 R 92 G N D 0 . 0 1 R 1 1 0 K C LKB Q A Q B Q C Q D VC C 7 R 01 R 02 4 9 C0 7 R 01 R 02 4 9 0 C 3 2 O R ST VC C R 2 1 5 0 4 8 D TL M S C 7 H U 5 T H T R 5 5 6 R2 G R 91 R 92 G N D R 91 R 92 G N D 6 7 10 6 7 10 2 3 2 3 G N D C V R 3 1 0 C0 0 . MAÏCH ÑOÀNG HOÀ SOÁ DẠNG ÑÔN GIAÛN h i e n g h 7 5 V 1 12 9 8 11 5 C LKB Q A Q B Q C Q D VC C U 1 4 L K A 2 t h i 6 0 g i a y 5 V H I i a i m a v a g i e n t h i l e d h d o a n 7 i a i m a v a i e n t h i l e d d o a n D 1 L E 5 V 1 12 9 8 11 5 U L 1 4 K A D 2 D U 3 G 500K C 3 0 .

MAÏCH GIAÛI MAÕ PHÍM SOÁ 2 G N D 0 5 V R 1 0 1 K R 1 0 1 K U 6 VCC B I/R B O RBI LT s o 1 2 1 9 s o 1 c t a c 9 2 v U 1 1 1 1 2I N 1 3I N 1 I N I N a 2 I 9N 3 4 I N 5 I N 1 0I N I N 16 1 1 2A 3 4B 5 d 6C 7 8D 9 9 7 6 1 2 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 21 40 7 9 1 5 1 4 5 0 X 7 VCC 16 4 5 3 3 4 t r o 4 5 6 7 1 2 6 D D D D 0 71 4 2 3 GND L 9 GND 8 8 0 7 4 L S 1 4 7 8 0 10. MAÏCH GAME ÑOAÙN SOÁ 6 8 A B SC D E F G G N D O U L T O U R B IO U B I / R O B U O O U O U I N A O U I N B I N C I N D 4 2 4 7 X 1 5 0 7 0 HI .5 V 16 8 9 1 1 1 1 0 1 I N 2 I N 3 I N I N I N I N I N I N E I U 1 1 5 1 4 1 2 7 U 1 8 4 A 3 7 U 9 1 5 O 1 4 S 4 8 9 0 7 1 6 2 1 0 7 U 1 2 1 3 7 8 4 0 6 D 1 1 0 4 0 5 C 8 0 4 0 0 4 0 0 1 2 3 4 57 6 7 VC C E G 4 1 A A A O S U 3 A 3 16 0 3 5 4 7 1 2 6 U 7 T T T T T T T 1 3 1 A2 1 B1 1 C 07 9D 1 E5 1 F4 G 1 2 3 4 5 G N D VC C 4 8 9 0 7 1 6 2 0 U 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 I N 2 I N 3 I N I N 1 2n I N I N 3 I N 4 I N 5 E 0 1 2 3 4 5 67 7 16 2 2 VC C s o 7 2 d e 6 E G 4 1 A A A I 9.

1 M1 K 3 R 5 2 3 7 + L 0 R 61 0 0 K 3 U 6 M 0 7 C 4 . 3 C 0 3 . 2 2 GND O U T F IL + V C C K 6 2 5 5 L O U M T 5 8 6 P U 7 T 2 7 1 M 1 MC 6 C 5 2 . 2 M C 1 0 . 0 M 2 0 5 1 12. MAÏCH ÑEÁM SAÛN PHAÅM 1 M so ngau nhien 7 1 2 6 I I I I A B C O U D O U 7 4 2O 4 U 7 O U L T O U R B O U I B I / RO BU N N N N 16 U GND 7 4 H C 9 3 10 8 X 1 5 0 3 2A 1B 0C D 5E 4F G 7 . MAÏCH ÑIEÀU KHIEÅN TÖØ XA DUØNG TIA HOÀNG NGOAÏI 9 V R 1 K 7 U D L T T H R CV 2 8 4 VCC RST S M R G GND O U 3 T 4 C H G C 5 D 1 Q 1 0 . 1 1 4 3 R 1 0 5 67 I N T K T R L F IL C P R 4 7 4 K 3 8 GND 9 V U 1 4 U T R 81 K D L 2 E D R 1 0 1 R 1 .16 3 5 4 7 1 2 6 U 1 8 4 VCC RST D 0 6 2 L C 1 0 . 0 1 T T M M 4 8 2 K H R R G S C H G U 3 T S W 1 1 2 3 4 C R R 1 1 1 1 1 1 9 0 2 A 3 A 5 A A 1 B 4 B 1 B B A >B _ IN 5 U 2 1 O 1T 1T 1T 9T 1T 1T T 2 4 5 V HI c a c c o n g t a c 3 s o m u o n d o a n ( 0 d e n 1 5 ) 5 7 4 6 8 d a t 1 K VCC 1 2 0 R 1 1 0 K U 7 16 3 L T R B I B I / RO O I N AO I N BO I N C O I N D O O GND 7 4 8 X 1 5 0 3 2A 1B C 0 D 5E 4F G 5 V HI BU U U U U U U s o 7 d a t VCC 5 0 O GND U 3 1 K CA K 1 B 2 Q A9 Q B8 0 1Q C 1 1 0 2Q D 0 1 2 3 VCC A = B _ IN 8 D D 2 0 1 72 4 3 A A > = 5 B 6 B 1 5 8 5 7 A < B D 3 R 3 1 5 0 A < B _ IN 2 1 1T 1T T 1 T 9 1T 1T OT GND 5 5 1 5 CV 5 VCC 0 3 5 4 11.

MAÏCH ÑEØN GIAO THOÂNG 1 10 LED 7 DOAN G N D V C C LED 7 DOAN 4 5 3 V C C 7 8 . 0 1 1 0 K D I R 4 R 3 1 K 1 Q 1 1 K 2 3 7 + 2 4 7 K R 6 1 0 0 K 5 V H I 4 7 0 14 U 6 L M 3 1 7 4 1 le d 2 7 4 1 4 2 3 2 N 3 9 0 4 A R 2 1 K 0 1 0 U C A 1Q 2Q 1Q 2Q A B C D 1 2 9 8 1 1 K 6 B 5 V C C 1 5 V 16 U O U U U U U U U 5 1 A 1 B 1 C 1 D 9 E 1 F 1 G 3 2 1 0 5 4 1 4 6 7 2 3 C R R R R K 9 9 0 0 B I / R R B I L T I I I I N N N N A B C D G N D 7 4 9 0 A 10 G N D 7 1 2 6 B O O O O O O O T T T T T T T 0 U C A 1Q 2Q 1Q 2Q A B C D 1 2 9 8 1 1 K 6 B 5 1 5 V V C C 7 4 2 4 7 A 8 U 4 5 3 7 1 2 6 B I / R R B I L T I I I I N N N N A B C D 16 5 O U U U U U U U T T T T T T T 1 A 1 B 1 C 1 D 9 E 1 F 1 G 3 2 1 0 5 4 1 4 6 7 2 3 C R R R R K 9 9 0 0 7 4 9 0 A G N D B O O O O O O O 7 4 2 4 7 A 8 0 13.9 V H I 1 K D I R 0 .

0 1 3 M 3 4 6 10 11 5 12 13 O 5 U 5 3 T 7 7 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q A B D E F C G H C LR VCC 7 4 A 7 2 3 C 3 3 0 15. MAÏCH ÑEØN GIAO THOÂNG 2 1 500K 1 K 1 8 1 5 A 9 .HI 9 V 1 5 0 Q U 1 7 500K 6 2 T T C 1 1 M 0 K RST VC C D S C 4 8 H G 4 1 1 4 2 8 C C 0 L O N N S 1 K Q 3 1 16 d e n d e n d e n x a n h v a n g d o Q Q Q Q 7 3 02 14 27 3 0 VC C 9 V d e n x a n h v a n g d o d e n d e n HI L H R M R G GN D 5 O 5 5 3 U T 4 1 0 Q 2 CV 1 5 0 C 2 0 . 0 1 M 1 1 3 G 5 E R Q Q Q DQ A T Q 1 55 66 79 8 1 5 0 1 9 1 0 1 0 0 0 14. MAÏCH SAÙNG DAÀN – TAÉT DAÀN HI 5 V R 1 7 R5 9 14 2 9 14 1 1 C K 4 8 RST VCC D S C H G 1 A 8 8 U 1 4 1 6 U 1 4 1 6 0 2 . 0 R 11 K 3 0 0 4 B C LK C LR VCC C LK 2 GND GND B A B D E F C G H Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q L T T H R M R G GND 5 3 4 6 10 11 5 12 13 1 5 CV 6 2 C 1 M 1 0 C .

U R 1 U 5 C 1 51 9 TL 84 10 0 9 9 VCC 5 2 0 4 H L 52 AK B9 C1 1 D2 1 2 G K B 1 5 1 A 4Q B Q 1 7 Q U 3 16 3QA C Q 2 Q Q 4 6 1 2Q 5 U 7 D QB Q 5 A VCC GND 8 16 g y r r e e 1 e l e5 1 d l 0n 5 o 0 1 w 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 1 1 0 1 21 3 4 5 6 07 18 9 51 05 0 N o r t h 4 5 R 1 1 U 0 3K 7 84 D VCC RST S b l u e g r e e n r e d 500K R L 6 2T T C 1 GND CV 15 C 0 M 3 1 5 C4 UC Q 5 O 2 7 Q H 3R Q R 6 RG Q 1 7R R M GND 10 3 AU CLR 13 10 J 2 1 Q2 C 3 L 4 Q K 7 4 9 1 K D I O 1 51 05 D 01 E 51 05 X 0 6 0 0 U7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 74 9 1 1 2 8 1 2 1 U 0 8 D QC Q Q 1 2 U 1 9 1 1 D 3Q C Q 1 3 7 Q Q 1 5Q 1 A 4Q B Q GND VCC 16 1 0 1 2 3 4 51 6 07 18 9 N . 0 1 E 4 a1 4 s 8 t 0 4 5 g r e e n y e l l o w r e d 16. MAÏCH ÑEØN GIAO THOÂNG 3 10 .

0 21 K 1 AA 1 0B 1 C D 1 6 Q 7 5 Q 9 6 Q 1 70 Q 8 Q 1 9 1 4 1 E a s t .- 0 g r e e n y e l l o w r e d 1 D N I O D 4 1 4 E 8 X 4 17. MAÏCH COÄNG – TRÖØ ÑÔN GIAÛN 11 .5 V HI 1 R 1 U C H VCC 45 C 5 5 2 0 4 G 1 1L 9K A 8 9B 11C 2D 1 2 5 01 5 0 1 5 01 5 0 N o r t h U 16 Q BQ Q Q Q 1 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 - R 1 1 U 0 K3 7 D 84 S V R C S CT g r e e n Y e l l o w r e d 4 5 1 5 01 5 0 1 5 01 5 0 R 6 2 T T C 1 5 L H R M O 35 R G U 15 1 5 M GND 1 QL 2 7 Q4 Q0 3 R R Q0 6 9 7 R R 9 10 CT GND CV VCC 5 4 3 2 7 GND 8 500 K C 0 3 .

MAÏCH GAME XÚC XắC 12 91 0 8 GND S W1 U k 1 16 1 0 GND 1 7X150 5 1 3 A 8 A 1 A0 A T T T2 5 T 5 T 4 T T A B C4 0 7 D E F G 0 VCC VCC 74LS83A 74LS147 .R 1 S 1 S 1 2 2 W 1 1 W 1 0 R3 K1 2 K U 1 2 1 1 5 0Q A Q Q Q 4 L L 1 1 1 K B C D 4 3 2 S 1 9 4 A U 3 4 C 3 2 1 1 S U2 S U6 1S U9 2S U 3 4 0 8 1 4 4 5 B 4 3 R L 7 5 6 M2 M1 M7 M I I I I 5 16 U I / R1 BO I 1 U T O 1U 4 O L 1U S O 9U N4 O D 1 U N3 O C 1 U N2 O B U N1 A 3B 2 1 10 1 O 2 c l o c k 5 V HI 9 S S VCC 16 0 3 4 A 5 B 6 C 1 D1 C 7 resister A 1 1 7 B 4 B 1 B6 B 1 C 3 C LR GND 1 91 2 73 1 4 65 7 6 17 1 4 8 9 1 2 5 S 1 1 1 I2 N 1 I3 N I N V1 I N 2 3 I N W1 4 k I 9 N 5 I N 1 I0 N I N S o 0 1 8 2 4 2 1 16 L S 0 4 A 12 A B VCC 5 V R 1 1 5 1 3 1 C 1 U L 3 4 A 5 B 6 C D C LR VCC 0 HI C D GND 0 8 2 0 K 5 2 0 7 4 L SQ 7 1 S o 4 A B 5 V HI 1A 9 1 4 Q B 1 1 C D 3 4 6 5 9 Q Q resister B 2 1 1 1 0 2 7 3 8 SS 01 GND R R S 1 1 S 2 2 W W 1 R5 R 2 4 4 18 16 0 1 3 0 18.

1 2 V R 3 33 U 9 41 3 14 B C 5 HI 1 2 V HI 0 K 6 Q 1 11 Q 1 24 L Q K 3 3 0 E B 46 O N U 1 13 16 12 R 4 67 Q 2 K N D R 1 8 12 10 3 9 0 R 4 UT 8L 07 1 4 U S W 1 1 R 2 1. 2 K 2 R 1 0 2 K C 3 2 1 A5 N 6 DC M 0 C D 4 42 0 2 9 N 3 Q . MAÏCH BAÛNG ÑIEÅM THEÅ THAO 13 . 7 K 6 D 2 D 5 9 U 1 40 C C D D 3 B Q 2 N 5 1 R 1 6 7 4 0 9 3 0 0 9 0 6 O U T D P 7 UD T1 D 6 0 D 4 D 3 19. 0 R 64 5 87 R 1 0 C 1 1 0 0 9 3 BC 9 D 5 C 1 P S MK 4 JJ AA MM 41 CB ININ /D E C VU SP S/D O W N 0 K 1 0 U D 2 I N O / OU 2 CTRL 9 A T 13 U C 0 8 A J A MV D3 D JAM 2 D R E 6 D1 8 2 0 2 1K 6 B Q 3 / T I2 N N 3D 9 3 0 4 7 0 1 0 C R 3 1 9 3D 0 1K 6 B Q 4 / T I2 N N 3D 4 0 U 4 3 I N O / OU CTRL C D R 4 9 07 UT 9 5 0 4 34 59 810 0 8 0 5 D R 4 7.

1 W W + 1 5 V r e s e t 14 C LR VC C LO AD 7 16 11 O 3 5 4 U 4 L LT R BI B I/R B O 3 2 1 0 V O C C 7 O O O O O O O 4 L S 5 15 1 10 9 R 8 5 A B C D G N D 1 K D 3 2 6 7 1 9 O U Q Q Q Q 2 W P 4 5 A B C D 7 1 2 6 U U U U U U U TA TB TC TD TE TF TG 5 4 1 1 1 1 9 1 1 IN IN IN IN A B C D HI 20. 2 9 5 4 2 1 1 1 3 1 2 1 0 R 7 U 41 1 B K 0 8 1 1 1 1 V L O C A C D 7 C O BO 12 13 3 5 4 1 6 LT R BI B I/R B O 1 6 V C U C 2 7 K K 6 31 21 1 D 4 0 1 C 3 2 1 0 R 5 4 4 L S G 3 2 6 7 Q Q Q Q D 1 U 9 P2 O W 4 5 A B C D 7 1 2 6 IN IN IN IN A B C D U U R R U 1 A 3 1 K 8 15 1 10 9 14 G N D A B C D C LR 4 L S U 4 O O O O O O O 2 4 87 N D U U U U U U U TA TB TC TD TE TF TG 1 1 1 1 9 1 1 MAÏCH KIEÅM TRA CÖÛA 1 0 N S 1 3 1 2 W 3 1 6 B N C R 1 2 R R U 3 8 S G2 4N 7 D 14 .S S .

1 M 1 0 1 0 K 0 A B C 11 10 9 G 7 2 5 V LO 4 G 2A 1 3 8 VCC RST 7 4 H C 9 5 3 1 C K 1 B2 Q A9 U 9Q B 8 0 1 Q C1 1 Q D 0 2 1 4 C K A 7 1 4 0 4 8 4 3 D S 5 T T R H C 5 H 5 0 G 0 K L O CV U GND M T R E S E T 2 3 R R VCC 0 10 GND 0 21. MAÏCH KIEÅM TRA CÖÛA 2 15 .S 1 W 2 1 1 K 4 3 2 1 VCC D D D D D D D D 7 G 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4 N H 5 6 Y W 5 V S 1 W 1 2 8 K 1 1 1 1 5 4 3 2 1 Y 01 Y 11 Y 21 Y 31 5 G 2 BY 41 Y 59 Y C 67 1 7 4 H Y 7 G1 VCC 1 4 3 2 1 G C B A 2 A GND 6 16 5 V 16 U 3 5 V D 5 4 3 2 1 0 3 8 1 R 1 0 4 0 D 8 8 7 GC 9 1 5 C 1 0 D B 1 1 A 4 16 CONG TAC VA 16 DTRO 16 U 8 5 V 1 1 6 K 1 1 1 1 4 3 2 1 S 1 W 2 5 4 3 2 D D D D D D D D 7 VCC 1 6 Y 5 U Y BY Y Y Y Y Y Y H 2 1 01 11 21 31 41 59 67 7 C 5 4 3 2 1 0 D 9 16 L E D 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4 G H W G C N 8 1 D 5 1 1 2 3 6 A B C 7 GND G 1 VCC 2 6 5 D 1 6 5 V U 8 4 7 5 2 6G R C 0 5 1 2 .

5 V HI S 1 C W 2 U A 1 16 R 1 K 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 5 4 3 2 7 9 1 1 I I I I I I I I U U 5 24 1 4 Y Y Y 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 D 1 R 1 7 1 5 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 VCC Z 5 VCC Z 6 1 8 5 1 N D Y Y Y 16 CONG TAC VA 16 DIEN TRO 7 E 0S 1S S G 4 2 1 0 U 0 1 2 8 7 4 13 8 3 G 2 1 7 4 1 5 Y4 Y Y Y 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 3 4 5 6 7 D 5 V R 1 1 K 7 1 4 0 4 S W 1 6 1 2 1 1 1 1 4 3 2 1 2 5 4 3 2 I I I I I I I I 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4 Z 5 1 9 Y G 2 Y Y Y Z 1 6 5 1 C 6 1 5 V HI 5 V 0 C U A 1 6 1 1 5 7 9 E V C 0S 2 1S 1 S 0 GND 8 1 2 G N D Y Y C D 16 LED 1 6 7 A 23 VCC 1 0 7 R 2 K D 8 4 22 B 21 VCC C Q 3 5 2 R R 0 0 7 3 1 4 C K Q QA Q Q 1 2 4 I S M 5 GND 5 L 5 V 5 0 2 6 0 0 T T . 1 K R H K R CV 1 K 1 B 2 A9 B8 C1 1 D L S 9 3 0 R 5 1 1 5 0 10 0 0 22. MAÏCH ÑOÁ VUI GND 20 HI 16 .

IC4:74147

23.

MAÏCH KIEÅM TRA CÖÛA 3 17

5 V
D 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 3 1 R 1 0 4 0

HI

U

3 1 Y 10 Y 11 Y 12 Y 13 5 G 2 Y B 14 Y 95 7 4 H Y C 76 Y 7 G1 VCC 1 0 1 5 1 4 3 2 1 G C B A 2 GND A 6 16

S 1

W 2

11

K 4 3 2 1 D D D 5D 4D 3D 2D D 7 8 G 4 VCC 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5 6

16

Y W

5 V
1 S 1 W 2 8 K

1 1 1 1

D 8

8

7 H G C9 C 1 N DB 1 A 4

16 CONG TAC VA 16 DTRO

U

16

8

1 6

L E D

5 V
1 K 1 6 1 1 1 1

4 3 2 1

S 1

W

2

D D D 5D 4D 3D 2D D 7

VCC 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4 G G A B C

16

W

G

H N

8

C D

1

5

1 1 2 3 6 A B C 7 G

VCC

HI

Y

5 U Y 2 YB Y Y Y Y Y Y 4 1 H 2 1 10 11 12 13 14 95 76 7 C 5 4 3 2 1 0 D 9

6

5

D

1

6

HI

0
1 0 K

7 2

11 10 9

5 V
16 11 U 1 D S 1 C H G 1 2 O GND CV U 3 T 4 6 5 5 7 4 0 5 U 5 8 4

0

1

3

8

7 1

4

0

4 8 4

7 5 0 0 K 6 2 0 . 1 M L

VCC RST

3 4

T T M

H R

R G

3 Q 20 K Q D 61 7 4 Q1 9 72 3 Q 3 C L K U C L 8 0 GND C LR

VCC LO AD

1 9

5

5

1 5

8 14

0
1 1

1 1 7 4 0 0

24.

MAÏCH KIEÅM TRA CÖÛA 4

GND G 2A

0
0

3 2

18

1 S 1 W 2

K 1

16

5 V
S 1 W 2 8

4 3 D 2 D 1 D 1 D5 1 D4 1 D3 1 D2 D

VC C

61 6

5 C 1 5 1 4

G G

VC CG 1

HI

1

0

0

0 5 1 Y 2 3 4 6 5 W 6 7 7 4 H

D Y Y 2Y Y Y 2Y Y Y 4 1 1 1 1B 1 1 9A 7 H 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5 4 3 2 1 0

9

8
D 1

L E D
6

0

7

11 61

84

0

GND

1

0

K

11 01 9 87

5 V
D S VRC S CT C H G 1 5 2 T 4 5 3 4

1 2 A 3 B C 7

AB C GG N D

5 0 0 K 6 2 T T 0 . 1

L H R

M

O R G

5 3 5 U

6

3 Q 2 0 C L Q K6 1D 7 4 Q 17 2 9 Q 3 5 C L K U C 7 4 0 GND 0 1 L 4 R

L O VA CD C

2 8 1 9 0

M

1 5

GND CV

0

8

0
1 1 1 1 4 0 0 3 2

7

25.

MAÏCH PHAÙT HIEÄN VAØ ÑEÁM …… DUØNG QUANG TRÔ Û 1.

8

HI

C

1

3

8

0

19

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. . 2 M D 0 C n DF 4 1 5 C 4 Q _ T R O 4 0 9 3 B R 1 D D D 3 4 5 6 R _2 N C 7 1 8 1 5 0 6 7 1 2 K 1 4 3 R L 2 P S _ E NV D D 11 16 2 V . . 21 58 LG EN D K . .26. MAÏCH PHAÙT HIEÄN VAØ ÑEÁM …… DUØNG QUANG TRÔ Û 2. 2 M R 4 7 0 4 7 0 1 7 1 2 6 9 0 V D D L TB I 1 1 41 6 3 D 2 A B C D 4 a 5b c d e f g 1 1 11 1 9 1 1 3 2 11 0 5 4 c a t h o d e c h u n g 91 0 11 5 8 0 27. . 1 2 V _ D C HI 1 2 V _ D C LO 2 2 0 V A C D 1 . D 7 R = 1E N S 4 E 1 T 4 8 Q _ T 1 2 R 2 0 2 K R O D 4 C 3 7 51 6 R 2 4 . 2 2 0 3 Q 2 1 Q 6 2 L Q K 7 3U Q 4 0 L R 1 9 2 P 5 V HI D D2 KC 0 4 2 2 0 V A C C K 1 D4 E S O E U W T 7 0 4 X7 70 JJ 43 JJ 21 VSS 8 9 R 2 0 3 K 4 1 C 7 0 2 0 n 1 1 R 2 F 3 2 5 .

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DIGITAL STOPWATCH 0-99SEC 29 .

Introduction 30 .

The fact that the signal is inverted. on its output. at the frequency of 1Hz.194. through a procedure which we will explain through the experimental part. As we can see in picture 1. Through the experimental part we will explain each of the parts function. 31 . We will begin the description of the digital circuit above. So. By importing a pulse in the CLK input of the 4060. as in each positive pulse the diode polarizes positively. as it is too big to be used as it is to our circuit. a signal which has a frequency equal to f/2n. As we can see on the integrated circuit the outputs are marked as Q4. which we have taken from the generator. knowing that the imported signal has a frequency of 4. as we want in each secont the number of the display to be raised by 1. we want the first display to raise by 1. however in this case we have used the following parts: Α. is fed with a pulse which comes from a crystal. we will describe the function of a digital stopwatch. Q5. Counter: The signal of 1Hz. is imported to a BCD counter MC14518. . 0 – 99 sec. For our convenience we will devide the circuit to 2 parts: the generator.304Hz. which in this case belong to National Semiconductor (http://www.. This is very logical. 2 x 7 segment LED displays The circuit that has been used is shown in picture 1. while the other the decades. The crystal’s pulse is devided properly in order to obtain the 1 Hz pulse which we need in order for the circuit to work properly. Initially we use the integrated CD4060. It is obvious that other integrated circuits can be used to achieve the same result. 1 x MC14518B (BCD counter) D. and display the seconds on the 7 segment displays. that this circuit besides the 5V power supply.com). the pulse will have a frequency of 1Hz.… Qn.του.194. This is why. This inversion just causes. On the other hand. which is the desirable frequency. which produces the pulse of the desired frequency. The function of the stopwatch. the generators pulse is imported to the part which counts the units. we take out of output Qn. and the part that does the actual counting. 1 x CD4060BM (14 stage ripple carry binary counter) B. relies in the use of 4 integrated circuits. the following circuit to be triggered with a logical “0”. we have a visual of the counting. with a frequency f Hz. by forces of 2. by exporting the signal out of Q14. What we should is devide this frequency.The MC14518 is virtually divided into two segment. By importing this signal. By putting a LED on the same output. which has a frequency of 256Hz. and a current passes through it. which devides the imported frequency in its input. 2 x MC14511B (BCD to seven segment driver) E. let just say. firstly doesn’t affect the proper function of our circuit and secondly is due to the inversion of the CLK input as we can see. but in order to have a notion of the basic idea. we ground the CLK input. every 10 seconds. We use a crystal which oscillates at a frequency of 4. It is obvious that this frequency is completely useless. to 4040 and by exporting the signal through Q8 we have finally taken an inverted signal. we take a signal. in a way that in its final form. Generator: The generator of the circuit comprises of the integrated circuits CD4040CM and CD4060CM.304MHz. This integrated circuit adds a logical “1” at each pulse. and we use the signal of Q3 to the CKE input. One counts the units of the seconds. 1 x CD4040BM (14 stage ripple carry binary counter) C.national.In the present article.

only when the signal drops from logical “1” to logical “0”. we make sure that when the gate closes. The inputs (Lamp Test. which resets the counting to 0000. which is zero. The integrated circuits MC14511 are BCD to 7 segment drivers. The transformed circuit appears in picture 2. that is. In addition. As we can see. 32 . as the last digit descends from logical “1” to logical “0” and triggers the BCD counter of the decades. which on its turn. the circuit resets when we have 99 to 100. To make a transformation successfully we must force the pulse from 59 to 60 0011 1001  0100 0000 on the output of the BCD counter. while the first must be set to +1. As its name clearly state. the first display increments every 10 seconds. Blanking) are used to test the LEDs of the display and pulse modulate the brightness of the display. we make sure that the first display will be triggered. with its inputs on the Q1 and Q2 of the BCD counter of the decades. By this means we set the RST input of the MC14518 to logical “1”. that is 1001 1001  0001 0000 0000. By placing the AND gate. to a code understandable by the 7 segment displays. at any given moment we can restart the counting. As we studied above. only when we have a decreasing signal on Q3. In this case we these inputs to logical “0”. That is that from 1001  0000. by pressing the reset switch. The LE input (Latch Enable) is used to keep the number of the displays while the pulse still runs. we can add an AND gate. DIGITAL STOPWATCH 0-60SEC Introduction By using the same circuit of the Digital Stopwatch 0-99sec . and we have a descending pulse. will force the circuit to start over. their sole purpose is to translate the BCD information of MC14518. When the decades display becomes 9 then the circuit goes to the next state. and the counting begins once more.By using this means. and transform the 0 – 99sec stopwatch to a 0 – 60sec stopwatch. which is responsible for the counting of the seconds. It is a HOLD function similar to the one of the modern stopwatches. the RST input of the BCD counter will be set to logical “1”. which means that after 9 on the second display (1001 on the output of the BCD counter) the first display must be set to zero. We must find a way to control the RESET function of the BCD counter. as we don’t need them.

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It contains an internal voltage reference. high isolation analog switches. sequential control logic. The auto-zero adjust ensures zero reading for 0 volts input. and the display drivers.DIGITAL VOLTMETER The ICL7107 is a 3 1/2 digit LED A/D convertor. 34 .

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Example Circuits: 44 .

However.I have placed a couple of 555 circuit examples below for your convenience. the negative-going trigger pulse width should be kept short compared tot he desired output pulse width. (For noise immunity on most timer circuits I recommend a 0. since they tend to be leaky. tantalum or mylar types should be used. Otherwise. Values for the external timing resistor and capacitor can either be determined from the previous formulas. Things to remember: For proper monostable operation with the 555 timer. 45 . Play with different component values and use the formulas mentioned earlier to calculate your results.01uF (10nF) ceramic capacitor between pin 5 and ground. but the NE555 and others should not give you any problems. you should stay within the ranges of resistances shown earlier to avoid the use of large value electrolytic capacitors.) In all circuit diagrams below I used the LM555CN timer IC from National.

Try different types of LDR's. If for any reason you get false triggering. or whatever (if possible). connect a ceramic 0. try different values for Ct and Rt (or the C & 46 .01uF (=10nF) capacitor between pin 5 (555) and ground. horns. relays. Keeping the basic rules of the 555 timer. lights.Circuits 1 to 10a: Play with different indicating devices such as bells.

7. The "Key" is a morse code key. Metronome: A Metronome is a device used in the music industry. Schmitt Trigger: A very simple. The 100K potmeter controls the tone-pitch. (Grant also added a PNP power transistor to increase the volume and a led for visual as well as sound output). 3 Tilt Switch: Actually really a alarm circuit. Fig. Electric Eye Alarm: The Electric-Eye Alarm is actually a similar circuit like the Dark Detector of Fig. 1. And when the line power fails. It uses the 555 timer as an oscillator biased off by the presence of line-based DC voltage. Fig. Fig. Watch for the orientation of the positive (+) of the 10uF capacitor. This can be a problem. thereby holding the timer output low (as you learned previously). to sense the absence of light and to operate a small speaker. It cleans up any noisy input signal in a nice. especially during lengthy conversations when it is difficult to keep track of time. Make notes of the values used and use the formulas to calculate timing. for short. Fig. 6 & 7) Replace Rt with a 1 megohm potentiometer if you wish. Verify your calculations with your timing. as established by C1 on startup. Fig. CW Practice Oscillator: CW stands for 'Continuous Wave' or Morse-Code. In radio control (R/C) it will clean up noisy servo signals caused by rf interference by long servo leads.3 volt AC 47 .R over pins 2. 5. (Advanced Electronics: It should be noted that there is a 180-degree phase shift. the 555 latch is set to a high output level where it will stay even if the switch is returned to its starting position. The 100K potmeter is for the 'pitch' and the 10K for the speaker volume. The LDR enables the alarm when light falls below a certain level. clean and square output signal. When S1 is disturbed. Fig. Switch S2 will silent the alarm and reset the latch. 2. but effective circuit. The detector used is a regular cadmium-sulphide Light Dependent Resistor or LDR. After 10 minutes. Very handy if you learning to play music and need to keep the correct rhythm up. 4. R1 and C1 provide the DC bias that charges capacitor Ct to over 2/3 voltage. Error fixed with thanks to Grant Fair in regards to the two resistors. CW Monitor: This circuit monitors the morse code 'on-air' via the tuning circuit hookup to pin 4 and the short wire antenna. You can practice the morse-code with this circuit.) This circuit also lends itself to condition 60-Hz sine-wave reference signal taken from a 6. charges a rechargeable 9-volt battery across D2. The '+' goes to pin 3. When the line voltage fails. It indicates the rhythm by a 'toc-toc' sound which speed can be adjusted with the 250K potentiometer. the 'Red' led will light to warn the operator that he must identify. this circuit could be used to notify when a lamp (or bulb) burns out. the reset switch is pressed which causes the 'Green' led to light up. The high output can be used to enable an alarm of the visual or the audible type. C1 is a ceramic 0. 9.1uF (=100 nano-Farad) capacitor. optionally. 8. Ten-Minute Timer: Can be used as a time-out warning for Ham Radio. The switch is mounted in its normal 'open' position. Fig. The pitch for the speaker can be set with the 500 kilo-ohm potentiometer. it shows how to use a 555 timer and a small glassencapsulated mercury switch to indicate 'tilt'. and the tone will be heard in the speaker. Diode D1 provides DC bias to the timer-supply pin and. causing its contacts to be bridged by the mercury blob. The same type of LDR is used. set by the 500K potentiometer R1. the 555 will automatically be biased for any supply voltage in the 5 to 16 volt range. As long as R1 equals R2. the bias is removed. 6. To begin the cycle. Dark Detector: It will sound an alarm if it gets too dark all over sudden. 1. For example. The 555 is used as a one-shot so that a visual warning indicator becomes active after 10-minutes. Power Alarm: This circuit can be used as a audible 'Power-out Alarm'. Fig. Fig. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) requires the ham radio operator to identify his station by giving his call-sign at least every 10 minutes. DC is furnished to the timer through D2. which allows the timer output to stay low.

NTE123. 1N4148. 1N914 or 1N3063. the transistor is biased into saturation by R2 so that the charging current passes through the transistor and R1 to C. this method simply squares the 60-Hz sine wave reference signal without division. unlike a conventional multivibrator type of squares which divides the input frequency by 2. When the output goes low. Just have fun and learn something doing it. It is a mere example of how to do it and the values are pending on the type of application. When the output is high. Fig. Better Timing: Better and more stable timing output is created with the addition of a transistor and a diode to the R-C timing network. 10a. don't be afraid to experiment. The diode can be any small signal diode like the NTE519. Again. Fig.transformer before driving a series of binary or divide-by-N counters. the discharge transistor (pin 7) cuts off the transistor and discharges the capacitor through R1 and the diode. 2N3569 and most others. However. The following circuits are examples of how a 555 timer IC assist in combination with another Integrated Circuit. A good example would be the 'Crashed Aircraft Locator' beacon used in radio control. The transistor can be a TUN (europe). Unless you circumvent the min and max parameters of the 555. 48 . The major advantage is that. the transistor should have a high beta so that R2 can be large and still cause the transistor to saturate. The value of the capacitor (C) and the resistor (R1 or potmeter) is not given. This is just a basic model but works. so choose your own values. Experiment with the values of Resistor and Capacitor. The high & low periods are equal. it is very hard to destroy. The frequency can be varied over a wide range while maintaining a constant 50% duty-cycle. Missing Pulse Detector (Basic): This transistor can be replaced with a ECG or NTE159. but a high conductance Germanium or Schottky type for the diode will minimize the diode voltage drops in the transistor and diode. 10. If there is no signal it sees it as a missing pulse and sounds buzzer.

the 7473 flip-flop.5 and 15volt. 12. relays. lights.01uF (=10nF) capacitor between pin 5 (555) and ground. The 555 is wired as a Astable Oscillator. or whatever (if possible). 11. A 9-volt battery is usually a general choice. The leds flashrate is about 2Khz (kilo-Hertz). The 555 timer will work with any voltage between 3. which is much faster than your eyes can follow. doing otherwise without consent of the other party is illegal. Recording Beep: This circuit is used to keep recording of telephone conversations legal. In all circuit diagrams below I used the LM555CN timer IC from National. Fig. Two-Tones: The purpose of this experiment is to wire two 555 timers together to create a 2-note tone. 13. so initially it appears that both leds are 49 . If for any reason you get false triggering. Fig. The output of IC1 is fed to the 2nd 555's pin 3 and made audible via C2 and the speaker. Basically a Yes or No decision maker when you can't make up your mind yourself. via pin 3. Fig. If you wish. Any 8-ohm speaker will do. Keeping notes is an important aspect of the learning process. When you press S1 it randomly selects the 'Heads' or 'Tails' led. driving in turn. horns. you can use the dual 556 timer ic. As you may know. Try different types of LDR's. connect a ceramic 0.Circuits 11 to 14: Play with different indicating devices such as bells. Coin Toss: Electronic 'Heads-or-tails' coin toss circuit.

red led). With the switch closed. and selected by the 7400 IC for what they are. 50 . the '1' and 'pulse' led's will be on. National Semiconductor and Signetics Corporation. Good for TTL and CMOS. The yellow or 'pulse' led comes on for approximately 200 mSec to indicate a pulse without regards to its width. Si-AF Preamplifier/Driver). Logic Probe: Provides you with three visible indicators. If the pulse is positive-going. As soon as the switch is released only one led will be lit. Since there are other manufacturers then those two I suggest when you build a circuit to stick with the particular 555 model they specify in the schematic. "Logic 0" (-. A small switch (subminiature slide or momentary push) across the 20K resistor can be used to keep this "pulse" led on permanently after a pulse occurs. only the logic '1' led (red) will be 'ON'. Unless you know what you're doing of course. 14. It shows some variations in the 555 manufacturing process by two different manufacturers. [grin]. This feature enables one to observe a short-duration pulse that would otherwise not be seen on the logic 1 and 0 led's. Diode D1 is a small signal diode to protect the 7400 and the leds from excessive inverse voltages during capacitor discharge. In operation. For a logic '1' input.. Check the listing in Table 2. Fig. "Logic 1" (+. and "Pulse" (yellow led). for a logic 0 input signal. both the '0' led and the pulse led will come 'ON'. then amplified by T1 (NPN. The logic levels are detected via resistor R1 (1K).. the circuit will indicate whether a negative-going or positive-going pulse has occurred. but the 'pulse' led will go off after 200 mSec. If the pulse is negative-going. both the '0' and 'pulse' led's will be on.'ON'. green led).

Maximum load current will generate maximum dissipation. then the rectifier diodes must be capable of passing a very high peak forward current. If a transformer is used. A 1 amp fuse in the regulators output 51 . The 7812 IC will only pass 1 amp or less of the output current. it may be a good idea to look for either a fan or water cooled heat sink. The dissipation in each power transistor is one sixth of the total load. this power supply can deliver output load currents of up to 30 amps. As the circuit is designed to handle loads of up to 30 amps. then six TIP2955 are wired in parallel to meet this demand. but adequate heat sinking is still required. The design is shown below: Notes: The input transformer is likely to be the most expensive part of the entire project.12 Volt 30 Amp PSU Using a single 7812 IC voltage regulator and multiple outboard pass transistors. a couple of 12 Volt car batteries could be used. In the event that the power transistors should fail. the remainder being supplied by the outboard pass transistors. typically 100amps or more. In considering a heat sink. then the regulator would have to supply full load current and would fail with catastrophic results. As an alternative. The input voltage to the regulator must be at least several volts higher than the output voltage (12V) so that the regulator can maintain its output. so a very large heat sink is required.

The input current to the regulator is fed via the emitter resistor and base emitter junctions of the power 52 . To summarise. 30 = 6 * 4.866.866 A and the 6 transistors 4. Each power transistor contributes around 4.the total load current is 30 amps. At the output :.5 Watt resistor for R7. Power dissipation is hence (4^2)/200 or about 160 mW. the input voltage is 24 volts. 24 -4 -20 =0. must equal the current leaving the junction. For example.86 A to the load.prevents a safeguard. the regulator supplies 0. A simulated performance is shown below: Calculations: This circuit is a fine example of Kirchoff's current and voltage laws. Resistor R7 is 100 ohms and develops 4 Volts with maximun load.855 Amp each . This is well within the limits of the TIP2955. 4 volts is dropped across R7 and 20 volts across the regulator input. The 400mohm load is for test purposes only and should not be included in the final circuit. A DC current gain of 35 at a collector current of 6 amp is required. Resistors R1 to R6 are included for stability and prevent current swamping as the manufacturing tolerances of dc current gain will be different for each transistor. I recommend using a 0. and the voltages around a loop must equal zero. The base current is about 138 mA per transistor.855 + 0. the sum of the currents entering a junction. in the diagram above.

7812.18 = 40. but an NPN type power transistor is used instead. Increasing Regulator Current Notes: Although the 78xx series of voltage regulators are available with different current outputs. The power dissipation in the transistor will be Vce * Ic or (2012)*8=40watt. The input voltage should be a few volts higher to allow for voltage drops. Currents up to 650mA will flow through the regulator.3 + 830. Lets also assume that the load will draw 5amps. such as the 79xx series. above this value and the power transistor will start to conduct. 88. but you will need a large heatsink with good thermal dissipation. Assume 20 volts. It may keep you warm in the Winter. then the circuit is similar. The current from the regulator itself cannot be greater than the input current. As can be seen the regulator only draws about 5 mA and should run cold. the 871 mA regulator input current is derived from the base chain and the 40. 53 .transistors. If you want to increase the output current with a negative regulator. This should be on an adequate heat sink as it is likely to get rather hot. 871. A power transistor is used to supply extra current to the load the regulator. you can boost the available current output with this circuit. Once again using Kirchoff's current laws. supplying the extra current to the load. maintaining a constant voltage.3 mA flowing through the 100 Ohm resistor. Suppose you use a 12v regulator.

3=OUT. 3=OUT.7812: 1=IN. 7912: 1=GND. 2=IN. 2=GND. 54 .

The circuits are designed to drive light emitting diodes or low current.Traffic Light Control Circuit (20 Output Sequencing Circuit) This page features a circuit that has twenty open collector outputs that turn on one at a time in a continuous sequential manner. This circuit is the same as the one on the printed circuit board offered through this site. 20 Output Sequencing Circuit The following schematic is for the 20 Output Sequencing Circuit. 55 . The circuit make use of the 74LSxx family of TTL integrated logic devices. low voltage incandescent lights but can also drive other loads of up to 80 milliamps.

• • • • Parts List The following is a parts list for use with the 20 Output Sequencing Circuit. The circuit above is shown in a continuous running mode. The BCD output then drives two 74LS145 .1 of 10 decoders (See Notes) that are used to produce a 1 of 20 step output sequence.1A Timers DIP-8 Single Timer DECADE COUNTER DIP14 QUAD 2-IN OR DIP-14 DUAL J-K F/F DIP-14 BCD-DEC DECODER DP16 100K ohm / 1/4 Watt Carbon Resistor Trimmer Potentiometers 1Mohms 6mm 470 ohm / 1/4 Watt Carbon Resistor Radial Electrolytic Capacitors 25V 10uF Radial Monolithic Capacitors 50V .Basic Circuit Operation • • • The circuit is stepped through the sequence by an adjustable LM555 astable oscillator. The disallowed states prevent any of the ten outputs on that particular device from being turned ON while the other 74LS145 is in counting to ten. PART NUMBER VR 1 IC 1 IC 2 IC 3 IC 4 IC 5. In essence the circuit counts to 10 twice in succession rather than counting to 20 in a single cycle.1uF Mouser Part # 511L78L05ABZ 512-LM555CN 526NTE74LS90 526NTE74LS32 526NTE74LS107 595SN74LS145N 531-PT6KV1M 140XRL25V10 581SR215C104K QTY 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 56 . Suppliers that handle 'NTE' components should be able to get the ICs. The circuit can also be externally stopped and reset. This produces a system where only one of the 74LS145's is able to produce LOW output states at a time.dual input OR gates (74LS32) to control to the inputs to the two output drivers (74LS145) This arrangement alternately creates disallowed states in these devices. The TTL logic devices requires a regulated 5 volt supply but the outputs of the 74LS145's can be supplied from up to 15 Volts with a maximum current of 80 milliamps. Mouser Electronics part numbers are shown but the parts may be available from other sources as well.0V 0. The Oscillators output is divided by a 74LS90 divider into a 10 step BCD weighted output. 6 R1 R2 R3 C1. This may seem like an unusual method but it allows the circuit to economically make use of the open collector outputs of the 74LS145s decoder/drivers rather than having to use output buffer ICs. Notes • The circuit does not drive the 74LS145's directly but uses a JK Flip-Flop (74LS107) and four . C4 C2 DESCRIPTION Voltage Regulators TO-92 5.

C3 D1 - Radial Electrolytic Capacitors 25V 1. Only one current limiting resistor is needed as only one LED can be on at a time.0 - 1 1 1 20 Step LED Circuit The next diagram shows a simple 20 LED driver circuit.0uF LED .3mm or 5mm 2 Position Terminal Block 5mm 140XRL25V1. 57 .

20 Step Traffic Light Schematic The next diagram shows a traffic Light Control circuit. the traffic light circuit allows the lights in one direction to be GREEN for 7 steps of the counter. Yellow for 2 steps and RED for 1 step before the light turns GREEN in the opposite direction. As shown. Other light 58 .

The picture shows the circuit board wired for continuous running for the Traffic Light Control circuit. YELLOW and RED of the other direction though diodes.sequence steps can be created by shifting the circuits outputs as long as the total equals twenty. The RUN terminal has limitations (CLOCK input of the 74LS107) that are described on the data sheet for the device.Assembled Example The printed circuit board is 2. 20 Output Sequencing Circuit PCB 20 Output Sequencing Circuit PCB .9 inches square and has been commercially made. 59 . Additional Circuits The next diagram and image shows external controls that can be used to Start or Stop and Reset the circuit. Advanced GREEN lighting could be added but the flashing would have to be done externally to the PCB circuit. If the RESET terminal is held LOW the circuit will run continuously. The RED signals of one direction are slaved to the GREEN. Other modes of operation will be shown in diagrams lower on the page. When the circuit is reset the 555 clock will stop and the number 1 output will go to a LOW state.

The next photo shows the location of the RUN and RESET connections on the circuit board. ask your parts supplier for a copy of the manufacturers data sheets for any components that you have not used before. Please Read Before Using These Circuit Ideas The explanations for the circuits on these pages cannot hope to cover every situation on every layout. If the 555 timer is removed an external clock could be used to step the circuit. These sheets contain a wealth of data and circuit design information that no electronic or print article could approach and will save time and perhaps damage to the components themselves. 60 . These data sheets can often be found on the web site of the device manufacturers. such as switches. If you use any of these circuit ideas. Also shown are 5 volt and common connections that can be used to power external circuitry. Although the circuits are functional the pages are not meant to be full descriptions of each circuit but rather as guides for adapting them for use by others. If you have any questions or comments please send them to the email address on the Circuit Index page. For this reason be prepared to do some experimenting to get the results you want. This is especially true of circuits such as the "Across Track Infrared Detection" circuits and any other circuit that relies on other than direct electronic inputs. A jumper normally between the RUN connection and the circuit common must be removed first. Alternately the circuit's 555 clock could provide an output to and external circuit.