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IBP 1147__12 DEVELOPMENT OF LOW EMISSON BRAIDED PACKINGS FOR VALVES Antônio Paulo Kopschitz Barros1, Roberto Henrique

Gomes de Araújo 2

Copyright 2012, Instituto Brasileiro de Petróleo, Gás e Biocombustíveis - IBP Este Trabalho Técnico foi preparado para apresentação na Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012, realizado no período de 17 a 20 de setembro de 2012, no Rio de Janeiro. Este Trabalho Técnico foi selecionado para apresentação pelo Comitê Técnico do evento, seguindo as informações contidas no trabalho completo submetido pelo(s) autor(es). Os organizadores não irão traduzir ou corrigir os textos recebidos. O material conforme, apresentado, não necessariamente reflete as opiniões do Instituto Brasileiro de Petróleo, Gás e Biocombustíveis, Sócios e Representantes. É de conhecimento e aprovação do(s) autor(es) que este Trabalho Técnico seja publicado nos Anais da Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012.

Resumo
Cada vez mais os fabricantes de gaxetas de vedação recebem solicitações por produtos com boa performance no controle das emissões fugitivas. Tem sido comum se fazer referência a normas que quando analisadas, muitas vezes não servem de parâmetro para comparação entre produtos nem tampouco comprovam seu desempenho, por não estabelecerem procedimentos de teste ou critérios de aprovação. Este trabalho pretende apresentar as premissas utilizadas para desenvolvimento da gaxeta com o melhor resultado de selabilidade já encontrado, bem como, os procedimentos e cuidados a serem utilizados para assegurar o sucesso da aplicação.

Abstract
Braided packing manufacturers are being continuously required by the market to supply products for valves with higher performance regarding fugitive emission. On the other hand there is a lack of standards offering appropriate parameters for a better evaluation as well as to permit a comparison among the products. Therefore, the proposal of this paper is to present the protocol test used for the development of a braided packing with the lower level of emission ever produced.

1. Introduction
In order to have low emission in valve stem, it is important to consider: • Appropriate braided packing specification • Calculation of correct torque installation • To follow all the steps of the installation procedure Not by chance the whole criteria and procedures applied are very similar to that one for gasket installation. This is especially important for applications that demand high responsibility, such as where there is risk of explosion, risk for the health, etc. Meet environmental standards and reduce operating losses due to leakage of product into the atmosphere will make the company socially and economically sustainable In this paper were used concepts and conclusion generated in previous studies undertook at the research and development department of Teadit.

______________________________ 1 Engenheiro Mecânico – EMPRESA TEADIT 2 Engenheiro Mecânico – EMPRESA TEADIT

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2. Valve packing seating stress – ASME – PVP Paper 2008-61214
Institutes such as ASME (American Society Mechanical Engineers) or API (American Petroleum Institute) do not have available standards with procedure for valve braided packing installation. The concept of correct or incorrect seating stress for a valve braided packing is subjective. It is defined by the feeling of the technician in charge of the service. For this paper it was constructed the test rig below, which is able to determine the minimum seating stress required for each braided packing type to achieve the proper level of salability.

Figura 1 – Test rig Minimal stress set by EN13555 standard to meet desired leakage class was adapted for braided packing using class L0,01, which is the lower specified and equivalent to 0,001 mbar-l/s of helium leakage.
Style B

1,00E+00
Leak Rate (mbar l/s)

1,00E-01 1,00E-02 1,00E-03 1,00E-04 1,00E-05 1,00E-06 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

Stress (MPa)

Figure 2 – Leak rate x stress To determine minimum seating stress of a braided packing it was established 7 bar of pressure. The minimum seating stress for each braided packing style was informed in MPa.

3. Number of braided packing ring per valve
The total of rings per valves varies between the manufacturers. The standards are not clear about it. Some of them inform a minimum of 4 or 5 rings. API standard, reconditioning of valves, recommends 5 rings accepting a maximum of 6 rings. That one was the procedure adopted by Teadit and validated by the following tests: Sealability tests done in our laboratories showed that once applied the minimum seating stress, no matter the number of rings of braided packing installed in the valve (from two to seven). The sealability level is achieved. 2

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Figure 3 – Test rig scheme On the other hand, the tests showed that as much as the number of ring as higher as the friction between the braided packing and the valve stem. Hence is required a higher torque to operate the valve (figures 3 and 4).

Figure 4 – Gland packing stress x friction load The tests also showed that from the minimal force applied to obtain the seating stress, the capacity of the braided packing ring to transmit the force to the following ring increases substantially (figure 5 and 6).
100% 80%

x

(%)

60%
40%

20%
0% 0 20 40 60 Gland Stress (MPa) 80

2 Rings 4 Rings 5 Rings 7 Rings Smin(0,01)
100

Figure 5 –Residual force in the bottom of the packing box

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Figure 6 – Distribution of radial force

4. Field test
Two field tests were done in high pressure steam and hydrocarbon lines to check if the results obtained in the laboratory can be reproduced in an actual application. Both tests were performed at Braskem power plant in Rio Grande do Sul, chose due for its historical of high level of leaks. Operational conditions: Steam line: • Pressure: 140 bar • Temperature: 550ºC • Historical of leak: > 2000 ton/year • 46 valves installed with braided packing type A (July/2006) • Thickness from 1/2” to 16” • Seating stress • Ss= Smin + P = 69 Mpa • Smin = 55 Mpa • P = 140 bar (14 Mpa) • Results: • No leak during 60 months of operation • No retightening for all the period of test Hydrocarbon line: • 17 471 valves with braided packing type C • Leak > 500 ppm: 54%

Angular Butterfly <250 ppmv >250 / <500 ppmv >500 ppmv 242 11 54 24 1 5

Ball 820 29 181

Gate 11.176 195 527

Globe 1.574 23 104

Plug 155 1

M ach 7 -

Others 63 3

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5. Chevron challenger
Despite the excellent results obtained in the above tests as well the compliance with current standards, the products of two competitors showed better performance in the tests executed by Chevron USA (figure 7) The challenger was: To be good is not enough; it has to be the best!
FUGITIVE EMISSION TEST Test at Cycling Conditions [CT] - 77 Mpa- 260°C - 40bar (Methane)
2235 Temperature (ºC)

500

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Leakage (PPMv)

300 200 200

100
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0

0

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0

2.500

3.000

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4.000

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N° Cycle

Figura 7 – Chevron challenger

6. New tests
New tests were performed considering modifications in the impregnation method and in the balance of impregnants (figure 8 and 9) up to achieve the formulation of the braided packing style 2236. This new style let us overtake the best level of sealability ever obtained (figures 10, 11 and 12).
STEM TORQUE
Test at Cycling Conditions [API 622] 77 Mpa - 260°C - 40bar (Methane)
100 90 80 70

2235/04 18% Disp. PTFE 60% STYLE: 4 2235/05 28% Disp.PTFE 60% STYLE: 5

Torque (N.m)

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Figura 8 – Method of impregnation
STEM TORQUE
Test at Cycling Conditions [API 622] 77 Mpa - 260°C - 40bar (Methane)
100 90 80 70

2235/09 6% Disp.PTFE 60% STYLE: 9 2235/05 28% Disp.PTFE 60% STYLE: 5 2235/12 8% Disp.PTFE 45% STYLE: 12 2235/10 3% Disp.PTFE 30% STYLE: 10

Torque (N.m)

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

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Figura 9 – Amount of impregnation 5

1500

1500

Temperature (ºF)

300

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Figura 10 – Yarmouth test

Figura 11 – Yarmouth results

Figura 12 – Comparative 6

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6. Conclusion
The tests performed in the laboratory and in the field proved that it is possible to develop an installation procedure for valve braided packings similar to that one applied for gaskets.

The development of new braided packings for low emission application associated to the good practices in the installation is able to reduce the contamination due to industrial process. At the same time, it permits to comply with the new demands for reduction in the production costs as well as environment preservation. Using high-tech low emission braided packing, you seal today for greener future. What are you waiting for increase your saves?

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