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Deborah Rapson and Nicole Hancock Name: WWI Timeline Project Class/Subject: 8th Grade U.S.

History Student Objectives/Student Outcomes:
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Students will gain background knowledge about World War I through whole class discussion. Students will apply their knowledge about significant events of World War I and use their creativity to make a poster describing an important event. Students will participate and cooperate with others in order to present their poster to the class with clarity.

Content Standards: 16.A.3a Describe how historians use models for organizing historical interpretation (e.g., biographies, political events, issues and conflicts). 16.A.3b Make inferences about historical events and eras using historical maps and other historical sources. 16.B.3d (US) Describe ways in which the United States developed as a world political power. Materials/Resources/Technology:
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Promethean board and computer Posterboard Markers, pens, scissors, glue Primary sources and textbooks

Teacher’s Goals:
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All students in the class will learn about important historical events during World War I through their classmates’ posters and presentations. In presenting to the class, students will gain public speaking experience and learn how to work together in a presentation. Students will have an opportunity to express their creativity in creating the poster as well as using teamwork to complete the poster.

Time: 9:119:16 Start of Lesson: Show the students a map of Europe. Ask the students if they know who fought in World War I and who were allies. Show the students a map of Europe with the warring countries indicated. Explain to students who fought in the war and tell them who the Allies and the Central Powers were. Ask the student if they know what year the war started. Tell the students the war started in 1914. Ask them if they know who was president during the war. Tell the students that Woodrow Wilson was president from 1913 to 1921 and that the U.S.

joined the war on the side of the Allies in 1917. 9:169:21 Introduction of Lesson: Explain the project to the students. The students will be in five groups with threefour students in each group. Each group will be given an event that occurred during World War I. They will read a 1-2 page secondary source on the event and complete a worksheet. Ask the students: Do you remember what a primary source is? What do you think a secondary source is? Explain to the students that a primary source is a first-hand account, such as a photo or letter, while a secondary source is a secondhand account, written by someone who was not actually present at the event. They will then use primary sources provided to them along with their worksheet and secondary source to complete a poster. The poster will contain all the information that is on their worksheet. At the end of the class, they will present their poster in chronological order in order to show a timeline of important events during World War I. Lesson Instruction: The students will be given 20-25 minutes to complete their poster. Ms. Hancock and Ms. Rapson will help groups first read their secondary source and answer the questions on their worksheet. They will then use the primary sources and markers to decorate the poster as well as having all the information from the worksheet included in the poster. Checks for Understanding/Assessments: Ms. Hancock and Ms. Rapson will help students while they are working to make sure that they are on task and to answer any questions they might have as well as guiding their reading along with the worksheet. They will be assessed based on completion of their worksheet as well as their participation with their group and the class. They will also briefly present their poster at the end of class and this will help the teachers know that they completed their project as well as ensuring that they fully understand the event. 9:459:51 Wrap-up/Closure/Review: Students will present their posters in chronological order to the class. This will help all students gain knowledge about each of the events as well as allowing the teachers to assess their performance, participation, and completion of the project. If there is time left over, students will be free to provide feedback on their project and discuss what they learned and what they enjoyed or disliked about the lesson. Self-assessment: n/a

9:219:45

The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand (1914)
In an event that is widely acknowledged to have sparked the outbreak of World War I, Archduke Franz Ferdinand (1863-1914), nephew of Emperor Franz Josef and heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, is shot to death along with his wife by a Serbian nationalist in Sarajevo, Bosnia, on June 28th 1914. The archduke traveled to Sarajevo in June 1914 to inspect the imperial armed forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina, former Ottoman territories in the turbulent Balkan region that were annexed by Austria-Hungary in 1908 to the indignation of Serbian nationalists, who believed they should become part of the newly independent and ambitious Serbian nation. The date scheduled for his visit, June 28, coincided with the anniversary of the First Battle of Kosovo in 1389, in which medieval Serbia was defeated by the Turks. Despite the fact that Serbia did not truly lose its independence until the Second Battle of Kosovo in 1448, June 28 was a day of great significance to Serbian nationalists, and one on which they could be expected to take exception to a demonstration of Austrian imperial strength in Bosnia. On June 28, 1914, then, Franz Ferdinand and Sophie were touring Sarajevo in an open car, with surprisingly little security, when Serbian nationalist Nedjelko Cabrinovic threw a bomb at their car; it rolled off the back of the vehicle and wounded an officer and some bystanders. Later that day, on the way to visit the injured officer, the archduke's procession took a wrong turn at the junction of Appel quay and Franzjosefstrasse, where one of Cabrinovic's cohorts, 19-year-old Gavrilo Princip, happened to be loitering. Seeing his opportunity, Princip fired into the car, shooting Franz Ferdinand and Sophie at point-blank range. Princip then turned the gun on himself, but was prevented from shooting it by a bystander who threw himself upon the young assassin. A mob of angry onlookers attacked Princip, who fought back and was subsequently wrestled away by the police. Meanwhile, Franz Ferdinand and Sophie lay fatally wounded in their limousine as it rushed to seek help; they both died within the hour. The assassination of Franz-Ferdinand and Sophie set off a rapid chain of events: AustriaHungary, like many in countries around the world, blamed the Serbian government for the attack and hoped to use the incident as justification for settling the question of Slav nationalism once and for all. As Russia supported Serbia, an Austro-Hungarian declaration of war was delayed until its leaders received assurances from German leader Kaiser Wilhelm that Germany would support their cause in the event of a Russian intervention–which would likely involve Russia's ally, France, and possibly Britain as well. On July 28, AustriaHungary declared war on Serbia, and the tenuous peace between Europe's great powers collapsed. Within a week, Russia, Belgium, France, Great Britain and Serbia had lined up against Austria-Hungary and Germany, and World War I had begun.

The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand (1914) Name: ____________________ Date: _________

1. What did the assassination spark among the European countries?

2. What country is the Archduke from?

3. Where was the Archduke when he was assassinated?

4. When did the Archduke visit Serbia?

5. Who killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife?

6. Who did Austria-Hungry blame for the attack?

7. Who did Austria-Hungry ally with for the war?

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his family

Painting of assassination

The Sinking of the Lusitania and the U.S. Enters the War (19151917)
When war erupted in 1914, the United States attempted to remain neutral and was a proponent for the rights of neutral states. Isolationist foreign policy was encouraged by Congress's apprehensions about giving other countries a political door into US policies and the cultural melting pot of the United States' population. In spite of these factors, the United States did enter World War I, as a result of several events. In an attempt by both the allied and the central powers to involve the Americans, the US was heavily saturated with propaganda. Much of the material had a Pro-British slant which was aided by the connection to Britain as a "cultural brother" and the United States' concern with affairs in Western Europe. While propaganda sympathetic to Germany did also exist, it did not carry much weight with the American public. Germany was seen by most Americans as a dangerous monarchy with autocratic militarist thinking, including a hidden agenda to undermine democracy and US power. There were allegations of industrial sabotage, poisoning water supplies, kidnapping individuals, and engaging in espionage within American labor unions by Germans to keep the United States busy on the home front. These rumors, along with extensive submarine warfare, added to the distrust of the Germans. Prior to 1915, German subs had a policy of warning and allowing time to evacuate ships carrying passengers before they sank them. However, in 1915 the Lusitania was sunk without a warning, killing over 120 Americans. One year later, the Sussex was sunk by German U-boats and American citizens were outraged at these direct violations of their neutral rights at sea. At this point, a small percentage of Americans, including presidential hopeful Teddy Roosevelt, demanded "immediate warfare." In 1916 President Wilson took a stronger stance toward foreign affairs by increasing the size of the military and issuing a warning to the Germans: Unless the Imperial Government should now immediately declare and effect an abandonment of its present methods of submarine warfare against passenger and freight-carrying vessels, the Government of the United States can have no choice but to sever diplomatic relations with the German Empire altogether (1). The Germans responded by temporally ceasing submarine warfare until 1917 when German Ambassador Berstorff announced the continuation of submarine warfare and ended diplomatic relations with the United States. However, military strategists predicted certain defeat for the Germans if America entered the war at this point. In an attempt to eliminate the threat of American involvement in Europe, Foreign Minister Alfred Zimmerman attempted to provoke Mexico and Japan into attacking the United States with the promise of German assistance after the European front was conquered. A message containing Zimmerman's intent was decoded by the British and sent to the US, further swaying Americans to action. Due primarily to submarine warfare and the Zimmerman note, President Wilson asked Congress for permission to go to war, and on April 6, 1917, congress officially declared it. President Wilson, along with many Americans, justified their involvement as "an act of high principle and idealism...[and]...as a crusade to make the world safe for democracy." While these are some of the main events, there are many other theories regarding why the US entered into World War I. Some propose that the US was never actually neutral, but had been

supporting the British; this thinking gives a different light on the events of submarine warfare with the Germans. The high infiltration of Pro-British propaganda as well as the considerable profits to the hurting economy led some to believe that it would have been impossible for the US to remain neutral and not engage in the war. Others propose that as German forces crept into the Atlantic and threatened to conquer Britain, the US felt that its defenses and the country's security were threatened, again justifying involvement in the war. In all practicality, it is impossible to pinpoint the entry of the United States to a number of certain events and it was most definitely a combination of many factors. The most important of these events are discussed above, explaining why the United States entered World War I.

The Sinking of the Lusitania (1915) and the U.S. Enters World War I (1917) Name: ____________________ Date: __________

1. When did the war start in Europe?

2. How was Germany seen by most Americans (paragraph two)?

3. How many Americans died on the Lusitania (paragraph three)? How many people died, according to the headline found on the news article?

4. What did President do in 1916 (paragraph three)? How did the Germans respond (paragraph five)?

5. What did the German Ambassador announce (paragraph five)?

6. What are the two reasons that the article says “primarily” caused President Wilson to ask Congress for permission to go to war (paragraph five)?

7. On what date did President Wilson and Congress declare war?

8. What did President Wilson say to justify the war?

APRIL 1915

MAY 1915

APRIL 1917

The Treaty of Versailles
The Terms of the Treaty of Versailles The treaty can be divided into a number of sections; territorial, military, financial and general. Territorial The following land was taken away from Germany: Alsace-Lorraine (given to France) Eupen and Malmedy (given to Belgium) Northern Schleswig (given to Denmark) Hultschin (given to Czechoslovakia) West Prussia, Posen and Upper Silesia (given to Poland) The Saar, Danzig and Memel regions were put under the control of the League of Nations and the people of these regions would be allowed to vote to stay in Germany or not in a future referendum. The League of Nations also took control of Germany's overseas colonies.. Military Germany’s army was reduced to 100,000 men and the army was not allowed to own tanks. Germany was not allowed an air force and was allowed only 6 capital naval ships and no submarines. West of the Rhineland and 50 kms east of the Rhine River was made into a demilitarized zone (DMZ) which means that no German soldier or weapon was allowed into this zone. The Allies were to keep an army of occupation on the west bank of the Rhine for 15 years. Financial The loss of vital industrial territory was a severe blow to any attempts by Germany to rebuild their economy. Combined with the financial penalties linked to reparations, it seemed clear to Germany that the Allies wanted nothing else but to bankrupt them. Germany was also forbidden to unite with Austria to form one super-state, in an attempt to keep their economic potential to a minimum. General 1. Germany had to admit full responsibility for starting the war. This was Clause 231 - the infamous "War Guilt Clause". 2. Germany, as they were responsible for starting the war as stated in clause 231, was, therefore responsible for all the war damage caused by the First World War. The clause stated that Germany had to pay reparations, the bulk of which would go to France and Belgium to pay for the damage done to the infrastructure of both countries by the war. 3. A League of Nations was set up to keep world peace.

The German Reaction to the Treaty of Versailles After agreeing to the Armistice in November 1918, the Germans had been convinced that they would be consulted by the Allies on the contents of the Treaty. This did not happen and the Germans were in no position to continue the war as their army had all but disintegrated. Though this lack of consultation angered them, there was nothing they could do about it. Therefore, the first time that the German representatives saw the terms of the Treaty was just weeks before they were due to sign it in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles on June 28th 1919. Many in Germany did not want the Treaty signed, but the representatives there knew that they had no choice because Germany was incapable of restarting the war again. In one last gesture of defiance, the captured German naval force held at Scapa Flow (north of Scotland) deliberately sank itself Germany was then given two choices: 1) sign the Treaty or 2) be invaded by the Allies. They signed the Treaty because in reality they had no choice. The Consequences of the Treaty of Versailles The Treaty seemed to satisfy the Allies because in their eyes because: it kept Germany weak yet strong enough to stop the spread of communism; kept the French border with Germany safe from another German attack and created the organization, the League of Nations, that intended to prevent the outbreak of another world war. However, it left a mood of anger throughout Germany as it was felt that as a nation Germany had been unfairly treated. Above all else, Germany hated the clause blaming them for the cause of the war and the resultant financial penalties the treaty was bound to impose on Germany.

The Treaty of Versailles (1919)
Name: ______________________ 1. What four sections can the treaty be divided into? Date: _________

2. Germany’s army was reduced to how many soldiers?

3. Germany was forbidden to unite with what country?

4. The “War Guilt Clause” requires Germany to do what?

5. Was Germany included or excluded from the Treaty negotiations?

6. Where was the Treaty signed at and on what day?

7. Give one reason why the Treaty satisfied the Allies?

The Palace of Versailles

Signing of the Treaty

Women’s Suffrage and the 19th Amendment (1919-1920)
The 19th Amendment, guaranteeing women the right to vote, is formally adopted into theU.S. Constitution by proclamation of Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby. The amendment was the culmination of more than 70 years of struggle by woman suffragists. Its two sections read simply: "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex" and "Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation." America's woman suffrage movement was founded in the mid 19th century by women who had become politically active through their work in the abolitionist and temperance movements. The first national woman's rights convention was held in 1850 and then repeated annually, providing an important focus for the growing woman suffrage movement. In the Reconstruction era, the 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was adopted, granting African American men the right to vote, but Congress declined to expand enfranchisement into the sphere of gender. In 1869, the National Woman Suffrage Association was founded by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton to push for a woman suffrage amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Another organization, the American Woman Suffrage Association, led by Lucy Stone, was formed in the same year to work through the state legislatures. In 1890, these two groups were united as the National American Woman Suffrage Association. That year, Wyoming became the first state to grant women the right to vote. By the beginning of the 20th century, the role of women in American society was changing drastically: Women were working more, receiving a better education, bearing fewer children, and three more states (Colorado, Utah, and Idaho) had yielded to the demand for female enfranchisement. In 1916, the National Woman's Party (formed in 1913 at the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage) decided to adopt a more radical approach to woman suffrage. Instead of questionnaires and lobbying, its members picketed the White House, marched, and staged acts of civil disobedience. In 1917, America entered World War I, and women aided the war effort in various capacities that helped break down most of the remaining opposition to woman suffrage. By 1918, women had acquired equal suffrage with men in 15 states, and both the Democratic and Republican parties openly endorsed female enfranchisement. In January 1918, the woman suffrage amendment passed the House of Representatives with the necessary two-thirds majority vote. In June 1919, it was approved by the Senate and sent to the states for ratification. Campaigns were waged by suffragists around the country to secure ratification, and on August 18, 1920,Tennessee became the 36th state to ratify the amendment, giving it the two-thirds majority of state ratification necessary to make it the law of the land. The package containing the certified record of the action of the Tennessee legislature was sent by train to the nation's capital, arriving in the early hours of August 26. At 8 a.m. that

morning, Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby signed it without ceremony at his residence in Washington. None of the leaders of the woman suffrage movement were present when the proclamation was signed, and no photographers or film cameras recorded the event. That afternoon, Carrie Chapman Catt, head of the National American Suffrage Association, was received at the White House by President Woodrow Wilson and Edith Wilson, the first lady.

Women’s Suffrage and The 19th Amendment (1919-1920) Name: ____________________ Date: _________

1. How long had women fought for this amendment?

2. What are the two sections of the amendment?

3. What was the first state to grant women the right to vote? In what year?

4. In paragraph five, how did World War I help women’s suffrage?

5. What year was the 19th amendment signed by congress? What year was it ratified by the states?

6. Why are the women in the photo protesting?

7. Why does the woman with the poster call President Wilson “Kaiser”?

Suffragists picketing outside the White House in 1917

During World War I, women suffragists, demanding that President Wilson reverse his opposition to a federal amendment, protested at the White House and carried banners such as this one comparing the President to Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany. In the heated patriotic climate of wartime, such tactics met with hostility and sometimes violence and arrest. (“Kaiser” is the German word for “emperor”).

The 19th Amendment:

The League of Nations (1919)
Background The League of Nations came into being after the end of World War One. It was proposed by the President of America at the time Woodrow Wilson, as a part of the 14 points plan he proposed to end the war. The League of Nation's task was simple - to ensure that war never broke out again. After the turmoil caused by the Versailles Treaty, many looked to the League to bring stability to the world. The only way to avoid a repetition of such a disaster was to create an international body whose sole purpose was to maintain world peace and which would sort out international disputes as and when they occurred. This would be the task of the League of Nations. The organization of the League of Nations The League of Nations was to be based in Geneva, Switzerland because Switzerland was a neutral country and had not fought in World War One. No one could dispute this choice especially because an international organization such as the Red Cross was already based in Switzerland. If a dispute did occur, the League, under its Covenant, could do three things - these were known as its sanctions: 1. It could call on the states in dispute to sit down and discuss the problem in an orderly and peaceful manner. This would be done in the League’s Assembly - which was essentially the League’s parliament which would listen to disputes and come to a decision on how to proceed. If one nation was seen to be the offender, the League could introduce verbal sanctions - warning an aggressor nation that she would need to leave another nation's territory or face the consequences. 2. If the states in dispute failed to listen to the Assembly’s decision, the League could introduce economic sanctions. This would be arranged by the League’s Council. The purpose of this sanction was to financially hit the aggressor nation so that she would have to do as the League required. The logic behind it was to push an aggressor nation towards bankruptcy, so that the people in that state would take out their anger on their government forcing them to accept the League’s decision. The League could order League members not to do any trade with an aggressor nation in an effort to bring that aggressor nation to heel. 3. If this failed, the League could introduce physical sanctions. This meant that military force would be used to put into place the League’s decision. However, the League did not have a military force at its disposal and no member of the League had to provide one under the terms of joining - unlike the current United Nations. Therefore, it could not carry out any threats and any country defying its authority would have been very aware of this weakness.

The League also had other weaknesses: 1. America, whose president, Woodrow Wilson, had dreamt up the idea of the League, refused to join it. As America was the world’s most powerful nation, this was a serious

blow to the prestige of the League. 2. Germany was not allowed to join the League in 1919. As Germany had started the war, according to the Treaty of Versailles, one of their punishments was that they were not considered to be a member of the international community and, therefore, was not invited to join. This was a great blow to Germany but it also meant that the League could not use whatever strength Germany had to support its campaign against aggressor nations. 3. Russia was also not allowed to join because in 1917, they had a communist government that generated fear in western Europe, and in 1918, the Russian royal family - the Romanovs –were murdered. Such a country could not be allowed to take its place in the League. Therefore, three of the world’s most powerful nations played no part in supporting the League. The two most powerful members were Britain and France - both had suffered financially and militarily during the war - and neither was enthusiastic to get involved in disputes that did not affect Western Europe. 37 countries joined the league at the creation of it. Therefore, the League had a fine ideal - to end war for good. However, if an aggressor nation was determined enough to ignore the League’s verbal warnings, all the League could do was enforce economic sanctions and hope that these worked as it had no chance or enforcing its decisions using military might. The social successes of the League of Nations At a social level the League did have success and most of this is easily forgotten with its failure at a political level. Many of the groups that work for the United Nations now, grew out of what was established by the League. The League gave way to the creation of the United Nations. Teams were sent to Third World countries to dig fresh water wells, and the Health Organization started a campaign to wipe out leprosy. This idea - of wiping out from the world a disease - was taken up by the United Nations with its smallpox campaign. Therefore, one success of the League was preventing the spread of diseases across countries. Work was done in the Third World to improve the status of women there and child slave labor was also targeted. Drug addiction and drug smuggling were also attacked. . The greatest success the League had involving these social issues, was simply informing the world at large that these problems did exist and that they should be tackled. No organization had done this before the League. These social problems may have continued but the fact that they were now being actively investigated by the League and were then taken onboard by the United Nations must be viewed as a success.

League of Nations (1919) Name: ______________________ 1. What did the League of Nations come out of? Date: _______

2. Who created the League of Nations?

3. What was the main task of the League of Nations?

4. Where was the League of Nations to be based out of?

5. What kind of sanctions could the League impose on different countries?

6. What three major countries did not join the League of Nations?

7. How many countries joined the League at the creation of it?

8. The League gave way to the creation of?

9. What was the greatest success of the League of Nations?

Woodrow Wilson, the 28th President of the United States and author of the 14 Points Plan that included the creation of the League of Nations

Map of the countries that joined the league (Notice: America, Russia, and Germany are not