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Cartwright, D. (2008). Borderline Personality Disorder: What do we know? Diagnosis, course, co-morbidity, and aetiology.

South African Journal of Psychology, 38(2), 429466. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.

In this article the background, co-morbidity, and other information on borderline personality disorder is reviewed. A good portion of the US population has been diagnosed with personality disorders and with such the cost of treatment is very high. Studies have shown personality disorders are not only unstable but are easier than expected to treat. Current studies suggest that borderline personality disorder may be one of the easier personality disorders to treat and there are new ways of thinking about it. Cartright says the DSM-IV-TRF defines BPD as a pervasive pattern of instability in self-image, relationships, affects and impulsivity beginning in early adulthood. He also states that individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder show a combination of problems with impulse, dysregulation, and cognitive and interpersonal functioning. Some have argued that BPD is a sum of multiple Axis 1 disorders, because to be diagnosed there must be five of nine symptoms present, that means there are 256 different combinations to be diagnosed.(Cartwright 430) Not a lot of research has been done on borderline personality disorder with many facets, thus it remains difficult to out line the core details of it. Cartwright says that BPD is

Cartwright, D. (2008). Borderline Personality Disorder: What do we know? Diagnosis, course, co-morbidity, and aetiology. South African Journal of Psychology, 38(2), 429466. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database. unstable and has research to prove it stating that remission is accomplished faster than expected, clinical features fluctuate rapidly over time, and some BPD aspects are situationaly dependent. BPD is more stable than other major depressions in that, it may take longer to treat but has a lower expectancy of recurrence. When compared to other personality disorders it is considered a good diagnosis because it can be treated and usually runs it’s course in a ten year period.(Cartwright 431) There isn’t enough evidence to support that borderline personality disorder is evident in children. Meaning that, although a child has borderline symptoms there isn’t a direct link proven that they will have those symptoms progress as borderline personality disorder in adulthood. A few risk factors more commonly found in future BPD patients is childhood trauma, childhood neglect, childhood separation, maternal inconsistently, and the presence of childhood psychopathology in children. To correctly assume that childhood symptoms will definitely lead to a diagnosis in their adulthood more longitudinal studies would need to be done.(Cartwright 433) Borderline personality disorder has a tendency to be comorbid by nature and is often misdiagnosed as bipolar disorder. Depression, Post-traumatic stress disorder, substance abuse, eating disorders, and other personality disorders have all

Cartwright, D. (2008). Borderline Personality Disorder: What do we know? Diagnosis, course, co-morbidity, and aetiology. South African Journal of Psychology, 38(2), 429466. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database. showed signs of being co-morbid. There are many factors that lead to the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder, including sociocultural, parenting, trauma, genetic, and neurologically. (Cartwright 434-440)