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IBP1169_12 Field Experience with the Application and Operation of Permanent Magnet Motors in the ESP Industry: Success

Stories and Lessons Learned. A. Sagalovskiy1, K. Gorshenin 2
Copyright 2012, Brazilian Petroleum, Gas and Biofuels Institute - IBP
This Technical Paper was prepared for presentation at the Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012, held between September, 1720, 2012, in Rio de Janeiro. This Technical Paper was selected for presentation by the Technical Committee of the event according to the information contained in the final paper submitted by the author(s). The organizers are not supposed to translate or correct the submitted papers. The material as it is presented, does not necessarily represent Brazilian Petroleum, Gas and Biofuels Institute’ opinion, or that of its Members or Representatives. Authors consent to the publication of this Technical Paper in the Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 Proceedings.

Abstract
Over the past 7 years Borets Company has commercialized a permanent magnet motor (PMM) with a specialized controller that is capable of replacing the traditional motor used in ESP systems. Since 2006 more than 1400 Borets Company PMM systems have been installed by oil companies. This paper will provide an overview of the application environment covered by these installations and contrast the performance for the PMM system versus the traditional 2pole, 3-phase ESP systems that were replaced. Results will include the lessons learned, best practices developed, and benefits realized by the operator. The PMM practice will be of value to new operators as this technology is introduced to other regions of the globe as well as the expansion of this technology into the ESPCP-PMM market.

1. Principles of a Permanent Magnet Motor
The ESP-PMM motor is similar to the classic oil filled three phase ESP induction motor except the PMM has permanent magnets mounted in the rotor. Figure 1 indicates PMM lamination. These magnets are made from sintered materials and placed in laminated rotor packs. By mounting to the motor rotor flux is now supplied by the magnets and therefore does not require a supply of electrical energy to generate this magnetic field.

Figure 1. PMM rotor Operation and control of the PMM is still accomplished with an inverter, however the technology varies slightly from the typical VSD we are familiar with. PM motors leverage the constant current principle in order to regulate rotational speed using current as a stabilizer at surface. Because the PMM controller uses current control, positional sensing is highly accurate and it is possible to control the stator and rotor flux at a near 90º angle, thus maximizing torque and eliminating slip.

______________________________ 1 Director of R&D Centre - Borets Company 2 Senior Technical Engineer – Borets Company

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Figure 2. Flemings left hand rule Fleming's left hand rule for motors shows the direction of the thrust on a conductor carrying a current in a magnetic field. Figure 2& 3 indicate Flemings left hand rule & liners of the force.

Figure 3. Lines of force PMM’s have been used in industry for many years however they are a relatively new technology to the ESP and PCP market. Over the past 20 years technology improvements in magnet material, manufacturing process and power electronics have made the use of PM motors more attractive and opened the doors to new applications such as submersible pumping applications.

2. ESP-PMM Advantages
The introduction of permanent magnets into the rotor of an AC motor provides several key advantages, since the magnets are producing the rotor flux; less power is required for field generation. As a result PM motors have a higher power density and are smaller than a traditional ESP induction motor of the same horsepower rating. The increased efficiency and the synchronous operation also translate into reduced electrical losses, lower operating current and less heat generation. With less heat generated the motor cooling requirements are reduced and it is possible to operate the ESP PMM at lower flow rates than with conventional ESP induction motors. Adaptive surface control allows the system to respond to changing well conditions, providing a method of extending operation without the need for cycling at lower flow conditions, or to allow the system to optimize cycling and ensure maximum production. In short, less heat and faster more accurate control of the motor allows for an expanded operating range. The inherent characteristics of the ESP-PMM translate to the following improvements over a traditional ESP induction motor:     Reduced power consumption from 10% up to 20% Efficiency up to 93% (see Figure 4 which indicates PMM vs. Typical ESP Induction Motor Performance at 36 kW nominal horsepower) Expanded operating 500 – 6000 RPM Decreased heat generation requiring 50% less cooling velocity 2

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012           15% lower operating current (see Figure 4 which indicates PMM vs. Typical ESP Induction Motor Performance at 36 kW nominal horsepower) 84% lower no-load current 14% higher power factor (see Figure 4 which indicates PMM vs. Typical ESP Induction Motor Performance at 36 kW nominal horsepower) 40% shorter motor length 40% lighter motor weight Less harmonic distortion Higher power density Constant torque Synchronous speed = no energy wasted on slip Faster, more adaptive control Lower OPEX

Figure 4. PMM vs. Typical ESP Induction Motor Performance

3. Realized Benefits of Borets ESP-PMM
Improved efficiency, smaller size, faster adaptive control and expanded operating ranges simply translate to cost savings. Reduced power consumption for the same production rates because of the higher efficiency of the motors, less down time due to the adaptive control being able to sense changes in operating conditions and modify operation to ensure maximum production levels. Expanded operating envelope because of lower heat generation and a wider speed range provides a greater flexibility in use of the motors, this can reduce inventory and extend times between equipment change out. The following table show real power savings data based on testing results performed at Borets manufacturing facility “Lysvaneftemash” together with Surgutneftegaz & TNK-BP.

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Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 Table 1. Power savings by PMM (9.1VEDBT36-117 with VSD Borets –VD105U) vs. IM (4EDBT36-117 with VSD Borets-04-250) Torque, Hm 40 2400 15,2% 11,1% 11,1% 11,5% 12,2% 45 2700 14,7% 10,4% 10,1% 10,0% 11,3% Frequency, Hz/rpm 50 3000 12,6% 9,2% 8,8% 9,3% 10,0%

55 3300 7,0% 7,6% 9,0% 7,9%

average 14,2% 9,4% 9,4% 10,1% 10,5%

57 85 97 114 Average Power Savings

The following table show real power savings data based on testing results performed by TNK-BP at Samotlor oilfield, Russia. Table 2. Power savings by PMM vs. IM in TNK-BP at Samotlor oilfield, Russia Motor type Frequency, Hz 45 PMM 50 55 45 IM Average savings 50 55 RPM 2700 2850 3100 2700 2850 3100 Q, m3/day 47,0 50,0 57,6 46,2 49,0 55,9 Power, kW 31,0 35,3 48,9 25,5 30,0 40,5 Power consumption, kW/m3*day 15,8 16,9 20,4 13,2 14,7 17,4 16,5 13,0 14,7 14,7 Power savings, %

The following table show real power savings data based on testing results performed by Apache at oilfield in Texas, USA. Table 3. Power savings by PMM vs. IM in Apache Oil Company, Texas, USA. Frequency, Hz 52,7 57,5 60,5 55,8 61,6 65,9 Intake Motor load, pressure, psi % 603 (41) 545 (37) 505 (34) 601 (40) 545 (37) 505 (34) 63 78 89 67 83 97 Winding Temp., ⁰F (⁰C) 186 (85) 199 (92) 210 (98) 182 (83) 187 (86) 192 (88) Efficiency, % 90,8 91,1 90,7 80,4 82,9 84 Power Power consumption savings , kW*h ,% 133,3 17,6 177 `16,2 210,9 13,9 161,8 211,3 245

Motor type

PMM

IM

4. Adaptive Control with the PMM System
Power cost savings is not the only benefit realized with Borets PMM systems. The expanded operating range as well as the adaptive control capabilities of the system, allow a wider range of pump operation and greater flexibility in well vs. equipment selection. This can then translate into reduced inventory requirements, extended run life in depleting wells or more stable operation in gassy or low flow wells that traditionally required additional cycling to allow motor cooling or to prevent pump off. The net result of applying the new tools made available with PMM systems is the ability to react faster to changes in well conditions and still maintain the balance between production, efficiency and protection. Figure 5 indicates adaptive control flow of PMM.

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Figure 5. Adaptive Control Flow

5. Borets ESPCP-PMM Applications
Borets ESPCP-PMM System was designed with the idea of fulfilling difficult artificial lift requirements. ESPCPPMM system has expanded operating range: 250-2000RPM. In well conditions that challenge conventional ESP or PCP systems, Borets ESPCP-PMM offers a cost effective alternative to extending run life and extending the productivity of the well. Target environments include:  Lower and medium rate wells (typically 25 to 500m3/d).  Expanded operating 250 – 2000 RPM.  Wells with salt and scale that reduce ESP efficiency.  Wells with high viscosity and solids laden fluids.  Wells with high GOR.  Shallow wells with production rates less than 100 BFPD.  Wells with a tendency to create stable, tight viscous emulsion.  Sensitive wells that require a wider frequency range to avoid pumping off.  Highly deviated or horizontal wells that cause rotational wear and failure for tubing and rods with conventional PCP installations.

6. Future Development
Future improvements in quality of magnet materials, manufacturing process and even wider heat range capabilities of permanent magnets will provide for opportunities to further expand Borets PMM our operating window and reduce the power to cost ratio even further. Advances in power electronics as well as our Borets own ongoing development with algorithms and components for controllers will further enhance the capabilities of the system.

7. PMM Case Studies
To demonstrate Borets PMM realized benefits case studies with Borets PMM application results in Russia & Brazil installations are given below. 7.1 Case study 1: Submersible Permanent Magnet Motor (PMM) performs in extreme operating conditions where others could not, reopening access to 2.6 bn bbl of oil reserves. A Western Siberian oilfield was originally developed in the 1960’s and used rod pumps to produce the field. Due to the poor performance of the rod pumps the oilfield was shut in until a viable cost effective solution was found to produce in the harsh environment. Location: Northern part of Western Siberia 5

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 Well conditions: Low reservoir temperature 630 F (170 C), viscous crude at 460 CP, highly abrasive fluid with sand content up to 5.6 lbs/bbl (16000mg/l) and air temperatures of -400 F/C in the winter. Infrastructure: high power cost, limited transportation access. With power costs, system reliability and remote operational control all critical measures of success the challenge for Borets was to engineer a unique solution that fit all the needs of the client without compromise. In August 2010 Borets completed the designing, manufacturing and installation of the Permanent Magnet Motor with a Progressive Cavity Pump (PCP). This was one of the first installations worldwide of this unique solution combining a PMM with a PCP. The combined technologies were designed to operate in harsh well bore conditions (highly abrasive, high solids, viscous crudes) combined with severe environmental conditions (low ambient temperatures, power efficiency constraints and transportation and infrastructure limitations). In such cases the PMM technology has the following advantages: - has the ability to self-adapt to the changes in the well operating conditions without the reliance on additional sensors - allows the system to continue to run without stopping production or tripping on overload or under load settings - minimizes time for PCP commissioning - significantly increases the PCP run life - reduces the number of well servicing operations caused by PCP failures under these harsh conditions - power cost savings with the PMM technology vs. other bottom drive PCP systems in excess of 25% per year - integrated well management to defined well properties Customer Results The current run life of first two systems installed is in excess of 640 days (05/2012), producing 1260 bbl/day. Borets revolutionary PMM technology was one of the key arguments for the client to re-start oil production on the oilfield with total recoverable reserves of more than 2.6 bn bbl shut-in for over 50 years. 7.2 Case study 2: : Submersible Permanent Magnet Motor (PMM) provides the most cost effective artificial lift solution for field development with projected annual energy savings of more than $4million. A Western Siberian oilfield development is expanding operations drilling 100 wells per year and using ESP systems for artificial lift. Based on ten year projections the operator estimated power consumption for the ESP systems alone would reach in excess of 22 MW which would represent more than 50% of the total power consumed for the production field operations. In taking a holistic long-term view of the primary cost drivers of the business, it was clear to the operator that the energy efficiency of the ESP was a challenge that needs to be addressed The rated efficiency of a motor is a measure of the effectiveness of that motor in converting electrical power to mechanical power and is determined by its design and manufacture. Premium efficiency motors minimize losses through: - better winding designs - the use of high quality electrical steel - better thermal design - tight manufacturing tolerances - quality control AC Induction Motor has been a standard ESP motor for 90 years. All suppliers of these equipment have high efficiency designs. To significantly improve motor energy efficiency, Borets uses a different design incorporating rare-earth permanent magnets in the rotor, creating an oil filled PMM. The fundamental design characteristics of the motor provide power saving from 10 to 20%. The other significant factor affecting the ESP system efficiency is the ability of the motor system to deliver maximum efficiency over a wide operating range. AC Induction Motors are rarely optimized for the specific well application, including: - variation in well performance - over sizing motors to increase run life safety factor - over sizing motors to allow VSD operation - over sizing motors to produce kill fluids - over sizing motors to minimize heat rise - the preponderance to reuse equipment that is not sized to optimize energy efficiency The new Borets PMM design alleviates all these problems because the motor efficiency, operating rotation speed and power factor are all relatively constant over the entire motor operating range. The client chose to run a trial of the Borets PMM to verify the motor efficiency and run life performance. The longest run life to date has been in excess of 600 days The client compared the power consumption of the Borets PMM to the existing Induction Motor installations and calculated the specific power consumption per volume of fluid lifted. The results clearly demonstrate the superior energy efficiency about 20 % of energy savings. The added benefit noted by the operator was that the capital cost was similar to the Induction Motor ESP system and the PMM produced no detrimental harmonic effects on the power grid. As a result the client is planning to install PMM as the standard system in the field. The client also intends to extend the testing of PMM on the lower rate wells using PCP & ESP as well as higher rate wells using ESP. 7.2 Case study 3: PMM trials results in Brazil: Since beginning of 2012 there were 4 PMM systems installed in Brazil. Current PMM runlife exceeds 100 days. Detailed information is given in presentation. 6

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8. Conclusions
A permanent magnet submersible motor for ESP and PCP applications has been developed which has been shown to reduce operating costs and improve system performance. There are currently over 1400 PMM systems installed by Borets worldwide.  Results from pilot tests & installations in USA, Russia, Brazil have shown a significant reduction in power requirements ranging from 10%-20% depending on specific well conditions.  System flexibility makes the control system on surface applicable in problematic wells with normally unpredictable dynamic conditions.  Adaptive algorithms as a part of control unit will potentially allow full control of well operation by changing the rotation speed depending of on current recorded at the surface. The ability to adjust the rotation speed in a wide operating range makes the system very flexible for various types of applications.  Applying the technology in otherwise difficult artificial lift requirements can optimize production and extend the life of the well and equipment.  The PMM technology allows for enhanced ESP and PCP performance in various well environments. Since the PMM has proven effective, it sees high demand and its sales are in the constant increase. Figure 6 indicates Borets PMM sales & operation volumes worldwide in 2006 -2012.

Figure 6. Borets PMM Sales & Operation Volumes worldwide in 2006-2012

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