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IBP 1096_12 Application of PLT surveys to select a vertical grid refinement in gas reservoirs 1 Pablo Julián Rodríguez , Denis

José Schiozer 2

Copyright 2012, Brazilian Petroleum, Gas and Biofuels Institute - IBP
This Technical Paper was prepared for presentation at the Rio Oi & Gas Expo and Conference 2012, held between September, 1720, 2012, in Rio de Janeiro. This Technical Paper was selected for presentation by the Technical Committee of the event according to the information contained in the final paper submitted by the author(s). The organizers are not supposed to translate or correct the submitted papers. The material as it is presented, does not necessarily represent Brazilian Petroleum, Gas and Biofuels Institute’ opinion, or that of its Members or Representatives. Authors consent to the publication of this Technical Paper in the Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 Proceedings.

Abstract
Most of the time, the fluid segregation in porous media between gas and water makes water breakthrough reach a well structurally from the bottom, even when coning effect is present. In this paper we describe a real case of a gas reservoir when water breakthrough reach the vertical well from the middle of the perforation, above gas phase. We also expose how to upgrade the geological model to represent the high permeability channels in the numerical simulation model.

1. Introduction
When water breakthrough occurs in a gas well, the most common practice is to analyze only the surface information (gas rate, water rate etc.), but no further information is taken using downhole equipment for additional well testing. This monitoring technique could be explained by the incorporated paradigm that all the natural gas wells are flooded by a flat gas-water contact (WGC) during the reservoir decline, then, not stratigraphic hypothesis were even analyze in the diagnostic. In this work, we went one step further, analyzing if stratigraphic water entrance is also possible focus on the contrast of reservoir permeability layer in a structural control formation. Otherwise, the focus to maintain a cost-benefit balance, when upscaling from geological model, induces the reduction of the simulation blocks number to obtain faster results. In this work, we also integrate a simple and precise in-situ information registered from on-line Production Loggin Tool (PLT) survey in a flowing well, that permit us to select, with a better understand criteria, a new upscaling model. The integration of PLT survey with geological model refinement is not a wide incorporated as a work methodology in history matching. As a conclusion of this work, we don’t recommend the use of structurally aquifer model without analyzing the viscous-gravity balance between forces that govern the fluid model through the reservoir. The benefit of using PLT survey is also evident for high precision multiflow production through the perforated zone. The dynamic behavior of water breakthrough could be modeled with a local grid refinement, avoiding a reinterpretation of the geological model.

2. Literature Review
Azzarone et al (2011) use PLT response to performed a effective flow profile for a fall-off well test in a mature gas reservoir to characterize the main reservoir properties, using the skin factor to determine whether the selected drilling/completion fluid would be suitable for new wells. Shie-Way et al (2000) present good matching of reservoir pressure between PLT survey and reservoir simulation in multi-layers gas reservoirs using a mathematical pseudo steady state model.

______________________________ 1 Master, Petroleum Engineer - Petrosynergy Ltda 2 Dr, Petroleum Engineer – UNISIM- UNICAMP

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 Christie et al (1996) show how upscaling and vertical grid refinement has become an increasingly important tool converting highly detailed geological models to simulation grids to reduce the computational effort. Maschio et al (2008) show how geological and geostatistical date impact in the history matching process.

3. Methodology
3.1. Geological characteristics SPR formation is located in the Austral Basin, the perforation of LPo-01 discovered a mineralized extension of 19km2 with gas cap at 2500m under see level. LPo, with 17 perforated wells, is a good reservoir quality rock with a 200mD permeability and 12% porosity, the geological stratification of high-energy canalized deposits, produce a spatial anisotropy in the permeability (rate Kv/Kh <1%); this fact play an important role in the relevance of viscous forces when compare with gravity forces 3.2. Dynamic model The dynamic model is mainly composed by a structurally water advance of gas contact (WGC) during the depleting period in gas reservoirs. This simplification is supporting by the hypothesis of gravitationally force are bigger enough than viscosity force. But during the field monitoring, the highest well of SPR formation, suffer an unexpected aquifer breakthrough not aligned with the “structurally water breakthrough hypothesis” as shown in Fig-04, yielding the necessity to rebuild the upscaled model near wellbore in the high-permeability section. 3.3. Data adquisition After the water breakthrough was detected, the first step was swept the 16m of perforated region running a rigless1 PLT2 survey. The PLT loggs are shown in Fig-01.

4. Results
4.1. PLT interpretation In LPo-02 well 93% of total gas comes from upper perforation, 7% of gas and the total liquid from the aquifer, comes from lower perforation. In all PLT the temperature login from button to the top is expected to be monotonically increasing because the geothermal gradient combined with thermal effect of fluid flowing from the perforation. This premise, is not fulfilled in the well LPo-02 because it shows an “atypical thermal profile” where the temperature drops-increases rapidly @ 2966/70m, as shows in Figure 1. It is remarkable that the water breakthrough was not by the button as expected, but it comes through the high permeability layer as shown in Figure 2.
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Rigless equipment avoid well shut-in, instead, a fluent well slick line were used.

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PLT is a powerful tool register downloaded in gas wells to detect water breakthrough, especially when the geological formation has a structurally control.

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Figure 1. Measured loggs: Spinner velocity, gamma ray, pressure, density and temperature. Interpreted loggs: gas rate integration.

Figure 2. Regional geological model before upscaling, divided in 40 layers, shows how the high-permeability channel is “a path” of a water entrance mechanism. 4.2. Simulation model Supported in PLT result, the geological model where reinterpreted as shown in Figure 3, a local grid refinement where proposed to better reproduce data field.

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Figure 3. Upper, initial simulation model ; lower, new local grid refinement used for history matching. Local grid refinement, located in near wellbore region of flooded well LPo-2, let us only redefine the model in a small portion of our simulation model, as shown in Fig-06, to minimize the simulation run time. In the first simulation model the 40 layer of 40cm were upscaling to 4 layers of 4m. To redefine the vertical upscaling process, supported in PLT interpretation where vertical heterogeneity was significant in the 4th layer, the first three layers where maintained with 4m thick and the last one where selected in 4 sub-layer of 1m thick each as shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4. Local grid refinement in nearwelbore region of LPo-02 The refined grid model was simulated from the beginning of production period with the premise of fit the water breakthrough timing in LPo-2. The result is presented in Fig-04 4.3. History matching As shown in Figure 5, the production history with the early water breakthrough is better represented by refined model. It also noticed that the 250m3/d of produced water from the aquifer is only fitted by the refined model. In unrefined model, 140m3/d from water breakthrough are enough to waterflood the natural well.

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Figure 5. Gas production rate and water breakthrough entrance for simulation model comparing with production history. The “anomaly effect” of water entrance by the middle of perforation, could be modeled by refine simulation as shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6. Model of channelized water entrance in the refine grid simulation

5. Conclusions
In high-permeability channels formations the simplification of structurally water advance is not recommended. PLT survey is a simple and accuracy monitoring tool to integrate geological model with history matching. Local grid refinement nearwelbore is recommended technique as a first step of geological reinterpretation during well monitoring. 5

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6. Reference
MASCHIO, C., CAMPANE VIDAL A., SCHIOZER, D. J. A framework to integrate history matching and geostatistical modeling using genetic algorithm and direct search methods. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Volume 63, Issues 1-4, December 2008, Pages 34-42 SHIE-WAY WANG Application of radial flow theory and plt surveys to determine reservoir pressure and wellbore conditions for gas reservoirs. In SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 1-4 October 2000, Dallas, Texas. AZZARONE, E., BERETTA,E., GUGLIELMELLI, A., NUNZI, P., MARIOTTI, P. Gas injection testing & PLT – offshore ENI experience. In 10th Offshore Mediterranean Conference , 23-25 March 2011, Ravenna, Italy. CHRISTIE, M., A. Upscaling for reservoir simulation in JPT, Volume 48, Number 11, SPE 37324-MS November 1996. OSIADACZ, A. J., CHACZYKOWSKI, M. Comparison of isothermal and non-isothermal pipeline gas flow models, Chem. Eng. J., v. 81, n. 1, p. 41-51, 2001. OUYANG, L., AZIZ, K. Steady-state gas flow in pipes. J. Pet. Sci. Eng., v. 14, n. 2, p. 137-158, 1996.

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