The 4
th
International Conference on Power Transmissions, June 2023, Sinaia,
ROMANIA
CONTRIBUTIONS CONCERNING THE ROLLER
GEARING TOOTH PROFILE GENERATION
Adrian Dănuţ VEJA
1
1
Adrian Dănuţ Veja, Technical University of ClujNapoca, ClujNapoca,
Romania, adiveja@yahoo.com
Abstract.
The objective of the present scientific paper concerns the theoretical
and practical issues of the roller gears tooth profile on the driven
wheel.
In the specialized literature, we can’t find defined data regarding the
step teeth calculation on the driven wheel.
The transmission for the precise displacement with roller gears,
conceived by the author of this scientific paper, and which makes the
object of an patent proposal, consists of an pinion roller by wrapping
with tightness on a hub of an a precision chain drive with short roller
chain links, as it is presented in SR ISO 6062000. The next step targets
the mounting on the drive shaft of the drive motor an cycloidal gear
wheel profile, wich will involve the pinion roller when it is in rotational
motion of the driven element.
In order to achieve the practical realization of this gear, it is necessary
to determine theoretically with sufficient accuracy the calculation of the
step teeth wheel of cycloidal profile, the flanks being conjugates profiles
on the cylindrical surface of the roller.
Keywords. mechanical transmission, precise movements.
Nomenclature
Symbol Description
P’
1
Linear pitch of gear
P’
2
Linear pitch of chain
1
Angular pitch of pinion
2
Angular pitch of gear
s Arc tooth circle division
1. INTRODUCTION
In this paper it is presented the method of construction of the cycloidal profile of
the tooth’s gear from an mechanism. The result is the achievement of the precise
rotational motion. It will be taken into consideration the zero backlash of the gear,
from this point resulting the tooth thickness as well. The paper refers to a
mechanism for achieving precise rotation movement which can be used at the
realization of the rotational movements of the machine tools and industrial robots.
In order to achieve this precise movement, there are international recognized the
systems build out of an special pinion and gear with cycloidal profile. The pinion is
build out of an hub and needle roller bearing type. Specializes literature makes
references in general to the cycloidal gears in bolts. The mechanism presented in
this article is the subject of an patent proposal. The advantages of this mechanism
comparising it with the existing ones in this domain internationally speaking, refers
to the simplicity of the manufacturing and the small overall. The proposed solution
Adrian Dănuţ VEJA 2
was practically solved. The experimental tests of the transmission have
demonstrated that the measured error of displacement has a close value of the
calculated one.
2. PROFILING THE CYCLOID AND STEP DRIVEN
WHEEL TEETH
The mechanism for achieving precise rotary motion consists of an pinion 1 and a
gear wheel 2 of cycloidal profile. The pinion has a sandwich shape, being made up
of two flanges, a transmission chain with roller and links 3, and a clamping system
of the two flanges in between being mounted the chain. The flanges 4 two are
trapped with some screws 5 (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2).
Achieving this transmission requires solving theoretical problems related to teeth
profile of the cogwheel, in such a way that it obtained simultaneously contact of
two or more rollers, the contact being on opposite sides of the teeth.
To establish the equations of an point of this curve, we must start from the
equations of the epicicloida described by the center C
1
of the roll, (Fig. 3),
adopting the axis coordinate system OXY, the point O being in the center circle of
radius r
2
.
The axis Ox crosses through the turning point of the epicicloida:
, )


.

\
 +
÷ + =
2
2
2 1
1 2 2 1 1
cos cos
r
r r
r r r x
c
(1)
, )


.

\
 +
÷ + =
2
2
2 1
1 2 2 1 1
sin sin
r
r r
r r r y
c
(2)
:
Fig. 1. Pinion gear roller – wheel
1 – pinion; 2 – cycloid wheel
Adrian Dănuţ VEJA 3
where: r
1
, r
2
, are the rolling circles radius of the two wheels;
2
 angle formed by
the center line axis OX.
Point coordinates of the curve M (Fig 3), will be:
where: is the radius of roll;
2 / ) 2 ( 90
2 1
0
+ ÷ =
From the figure 3 and the definition of the epicicloida results:
Replacing the relationships (3), (4) and (5) in the relationships (1) and (2),
knowing that
1
2
r
r
i = , results after processing:
where
0
90 > ; ) 90 ( 2
0
1
÷ = .
cos
1
÷ =
c M
x x (3)
cos
1
÷ =
c M
y y (4)
2
1
2
1
r
r
=
(5)
, )


.

\

+ ÷ 
.

\

+ + 
.

\

+
+
÷ + =
2
2 2
2 1
) 1 ( 90
2
cos
1
) 1 ( cos
cos ) 1 (
i
i
i
i
i r x
M
(6)
, ) , )


.

\

+ ÷ 
.

\

+ + 
.

\

+
+
÷ + =
2
2 2
2 1
) 1 ( 90
2
sin
1
1 sin
sin ) 1 (
i
i
i
i
i r y
M
(7)
Fig. 2. Roller pinion
3 – chain; 4 – flanges; 5 – screw
Adrian Dănuţ VEJA 4
Taking as basic parameter it determins:
1
,
2
as mentioned in literature
(CSIBI, V., SÂRBU, M., CRIŞAN, N., HERCIU, D., TOADER, U., SUDRIJAN,
M., CIUREA, C., 2006, Litvin, F.L., 2009, TOADER, U., 2010 and Veja, A.,
SUCALĂ, F., 2011),
2
x and
2
y . The equations (7) and (8), are the coordinates of
a point of the left flank of the gear profile. In the same way, we can determine the
point equations of the right flank of the teeth of gear wheel. If in the equations (7)
and (8), results the equation of an epicicloida.
To determine the coordinates of the tooth foot profile, we consider the triangle
ABC from the figure 4.
cos
2
÷ = r x
p (8)
sin =
P
y (9)
In these relations (8) and (9) corresponds to the angle of the foot area of the
tooth profile in the arc with radius equal to the radius roller. Angle values vary
between limits of 0
0
.... 90
0
(for foot tooth profile).
The problem to be solved is to avoid
f
j lateral clearance during engagement. This
can be achieved by building the gear in such a way that two rollers have to be in
simultaneously contact with opposite sides of the same tooth. Accordingly, for the
calculation of the rope length appropriate to the step gear p‘
2
– linear step,
considered involvement of two rolls with opposite tooth profiles, the center line
being perpendicular to the step chain (Fig 5) as mentioned in literature (LITVIN,
F.L., 2009, TOADER, U., 2010 and Veja, A., SUCALĂ, F., 2011).
Fig. 3. Construction of wheel tooth head
Adrian Dănuţ VEJA 5
where, p’
1
is corresponding string length equal to the step chain pinion pitch; p’
2
is
linear up to the gear.
The relationship for calculating the pitch pinion is:
180
1 1
1
=
r
p (10)
where:
Fig. 4. Construction of wheel tooth foot
Fig. 5. Determination of tooth thickness
Adrian Dănuţ VEJA 6
n
0
1
360
=
(11)
n is the number of rolls of the pinion.
Knowing that:
2 1
p p = and
1 2
r i r = , we can write:
180
2 2
2
=
r
p (12)
where:
2
2
2
180
r
p
=
(13)
Linear step of the gear that is:
2
sin 2 '
2
2 2
r p = (14)
Linear thickness of the tooth in the position mentioned, has the formula:
where:
Arc tooth circle division (Fig. 6) (Veja, A., SUCALĂ, F., 2011) is:
Angle is calculated with relation:
where
2
is the step angle of the gear, and i /
1 2
= , i  transmission report
The angle
1
is determined from the triangle O
1
CO
3,
with the relationship:
cos 2 2
1
= = MC MA s (15)
÷ = sin 2
1
r MC (16)
180
2
r s = (17)
2
2
2
÷ = (18)


.

\

÷ =
2
1
2
1
2
1 arccos
r
(19)
Adrian Dănuţ VEJA 7
The equations (6), (7), (8), (9) and (17), are used for the determination of
coordinates points of cycloid tooth profile, side view of the elimination game,
coordinates are used in processing these wheels.
3. CONCLUZIONS
This article gives us the possibility to draw the next conclusions:
 determining relatively calculation necessary to the tooth profile generation of the
gear at the transmition of the roller gear pinion.
 determining the thickness of the tooth in such a way that the back lash must be
eliminated
References:
CSIBI, V., SÂRBU, M., CRIŞAN, N., HERCIU, D., TOADER, U., SUDRIJAN,
M., CIUREA, C. (2006). Angrenaje cicloidale şi scule pentru danturare
(Cycloidal gears and tools for toothing ). Editura SemnE, Bucureşti.
DĂSCĂLESCU, A. (2005). Contribuţii la studiul cinematic şi dinamic al
angrenajelor planetare cu dantură cicloidală şi bolţuri (Contributions to the
dynamic and kinematic studies of the planetar gears with cycloidal tooth and
bolts). Teză de doctorat, Universitatea Tehnică din ClujNapoca.
DEMIAN, T. (1980). Elemente constructive de mecanică fină (Constructive
elements of fine mechanics). Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică, Bucureşti.
Fig. 6. Determination of tooth thickness on the circle division
Adrian Dănuţ VEJA 8
DEMIAN, T., CURITA, I., TUDOR, D. (1972). Calculul şi construcţia elementelor
de mecanică fină (The calculation and construction of the elements of fine
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geometry and applicable theory). Editura Dacia, ClujNapoca.
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mecanică fină (Contributions to the kinematic high precision of the fine
mechanics gears). Teză de doctorat, Universitatea Tehnică din ClujNapoca.
SÂRBU, M. (2004). Angrenaje cilindrice de înaltă precizie pentru mecanica fină
(High precision cylindrical gears for fine mecahic). Editura Transilvania
Press, ClujNapoca.
SĂVESCU, D. (2005). Cuple de translaţie cu alunecare şi rostogolire
(Translational coupling and roller bearings). Editura BREN, Bucureşti.
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and machine elements). vol. I, Editura RISOPRINT, ClujNapoca.
TOADER, U. (2010). Contribuţii privind optimizarea sculelor pentru prelucrarea
angrenajelor cicloidale (Contributions to the optimization of the tools used for
the construction of cycloidal gears). Teză de doctorat, Universitatea Tehnică
din ClujNapoca.
TRAIAN, I. (1997). Toleranţele organelor de maşini – Calibre (Tolerances of
machine elements  Calibration). Editura ICPIAF, ClujNapoca.
VEJA, A., SUCALĂ, F. Propunere de brevet de invenţie cu denumirea “Mecanism
pentru realizarea precisă a mişcării de rotaţie”. înregistrat la OSIM în data de
04 martie 2011, cu număr de înregistrare A/10011/2011 (Proposal of patent
named “Mechanism for achieving precise rotational movement”, registered to
OSIM on march four 2011, registration number A/10011/2011).