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PERFORMANCE AND RELIABILITY Alan Kabbara1, John McCarthy2, Timm Burnett3, Ian Forster4
Copyright 2012, Brazilian Petroleum, Gas and Biofuels Institute - IBP
This Technical Paper was prepared for presentation at the Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012, held between September, 1720, 2012, in Rio de Janeiro. This Technical Paper was selected for presentation by the Technical Committee of the event according to the information contained in the final paper submitted by the author(s). The organizers are not supposed to translate or correct the submitted papers. The material as it is presented, does not necessarily represent Brazilian Petroleum, Gas and Biofuels Institute’ opinion, or that of its Members or Representatives. Authors consent to the publication of this Technical Paper in the Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 Proceedings. .

This paper describes the work, on test rigs and full-scale drilling rigs, carried out with respect to placement of an Asymmetric Vibration Damping Tool (AVDT) within drilling while under reaming operations. An AVDT, by virtue of the forward synchronous motion imposed on the drill string, offers benefits in minimizing down hole vibration-related tool failures and therefore maximizing rate of penetration (ROP). Of interest in using the AVDT is the tendency to minimize stick slip by means of the parasitic torque it generates. This is of particular importance during under reaming operations. While under reaming, stick slip can result in low (ROP) and potentially an increased incidence of down hole tool failures. The use of an AVDT in these operations has been shown to significantly reduce stick slip. However, due to the forward synchronous motion caused by the AVDT, there is the potential to cause eccentric wear to the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) components in the vicinity of the AVDT. If allowed to progress, this eccentric wear can cause a reduction in down hole tool life and drilling performance. Eliminating eccentric wear would be beneficial in reducing repair costs, extending component life and further improving drilling performance. To minimize eccentric wear and maximize drilling performance, the placement of the AVDT within the BHA is critical. This paper describes how the placement of intermediate stabilizers between the AVDT and the under reamer can minimize eccentric wear to the under reamer and the adjacent drill string due to the forward synchronous whirl induced by the AVDT. This approach allows the full benefits of the AVDT to be recognized while reducing the potentially damaging effects of eccentric wear to other BHA components. The work has drawn upon small-scale rig testing, full-scale testing at the Ullrigg test facility in Norway and from real-world drilling and under reaming operations in the USA.

1. Introduction
The AVDT has been shown to offer significant benefits in mitigating stick slip during drilling operations. This is of importance during under reaming operations where stick slip is commonplace. With reductions in stick slip, there will be accompanying reductions in lateral vibration, reductions in tool failure rates and increases in ROP. However, the AVDT derives its stick slip mitigation performance by inducing a benign Forward Synchronous Whirl (FSW) motion in the drill string. This motion opposes the more damaging backward whirl motion and generates a beneficial friction al torque that serves to damp the spin up phase of stick slip. Because of the generated FSW motion, it is therefore important that placement of the AVDT with respect to the reamer is carefully considered, in order to reduce the possibility of eccentric wear on the reamer cutters.

During drilling operations, vibration effectively reduces ROP, increases Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) and causes damage to drill bits and other elements of the drill string. One particular mode of vibration is the lateral mode, where the drill string or BHA assumes a whirling motion. Another damaging vibration mode is torsional vibration – in particular, stick slip. There can be coupling of the lateral mode and torsional mode during stick slip – i.e. there can

______________________________ 1,2,3,4 National Oilwell Varco Downhole Ltd

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 be high lateral vibration associated with stick slip – as will be discussed later. There are three types of whirl in the drill string. Backward whirl is the most likely whirl to occur due to the inherent friction between the drill string and the bore acting in the opposite direction to rotation – and when this occurs with discrete features on the drill string such as stabilizer blades, impacts/shocks are likely. Chaotic whirl, which is a backward whirl where there are impacts between the drill string and drill bore; and forward whirl, where the whirl is in the same direction as rotation. (Figs 1-3).

Fig 1 – Backward Whirl

Fig 2- Chaotic Whirl

Fig 3 – Forward Whirl

Because the whirl is in the opposite direction to rotation, backward whirl results in particularly damaging reverse bending stress in the drill string. Where there are high frequency impacts/shocks also occurring, the drill string damage will be increased further. Conversely, because forward whirl is in the direction of rotation, the tendency for reverse bending to occur is reduced. Forward whirl is unlikely to occur naturally and is required to be induced. FSW is a special case of forward whirl and results in zero reverse bending stress. A tool that enables FSW to be induced in the drill string/BHA will be beneficial to the drilling operation, since it will oppose the natural tendency of the drill string to assume backward whirl. Such a tool will also create an additional beneficial braking torque on the drill string due to the FSW motion and, as a result, will also tend to damp torsional vibrations. The AVDT discussed in this paper is such a tool to induce FSW. The tool comprises an eccentric stabilizer with two blades in an acute angled Vee configuration that has been shown in field operations to reduce BHA and drill string vibrations – lateral and torsional vibrations (fig 5). The operation of this tool was covered in a previous paper – (Forster et al, SPE/IADC 128458, 2010).

Fig 5 – AVDT (FSW) Previously, the reasons for improvements in performance observed in field operations when using this tool had not been formally quantified since the tool was originally designed for the purpose of stabilizing bi-center bits. It was therefore found necessary to study and quantify the behavior of the AVDT with the intention to study the performance limits of the AVDT and ultimately optimize the design. 2

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The design of two test rigs to study the behavior of the AVDT was purposely small-scale. This was in order to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the behavior, parameters and variables associated with the technology that may arise without the potentially prohibitive safety issues associated with a large scale whirling drill string. The test rigs also provided repeatable test results. The test rigs were designed and modeled using proprietary finite element software (ANSYS, 2008) and proprietary mathematical software (MATHCAD, 2008). The optimum speed for the AVDT in the vertical was found to be at the first natural frequency or the whirling mode. This vibration mode is benign when compared to the higher modes – it has low non-reversed bending stress at low frequency. Fatigue and impact on the drill string is minimal. The optimum speed will increase with inclination, and also will reduce with compressive load. For the test rig, an operating speed range with respect to the first natural frequency was studied - lower limit 70% of first natural frequency; and upper limit 150% of first natural frequency. The centrifugal effects for the AVDT are due to the eccentric orbit of the BHA. The parasitic torque due to friction will result in reaction forces due to the contact point span on the tool blades. Although the reaction forces will tend to force the AVDT into a backward whirl, the centrifugal force will oppose these destabilizing forces and will act to sustain AVDT motion – Fig 6. Tools with large contact point span blades will result in a smaller de-stabilizing force and hence will have greater stability. The trailing blade of the AVDT (effectively the tool’s asymmetry) has the effect of opposing destabilizing shocks. For a concentric stabilizer, the centrifugal force does not oppose the force that is tending to send it into a backward whirl, and hence, it is inherently unstable. It also has no asymmetry with which to oppose destabilizing shocks. The parasitic torque of the AVDT has a beneficial effect in damping torsional vibration – as this torque increases with speed, it is of particular importance during the spin up/slip phase of the slick slip cycle.

Centrifugal Force

Reactive Couple

Fig 6 – AVDT tool forces The effect of the AVDT on torsional vibration was studied on the torsional vibration rig, first by, replicating torsional vibration, and then by engaging the AVDT via a clutch. This enabled a back to back test to be carried out using unchanged parameters and also removing unknowns such as the effects of stopping and restarting the rig. The results were produced using proprietary data acquisition software (PICOLOG – 2007/2008). The results show that when the AVDT is engaged at time step 3500, the torsional vibration diminishes dramatically, as a result of the parasitic torque created by the AVDT during FSW causing a braking / damping effect during the spin up phase of stick slip (Fig 7). 3

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Fig 7 – Torsional Vibration Rig Test Result The rig testing has also demonstrated a link between lateral vibration and torsional vibration/stick slip – although the results are not presented here. The knowledge gained on the small-scale test rigs has then been used in the design optimization and field operation of full size AVDT. The AVDT placement software determines optimum parameters for the tool for a given placement in the drill string.

3. Reamer Tool
Reamer tools typically comprise three moveable blades within a tool body housing. There are numerous methods of tool actuation and de-actuation, but typical methods are hydro mechanical – where the hydraulic pressure increase required for tool actuation and de-actuation is achieved by dropping a ball, which then lands upon a nozzle – (McCarthy, SPE/IADC 128951, 2010). Some tool designs use electronic chips dropped from the surface for activation and de-activation, but this technology is in its infancy. During reaming operations, torsional vibration and stick slip is common. With stick slip, lateral vibration is usually increased, and resulting vibration modes can lead to costly tool failures and reduced ROP.

4. AVDT Performance
The AVDT is typically placed in the upper end of the BHA – either within drill collars or within heavy weight drill pipe ( HWDP). Placement software allows the required revolutions per minute (RPM) for a given placement to be determined. Also determined is the forward synchronous whirl section length – i.e. the length of collars/HWDP over which whirl will occur. This will determine the separation of the AVDT from adjacent tools – such as the reamer. Alternatively, if the calculated RPM is not achievable (usually too high), alternative placement may be considered – i.e. using small outer diameter collars or HWDP; using a smaller size AVDT to achieve a greater orbit; using collars with an offset bore to increase the orbit; and using stabilizers to alter the FSW nodes. Typical improvement in torsional vibration, associated lateral vibration and ROP that have been achieved with the AVDT are shown in deep water field test results in the Gulf of Mexico in salt and salt exit – (McCarthy et al, OTC Erro! Fonte de referência não encontrada., 2011). In this application several wells were drilled through the same formation, with similar BHAs and bits and with similar inclinations. This allowed effectively back to back testing. In this application, it was possible to compare three non-AVDT runs with two AVDT runs, and the results 4

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 demonstrate the improvements that can be achieved in ROP – fig 8. Here wells with no AVDT 01-03 show high stick slip, low ROP, whereas, AVDT wells 01 and 02, show much higher ROP, lower stick slip. Even when 100% FSW is not achieved – as is the case for AVDT well 02 during the build section – there is still a significant improvement in stick slip and ROP over the non-AVDT wells. The AVDT wells also achieve performance improvement at lower RPM – contrary to typical stick slip parameter mitigation methods – i.e. reduced ROP and higher RPM. The typical improvements in the AVDT runs when compared to the non-AVDT runs were as follows: AVDT 01 – 100% FSW 50% increase in ROP 70% reduction in stick slip 40% reduction in lateral vibration AVDT 02 - < 100% FSW through build section 40% increase in ROP 50% reduction in stick slip Lateral vibration comparable

100% FSW

<100% FSW During build

Fig 8a – Gulf of Mexico Results in Salt and Salt Exit AVDT Reduced rpm

Fig 8b – Gulf of Mexico Results in Salt and Salt Exit

5. Placement Field Test
The second field test was carried out in a land application, and has involved several runs with the AVDT – 5

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 (NATIONAL OILWELL VARCO LTD, 2011). All runs were through an abrasive hard formation. Prior to use of the AVDT , there was experienced significant torsional vibration/stick slip, shown in the run summary. Also shown in the run summary, was the improvement in torsional vibration/stick slip when the AVDT was used – Fig 9a.

No stabilizer

Fig 9a – Land Application Placement In this application, the AVDT was placed 60-90 ft. from the reamer and no stabilization between the AVDT and the reamer. However, use of the AVDT without stabilization did result in wear of drill string components due to FSW being projected down hole. The wear was on collars adjacent to the AVDT FSW section. The abrasive formation was also a contributory factor. The first revised configuration involved the use of a single stabilizer between the AVDT and down hole components, but this resulted in a pivot point for FSW to be projected down hole, and as a result did not reduce wear – Fig9 b. The wear was on the reamer tool – resulting in wear on one blade only.


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Single stabilizer

Fig 9b – Land application Placement


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FSW node shift onto stabilizer or below the stabilizer

Original node pattern

FSW projection onto reamer

Fig 9c – Land Application Placement The FSW node plot shows one possible FSW node shift scenario – where the node is shifted below the stabilizer – Fig 9c. Another possible scenario would be for the node to be shifted onto the stabilizer – as was observed during the small-scaled testing and also full scale field test at the Ullrigg test facility in Norway (Forster et al, SPE/IADC 128458, 2010). In the rig test case, the rig had stabilization points which were outside the natural FSW node points for the string. The rig operating in a whirl mode consistent with the stabilizer nodes was dominant. The final configuration involved placing two stabilizers in tandem between the AVDT and down hole components, and this did successfully result in minimal wear for subsequent runs - Fig 9d. In this case, the purpose of the double stabilizers was to minimize any pivoting, and hence the projection of FSW onto the drill string components below the AVDT.


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Double stabilizers

Fig 9d – Land Application Placement

6. Discussion
The placement and operating parameters of the AVDT have been shown to be critical in the successful operation of the tool in getting improvements in stick slip and ROP. The tool should be operated at an RPM that achieves 100% FSW and should be placed at a location that allows the tool to influence the stick slip and lateral vibration performance of the BHA. Equally, the placement of the tool should be carried out with regard to BHA components down hole, and, if the AVDT is close to adjacent critical components, additional stabilization may be required to ensure that FSW is not projected on to these components. 9

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 The field tests described in this paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the additional stabilization.

7. Conclusions
The AVDT has demonstrated improvements in stick slip, lateral vibration tool failure rates and ROP. The AVDT results during initial small-scale rig testing have been confirmed during full-scale field tests. The tool has the advantage of non-moving parts or electronics for operation. For success, full operation of the tool and pre-job planning is critical – both in terms of operating parameters (first mode, 100% FSW) and also in the placement of the tool with respect to the BHA stabilization between the AVDT and down hole components. Future work should look at additional applications for the tool – such a small bore applications, horizontal applications; dual AVDT applications (both closely spaced AVDT, and AVDT spaced further apart); and rotary steerable applications. Additionally, high frequency data recording should be adopted on AVDT applications where possible, so as to aid verification of tool performance. This has shown to be of importance during the Ullrigg tests. Current high frequency data recorders (HFDR) can record data at a number of locations in the drill string (Barton et al, SPE 122208, 2009). In all future applications, feedback is essential in verifying the placement and parameters software. The feedback will also be of benefit in verifying stabilization strategies.

8. References
FORSTER I., MACFARLANE A., DINNIE R. Asymmetric Vibration Damping Tool – Small Scale Rig Testing and Full Scale Field Testing. Paper SPE/IADC 128458, presented at the Drilling Conference, New Orleans, 2-4 February 2010. MCCARTHY J., MARTIN W.H. Truly Selective Under reaming: Adaptation of Field Proven, Hydraulically Actuated, Concentric Under reamer Allows for Multiple Unlocking/Locking Cycles in a Single Run – SPE/IADC 128951, presented at the Drilling Conference, New Orleans, 2-4 February. ANSYS – Design Space/Work Bench FEA – Version 11 – 2008. MATHCAD – Mathematical software – Version 13/14, 2008. PICOLOG – Data acquisition software – Picotechnology Ltd – 2007/2008. MCCARTHY J., FORSTER I., KABBARA A., BURNETT T. Careful Planning and Application of an Asymmetric Vibration Damping Tool Dramatically Improves Under reaming While Drilling Performance in Deep-water Drilling. OTC Erro! Fonte de referência não encontrada.. OTC Brazil Oct 4-6 2011. NATIONAL OILWELL VARCO DOWNHOLE LTD, Field Tests – 2011. BARTON S., CLARKE A., GARCIA A., PEREZ D., MORA G., CARRION C. Improved Drilling Performance: Down hole Dynamic Logging Tools Break Paradigm in Ecuador. Paper SPE 122208, presented at the Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, 31 May-3 June 2009.