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WORD FORMATION

1. Ví dụ: she is a ↓ article beautiful ↓ adjective girl ↓ noun (beauty)

noun 2. - Cung cấp từ + Danh từ là từ có hậu tố: - tion, - sion, -er, -or ... + Tính từ là từ có hậu tố : - able, - ful, - less, - al ... + Trạng từ thông thường có hậu tố: - ly 3.1. NOUNS. 3.1.1. Definition:Noun is a word used as the name of a peron, thing, animal, place ... Ex: Student ( person ) Blackboard (thing) Cat ( animal ) Countryside (place) 3.1.2- The ways to form a noun. FORM AR a- Verb + ER OR ION b- Verb + ING MENT c- Noun /Adjective + DOM d- Noun/Adjective + HOOD e- Noun/ Adjective + ISM NESS f- Adjective + TY ITY g- Verb + ANT h- Adjective Noun EXAMPLES - sailor, actor ... - teacher, driver, viewer, singer... - beggar, liar ... - action, invention, liberation, conclusion ... - writing, making, liking, cooking, learning... - movement, development, investment, punishment, amusement ... - kingdom, freedom, wisdom - boyhood, neigbourhood, childhood, brotherhood, falsehood. - capitalism, patriotism, terrorism, heroism, communism. - socialism, racialism, colonialism - happiness, laziness, illness, sickness ... - cruelty, loyalty, difficulty ... - possibility, ability, capability, ability, curiosity ... - assistant, accountant, applicant, contestant... - angry → anger - long → length - brave → bravery - proud → pride - deep → depth - terrible → terror - famous → fame - young → youth - high → height - hot → heat - true → truth - just → justice - choose → choice - live → life - prove → proof - strike → stroke - sing → song - advise → advice - enter → entry - fail → failure - feed → food - laugh → laughter - renew → renewal - sit → seat

i- Verb

Noun

die → death .compel → compelling .She eats a banana.venom → venomous .union → united . It usually stands before a noun Ex: a horse a charming room an apple a furnished house this old house 3.citrus → citreous .luxury → luxurious .3.3.affection → affectionate .Object of a preposition:.2.3.Subject: .3. a famous doctor.prosper → prosperous .Adjective .bounty → bounteous .fury → furious .disaster → disastrous . 3.fashion → fashionable .1.volunteer→ voluntary .vapour → vapourous .value → valuable .Mr.admire → admirable .mischief → mischievous .1.dangour → dangourous .1.abhor → abhorrent .gold → golden .2.vary → various . The functions of a noun 3.prosper → prosperous .please → pleasing .speak → speech .intuition → intuitive Verb → adjective .glory → glorious .bury → burial . 3.2.This girl is intelligent.choose → choosy .melody → melodious .horror → horrible .1.North → Northern .mystery → mysterious .unite → united .advent → adventitious .1-Definition: Adjective is a word that modifies a noun.authority → authoritative .mountain → mountainous .1.picture → picturesque .vacate → vacant . 3.marvel → marvelous .comply → compliant .accept → acceptable .clamour → clamorous .absorb → absorbent . 3.lose → loss 3. 3.apprehension→ apprehensive .sell → sale .victory → victorious .Complement: . is my father’s friend.circle → circular .advangtage → advangtageous .courage → courageous ..4.peril → perilous .1.Everybody is interested in sports.earth → earthen .He is a footballer.murder → murderous .grieve → grievous .Appositive:.sense → sensible .3.1.wool → woolen .choir → choral .Object: .6.neglect → neglected .notice → noticeable .2. David.charity → charitable .caution → cautious .1.honour → honourable .wood → wooden .The Vietnam War is different from any other one.reason → reasonable . 3.West → Western .The way to form an adjective: FORM EXAMPLES Noun .fortune → fortunate .3.obey → obedient .notice → noticeable .danger → dangerous .see → sight .access → accessible .3.3.5.Adjective:.terror → terrible . ADJECTIVES: 3.variety → various .volume → voluminous .strain → strainous .learn → learned .2.

basketful .patience patient .extend → extensive .mischief .useless manly yearly brotherly fatherly lifelike warlike statemanlike silvery snowy crafty rainy faulty dirty sandy .personal .affection strainous venomous voluminous perilous mischievous cautious adventitious citreous affectionate .destroy → destructive .accidental .citrus .inform → informative .peril .criticize → critical .childish .meddle → meddlesome .useful EXAMPLES .central .pocketful handful .FORM strain → strenduous quarrel → quarrelsome benefit → benificial abuse → abusive collect → collective create → creative decide → decisive describe → descriptive affirm → affirmative image → imaginative deceive→deceptive/ deceitful harmful .foolish .hero heroic hourly daily childlike godlike starry healthy silky shadowy y winter .circumstance circumstantial .venom .Y noun .volcano volcanic .independence independent .attend → attentive .volume .advent .agricultural .ISH noun -AL Noun→ Adjective .amateurish .selfish .harmless .hopeless .odourless .caution .peaceful .traditional .industrial .vigilance vigilant .optional .compete → competitive .helpful helpless homeless noiseless thoughtless noun .study → studious .magical .FUL noun -LESS noun -LY noun -LIKE noun .occasional .difference different .distance distant .successful .natural .sympathy sympathic .childless .strain .express → expressive .decorate → decorative .

prosper prosperous .Predicative adjectives (vị ngữ) chỉ tính cách của chủ ngữ nhờ những động từ BE / LINKING VERBS (become / get / look / seem . make.abhor abhorrent .volunteer voluntary .poet poetic .circle circular .wool woolen .select selective .horror horrible .abuse abusive .anemia anemic .meddle meddlesome .victory victorious .absorb absorbent .acquiesce acquiescent .compel compelling .extend extensive .2.criticize critical .vapour vapourous .express expressive .image imaginative .North Northern .fortune fortunate .3. FORM .notice noticeable .dangour dangourous .academy academic .charity charitable .compete competitive .disaster disastrious .quarrel quarrelsome 3.murder murderous .3.3.You look tired 3.wood wooden ..energy energic .inform informative .choir choral .mountain mountainous .metal metallic ..Object compliment (bổ nghĩa cho tân ngữ) chỉ tích cách của tân ngữ nhờ các động từ: find.The uses of adjective 3.apprehension apprehensive .giant giantic .bounty bounteous .Attribute adjective (tính ngữ) bổ nghiã cho danh từ phía sau Ex: intelligent student large room big house 3.learn learned .decide decisive Verb → Adjective .clamour clamourous .honour honourable .obey obedient .fury furious .notice noticeable .benefit beneficial .attend attentive .create creative admirable .admire .2.earth earthen .mystery mysterious .sense sensible .comply compliant .marvel marvelous .grieve grievous .My brother is young .intuition intuitive .1.fashion fashionable ..deceive deceptive / deceitful .variety various .EXAMPLES .) Ex: .glory glorious .reason reasonable .advantage advantageous .choose choosy .danger dangerous .gold golden .quarrel quarrelsome .athlete athletic .West Western . set.picture picturesque .study studious . leave.3.affirm affirmative .trouble troublesome .decorate decorative .2.collect collective .vacate vacant .2.courage courageous .authority authoritative . keep.2.3.

Adverbs: 3.1.2.Ex: I found this lesson difficult The sun keeps us warm 3.The positions of adverbs 3.1. 3.2. 3.1.3.3.Adverbs which modify the meaning of verbs.3.The way to form adverbs: ADJECTIVE + LY → ADVERB OF MANER ♣ NOTES:  There is a change of the final vowel when necessary Ex: lucky → luckily happy → happily slow → slowly  Some adverbs have the same form as adjectives Ex: .3. I have never seen a seahorse. Ex: Usually we go to school by motor cycle. (adj) .3.3.1. when.Adverbs of manner: express how an action is done actively calmly fast late together so alone somehow carefully anyhow also how Ex: We went to school together The birds sang sweetly 3.Definition: Adverbs express how.Adverbs which modify the meaning of adjectives or other adverbs are placed “ before” the word modified Ex: She is very beautiful (adj) He sings very well (adv) 3.2.3.4-The adjective must be placed after the noun of time.3.3.2.Adverbs of time: express when an action is done today once before since now soon always seldom rarely already early ago then often sometimes Ex: It often rains in the tropics. anything.2. 3.1.2.1. Ex: He is running fast I live here I am speaking now 3.3.2.3. nothing) Ex: Twenty years old Five yards long Nothing strange I didn’t notice anything wrong with him. of measurement or words (something.He ran fast.Adverbs which modify the meaning of a whole sentence are placed at the beginning of the sentence.3.3.I went to New York by a fast train. or where an action is done 3.Adverbs of place: express where an action is done here in out above below past under far everywhere down up around along way upstairs near there Ex: I followed him everywhere Come in 3. .3.

.Definition : a verb is a word or a group which expresses an action or state of being 3.The girl is singing  Few verbs are used transitively or intransitively Ex: .4.4. need.4.Intransitive verb: is one which is used without an object.1.Modal verb: Modal verb is one which can’t conjugate in all tenses.We were late for school. used to. can.Tom doesn’t understand the lesson. . Ex: .The boy is lying on the table.She will come to the party. may.The girl is singing a song .VERBS: 3. .2. (adv) 3.1.2. The baby is sleeping .The bell rings.4. .The boy rings the bell. .4. ♣ Notes:  Most of English verbs are used both transitively and intransitively Ex: .We went t school late. .He sets the bird free. Do do.Auxiliary verb: Auxiliary verb is one which helps other verbs to form tenses. It can not be used in the passive voice.4. . 3. The modal verbs are: will.1.(adv) . shall. shall. Ex: The sun rises. will.Can’t he swim ? 3.He is studying English . ought to Ex: .4.4.He sits on the chair.The ways to form verbs FORM EXAMPLES NOUN → VERB camp encamp horror horrorify circle encircle justice justify courage encourage liquid liquefy danger endanger terror terrify roll enroll belief believe slavery enslaver blood bleed tomb entomb brass braze power empower glass glaze calm becalm deceit deceive friend befriend deed do company accompany endurance endure custom accustom food feed actor act gold gild .1. 3. dare. might.The auxiliary verbs : be. did.They have gone away.3.He can swim.1.An apple is eaten by Mary. .(object) . (adj) . .Transitive verb: is one which is used with an object Ex: The waiter brings coffee (object) The student learns English (object) 3.1.The boy lays the book. moods or voices. and moods.

darkness. an action. heroism. alcoholism. pollution. dependence. arrogance. –ism : baptism. –nes s 4. significance. suggestion. resistance. criticism.FORM creator addition circulation competition composition description dictation division education illustration imitation obligation provision solution suspicious liberty wreath bath breath cloth bright broad sweet trial dirt beauty class glory deep dark fat short sharp straight tight wide create add circulate compete compose describe dictate divide educate illustrate imitate obligate provide solve suspect liberate wreathe bathe breathe clothe brighten broaden sweeten try dirty beautify classify glorify deepen darken fatten shorten sharpen straighten tighten widen EXAMPLES grief growth knee knowledge life pleasure product proof relief sale shelf song speech success thought price tale colony drama moisture nation sympathy vandal vapour vitality vacancy vaccine large modern simple cool full hale weak grieve grow kneel know live please produce prove relieve sell shelve sing speak succeed think prize tell colonize dramatize moisturize nationalize sympathize vandalize vapourize vitalize vacate vaccinate enlarge modernize simplify cool fill heal weaken ADJECTIVE →VERB WORD ENDINGS A. damnation. kindheartedness : excision. subsistence : bitterness. dwarfism. parallelism 2. a notion. –nce 3. organism. conceitedness. hardness. . patriotism. COMMON NOUN (THING) ENDINGS 1. –ion : importance. barbarism.

oath. cruelty. filth. astrologer. breadth. safety. superiority. efficiency. New Yorker. Marxist. 6. wisdom : childhood . governor. – er 3. villager. geology.vexation. accuracy. concoction. –ure : closure. depth. dentist. ban ishment. authority. old-timer. inhabitant . death. membership. nature. –age : purity. consultant. deficiency 14. marriage. officialdom. tailor. theology. –dom 11. brewery. payee . falsehood . subtlety : baggage . bravery. contestant. scripture. – ee 4. fellowship. free dom. accomplishment. chairmanship. – ician : hatter. kingdom. – ist 5. zoology 16. ancestry. –(t)ry : rivalry. presidency. accountant. expectancy . vicarage. dubiety. horsemanship. hermitage. : chemist. carriage. dono r. electrician. bachelor 2. –th : bath. democracy. carpentry. village. sufficiency. dramatist. visitor. obstinacy. cartage. captaincy. humidity. garment. doctor. –logy : archaeology. absentee. tobacconist. politician. escapee . geograph er. pessimist : magician. professorship. citizenship. sisterhood . luggage. biograph y B. neighbo rhood. greenery. likelihood. enhance ment. mortician. conqu eror. headship. –ship : ambassadorship. cottager. health. sorcerer : employee . Darwinist. bakery. creator. homage languag e. faculty. scholarship. legislature. devotee. dotage. brotherhood . 5. fragment. indu stry. privacy. damage. 8. wealth. failure. treatment 6. –graphy : bibliography. sociology. tillage. sculptor. statistician. strength. craftsmanship. picture. slavery. COMMON NOUN (PERSON) ENDINGS 1. conferee . – or : actor. pleasure. refugee . length. tonnage . truth. tre as ure 13. honesty. –ment : abridgement. foreigner. solicitor. majority. beautician. physician. northerner. plenty. successor. relationship. advocacy. musician. hardship. commencement. passage . completion. entrepreneurship. embodiment. piracy. economist. aristocracy. confederacy. London er. scenery. compan ionship. livelihood 12. stealth. guarantor. growth. airliner. idealist. mathematician. 10. machinery. excitement. – ant (10%) : assistant. ornament. delicacy. optimist. pianist. birth. friendship. geologist. monitor. –(i)ty 7. –cy : bankruptcy. . archery 15. courtship 9. Buddh ist. –hoo d : earldom. racist.

significant . legless. foolish. – ary : mandatory. countless. – al : central. withdrawal. : beautiful. proposal. demonstrative. chilly. tidy. apparent. spoo nful are noun s : civic. colossal. ADJECTIVE ENDINGS 1. milky. Exce ptions: hand ful. – y : angry. – less 6. possessive : dangerous. abundant. careless. – ive 7. satisfactory Exce ptions : dormitory. powerless. economic. reddish . – ible : arrogan t. helpless : authoritative. faceless. rascally 15. boyish. accura te. historic. reliable. survival are nouns 10. general. arrival. contrary. classic. literate 16. tropical. ferocious. bluish. fearless. hilarious. suitable. qualitative. ambivalent. passive. horrible. – (r)ate (10%): tempera te. expec tant. – ic 5. bearable. cowardly. : audible. imme diate. viscous. temporary. queenly. womanish. cons idera te. separable. mournful. artistic. powerful. important. comparative. haughty. feverish. territory are noun s : arbitrary. active. ancient. – ish: boorish. tireless. happy. – ent : independent. murderous. predatory. 14. compulsory. – ou s 8. sufficient. brilliant. hatless. graceful. – ly : beastly. tidal 11. abs ent. promontory. : doubtless. budg etary. oral. – ory 12. primary. – ful 4. : charitable. talkative.C. messy . slippery. necessary 13. bookish. – able 9. ardent 2. glorious. – ant 3. figurative. compressible. imitative. icy. comfortable. forgetful. terrible Exce ptions : rival. grateful. edible. ignorant. mou thful.

COMMON VERB ENDINGS 1. lengthwise. fascinate. fossilize. greatly. lengthen. idolize. firstly. enable. fully. vaccinate. associate. moralize. entang le. COMMON ADVERB ENDING 1. end ways . eastward . fertilize. – en/ en – : listen. – ify : pacify. horrify E. hourly. hydrate. firstly. deservedly. otherwise. homeward. – ward : crosswise. soften. Americanize. – ate separate. carbon ize. deep en. extemporize. enslave. enlighten. apologize. truly. widen. petrify. strengthen. evacua te 3. authorize. encourage. skyward. enrich 2. – ly : amusingly. solidify. : assassinate. sideways : backward.D. satisfy. – ways 4. agon ize. happen . lengthways. enlarge. secondly 2. – ize : characterize. jeopardize. felicitate. theorize. clockwise : edgeways . – wise 3. entrust. ripen. onward. sympathize. shorten. inward. oxidize 4. happ ily.