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Types of Ship and Port Material Handling Equipment & Technology

Introduction to Logistics
Discuss the various types of ship, material handling equipment and technology, including pictures.

Shui Zihan Karen (s10049300k), Teh Bangye (s10048975c)

Introduction As time passes by, new things are invented, technology becomes more wellinfrastructure resulting in less manpower and labor work. Now, different types of ship are created to provide more all-rounded service. It is also a substitution for air transportation as the air fare is more expensive, whereas travelling/transportation by sea is cheaper. Material handling equipments are also invented to make shifting of the goods more efficient and effectively, these has greatly been an advantage to every one of us. With such good equipment, technology is also allows us to gain competitive advantage in the market. Here, our team will be discussing about the various types of ships, types of materials handlings equipment and what technology, how did they technology helped in port material handling.

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Contents  Types of Ships o Bulk Carriers o Container Ships o Barge-Carrying Ships o Reefers o Ro-Ro Ships o Tankers o Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) Carrier and Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) Carrier o Chemical Carrier o Other Ships Types of Material Handling Equipment o Cranes  Rubber Tyred Gantry Crane (RTG)  Rail Mounted Gantry Crane (RMG)  Quay Cranes  Mobile Harbour Cranes o Reachstackers o Unloader o Grab Unloader o Continuous Ship Unloader (CSU) o Screw Unloader o Automated-Guided Vehicle (AGV) o Linkspans Technology o Computer Integrated Terminal Operating System (CITOS) o Flow Through Gate System o Portnet System o General and Bulk Cargo Management System (GBMS) o Container Terminal Management System (CTMS) o Material-Handling Simulation o Material and Navigation Software Opinions and Remarks Recommendations Conclusion Pictures for the Ships Pictures for the Material Handling Equipment

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Types of Ships Before the twenty century, most of the ships used are generally all multi-purpose cargo ships with little specification. Now, with the advancement in technology, ships are now design and build to carry out specific cargo types. The names which are given to various ships types reflect the type of cargo for which they are design and built to carry. For example, a “bulk carrier” is specially design and build to hold “bulky” goods. Freighter is a family name for ships which transport cargo which are usually classified as liquid or dry. There are two main groups of ships, cargo ships and passenger ships. Cargo ships are ships that carry cargo, in other words, the goods, and passenger ships are ships that carry passengers. In this assignment, we will be concentrating on the cargo ships. Different cargo ships have different uses. Along the cargo ships, there are two sub-groups, the dry cargo ships and tankers. Some examples of dry cargo ships are Bulk Carriers, Container Ships, BargeCarrying Ship Reefers, and Ro-Ro ship. These ships carry dry cargo such as, coal, cement, and wood chips. While some examples of Tankers are, Liquid Petroleum Gas Carriers and Chemical carrier. They carry liquid cargos such as oil and gasoline. Now, we will begin with dry cargo ships.

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Bulk Carriers Bulk Carriers are designed and built to carry large load of cargo. The amount of space before the deckhouse has to be empty so that loading and unloading cargo would be convenient. Such carrier has a range of 25,500 Deadweight tons (DWT), to the medium size of 75,000 DWT, and the largest size of 200,000 DWT. Its speed is 14-16 knots. Bulk carriers are used very often, so their life-expectancy is rather short. The problem here is, freight rates are rather high, many ship owners rather run their old bulk carriers than get a new one, so using the old bulk carriers can be disastrous. Furthermore, bulk carriers are usually one-deck.

Container Ships Container ships are ships that carry the cargos in a fixed size, which is usually the size of the truck. This type of ship is also known as “Boxship”. The average carrying capacity for average size ships is 8,000 ton to 15,000 tons and 25,000 tons to 30,000 tonnes for big ships. They are designed in a way that no space is wasted. Containerships usually have a large hatch on the deck just above the hold to have minimal vibrations of the loaded containers and to save time and effort. With this design, loading and unloading is done much faster.

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Barge-Carrying Ship Barge-carrying ship is similar to Container ship. The only difference is that the cargo it carries is in floating containers, known as barges or lighters, with capacity of 375tons to 1050tons. These barges need to be tugged to a ship as they cannot sail on their own. The advantage of this ship is that the cargos can be carried in separate barges to and from smaller ports through the rivers and canals.

Reefers Reefers, also known as Refrigerated Cargo Ships, are used to carry perishable goods like, fruits, meat and fishes. It has refrigerated system attached so as to adjust a suitable temperature for the cargos and ensure that they are kept fresh. Reefers have a carrying capacity of 8,000 tons to 12,000 tons and they sail at a speed between 18knots to 22 knots. This is usually faster than any other cargo ships as the cargo need to be delivered quickly.

Ro-Ro Ships Ro-Ro ship also known is Roll-On Roll-Off ship are designed to carry wheeled cargo such as cars. It has build-in ramp so that the cargoes can be “rolled on” and “roll off” quickly. Such ship comes in number of shapes and sizes. Also, it has average sailing speed of 22 knots, and 2 to 6 decks. Generally, there as two types of Ro-Ro ships,

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Passenger Ro-Ro and Cargo Ro-Ro. Passenger Ro-Ro is use to carry the passengers who want to travel over water with their vehicles and Cargo Ro-Ro carries carriage of commercial vehicles without passengers.

Tankers As mentioned earlier, tankers carry liquid cargo. They carry liquid cargo in bulk and the range in size of capacity for tankers range from several hundred tons. Oil tankers, also known as Petroleum tankers are designed to carry oil from one place to another. Oil tankers come in two basic flavors, the crude carrier which carries crude oil and the clean products tanker which carries refined products. The range of size for oil tankers begins with 1000 DWT to over 300,000 DWT and the ship sails at an average speed of 12-20 knots. Realize the size of the ship is so big? This is because, it is estimated that the larger the ship, more profit would be made, however, they cannot access to all sea ports, only smaller ones are able to do so.

Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) Carrier and Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) Carrier Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) carrier and Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) are built to carry liquid gases, either natural gases or products of oil processing such as methane. They are considered as special carriers as they carry liquified gases. The shape of the LNG carrier is Moss tanks. It looks like large spherical flask and therefore had the nickname of

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“Dinosaur Eggs Carriers”. The gas that the ship carries is explosive; therefore, the cargo must be kept at extremely low temperature. Similarly, LPG carriers also keep the cargos at extremely low temperature for the same reason. The average speed of the sailing speed for LPG is 12-20 knots.

Chemical Carrier Chemical Carrier also carries liquid cargo. It transports chemicals such as sulfuric acid and ammonia. Such carrier has a range of size ranging from 5,000 DWT to 40,000 DWT. It is considered as small to other tankers as it has specialized nature of their cargos and the size of restrictions of the port terminals. In addition, they are usually coated with specialized coating to determine what type of cargo the ship should carry. It is important to clean the tank present in the ship well. This is to prevent any unnecessary effect of the next cargo loaded, and the ship has to be properly ventilated.

Others Others type of ships include heavy life vessel which is built to transport large and unusual shaped cargo. Livestocks carriers, to carry the animals all over the world.

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Types of Material Handling Equipments There are many types of material handling equipments aiding the logistics operations to make movements of goods from the port to the ships or from the ships to port more convenient and efficient. Material handling equipments are designed in such a way that it can handle the different types of goods which are packed in containers. Most of the equipments are designed according to handle the different types of containers which contain the goods. Such equipments include cranes, reach stackers, unloader, automated guided vehicles and linkspans. Similarly, as mentioned earlier, different ships have different its own uses, so, the material handling equipments also have their own roles. We shall now introduce some of these material handing equipments, beginning with the cranes.

Cranes What are cranes? Cranes are large machines with a long metal arm used to lift heavy things and moving heavy weights in suspension. There are two mains groups of cranes, mainly the yard cranes and quay cranes. Yard cranes are cranes used in the yard to load or unload containers onto or from the vehicles which transport the containers. Such vehicle is called prime movers. Whereas quay cranes are cranes used along the quay side to load or unload container onto or from the ships. Other cranes include, Mobile Harbour Cranes.

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There are several types of yard cranes, such as the Rubber Tyred Gantry Cranes (RTGs), Rail Mounted Gantry Cranes (RMGs). These two cranes are commonly used in Singapore, since Keppel is able to produce them. Another crane which is not the production of Keppel is the Mobile Habour Crane is also used in Singapore.

Rubber Tyred Gantry Cranes (RTGs) RTG is designed for continuous operation at high handling rates. Most of time, an electrical control system of “AC Inventor Control”, “DC Full Thyristor control” or “Ward Leonard” is installed into RTGs to control the speed and constant-power control. The hoisting and lowering speeds are adjusted according to the weight if the containers automatically. There are 4-wheels, 8-wheels and 16-wheels of RTGs, but all of them operate the same way and their purpose is the same. There are 3 separate motions for the transportation of containers. Firstly, is the hoist, which raises or lowers the containers. Next, is the trolley gear which allows the hoist to be position directly above the material for placement. Lastly, is the gantry, which allows the entire crane to move.

Rail Mounted Gantry Cranes (RMGs) RMG is similar to the RTGs. However, the difference is that RMGs motions are on rail while RTGs are on its wheels. RGMs do not have wheels. Furthermore, RMGs is able to travel on a fixed gantry path, therefore facilitates automation. Also, it works faster than

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the RTGs and has bigger lifting capacity. It also has 3 separate motions for the transportation of containers. The hoist, trolley gear and the gantry.

Quay Cranes Also, there are different types of quay cranes, here; we will introduce “Container Quayside Cranes” (CQC). Container Quayside Cranes (CQC) are used to load and unload container ships. It has 4 separate motions of transportation of containers. Firstly, is the hoist motion, than the trolley, next the crane travel gear and finally the boom hoist. Its motions are similar to RTGs and RMGs, just that this has the crane travel gear and boon hoist whereas the RTG’s and RGMs is gantry for the last portion of motions. The crane travel gear allows the entire crane to move alongside the pier and boom hoist allows the arm of the crane to position at difference distances from the crane to transport the container.

Mobile Harbour Cranes Mobile Harbour Cranes are used in Jurong Island. Currently, there are 2 of them there. It is able to do heavy lifts of the containers and is used to loading and unloading containers with motor grabs, containers with spreaders and bulk cargo, with 4 ropes grabs. Mobile Harbour Cranes are designed in such a way that it is suitable for heavy life applications at long operating radius. It is one of the world’s most powerful handling

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equipment due to its in-house designed crane control system. In addition, it can handle all sorts of containers.

Reach stackers Reach stacker is a machine that helps in stacking the containers in container yards. It also load containers onto trailers and unload containers from trailers. The reach stacker allows the second and third row of the containers to be easily removed without having to move any of the first’s rows of containers as it is curved-shaped. Also, it is easy to operate it.

Unloaders There are two common types of unloader. One is the Gantry Type Grab Unloader; the other is the Continuous Ship Unloader.

Grab Unloader The Grab Unloader is a universal machine which is able to unload a large variety of different types of container. Their service lifetime is approximately twenty years. It may be a rather useful machine; however, there are some disadvantages to it. It may result spillage and environment pollution. This is because, the Grab Unloaders use grab buckets hoisted by cranes which remove the containers from the carrier and move it to a

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receiving hopper, such unloading system will result in spillage. However, such spillage incidents can be reduced by conducting regular maintenance for the machine. Currently, there is 2 Grab Unloader at Jurong Port.

Continuous Ship Unloader (CSU) The Continuous Ship unloaders unload barges and ships. They can also unload rail cars or trucks. The difference between CSU and Grab Unloader is that, CSU is more environmental-friendly, dust emission is less and noise level is lower. In addition, if a jetty has to be build, CSU provides lower budget. Also, there is less spillage because the unloader is feed with an enclosed conveyor, whereas the Grab Unloader is not.

Screw Unloader This unloader may not be as common; however, Singapore has 5 of it at Jurong Island. The Screw Unloader is basically used for unloading goods which are smaller grain sizes from trucks, rail cars, barges or ships. Since the system is enclosed, its dust emission and spillage is minimal.

Automated Guided Vehicles (AGV) The main objective of the Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) is to transport containers between the quay and stackyard. It can hold 20’, 40’ and even 45’ containers, probably

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around hundred tonnes. It works by itself, with the computer control. The AGV is rather accurate in placing the containers in place. It does not cause noise pollution and is as efficient as a man operates it.

Linkspans Linkspans is a family name for structures installed in the port which aid in operation of moving vehicles on and off the vessels decks. Some examples of such structures are, movable ramps, semi-floating ramps which are hinged on the quay and passenger walkways which is the movable sections connecting the terminal and the vessel.

Now that most of the materials handling equipments have been introduced, we will now look at how the advancement of technology has helped in the transshipments and reducing man’s workload.

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Technology With the vast improvement of the technology, cargoes can be moved from one place to another place more conveniently and easily. Just by scanning through a machine, almost all information of the good to be import or export can be recorded within seconds. The technology has enabled us to save time while transshipment takes place and less manual work for us to do. Since there is a lot of transshipment in Singapore, Singapore have to be equipped with the latest or best technology. Singapore’s PSA have developed some of the award-winning innovations which include, “Computer Integrated Terminal Operating System” also known as CITOS®, “Flow-Through Gate System” and “Portnet”. Other then PSA, the Jurong Island also has technology to make work easier. Systems are introduced to allow shipping community to declare the goods details, perform enquires and even provide customer services. Such system is called the “Container Terminal Management System” (CTMS). Another similar system used on Jurong lsland is the “General and Bulk Cargo Management System” (GBMS).This system enables greater efficiency and convenience when handling the conventional and bulk cargo operations. So far, I have been mentioning only about Singapore, what about other countries? Of course, they too, have their technology and systems. Most technology and systems are usually developed by their own countries. For Singapore, we have the above

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examples. For North America, they have the “Material-Handling Simulation”, for Germany, they have “Management and Navigation Software”. Different countries have different systems but all countries will have more than one of such technology. All of them work similarly. Now, we will discuss some of these technology and systems. Let us start with Singapore’s technology with “Computer Integrated Terminal Operating System” (CITOS®).

Computer Integrated Terminal Operating System (CITOS®) The Computer Integrated Terminal Operating System (CITOS®) is a comprehensive Enterprise Resource Planning system. It coordinates and integrates all material handling equipment as well as cargo at the port, from prime movers, yard cranes and quay cranes to containers and drivers. The CITOS® is developed in 1988 to provide shippers better service. In short the CITOS® manage the containers coming in and going out Singapore. It is same as other systems in other countries. It offers auto-planning features so as to save the time of the planner’s. CITOS® has several functions, such as, terminal planning, terminal operations, equipments maintenance, performance reporting, invoicing, container number recognition. These functions ensure that everything is in order and that the machines are working perfectly and efficiently.

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Flow Through Gate System The Flow Through Gate System is one of the systems in CITOS®. It is an award winning system where trucks are able to clear the in-gate in less than 25 seconds. Within the 25 seconds, the system will scan the truck and have all information stored in the system. It is introduced in 1997 and is able to handle about 8000 trucks a day with 700 of them during the peak hours. In 1999, it received the Innovation Award.

Portnet System The Portnet system provides IT solutions for the port and shipping industry. It handles all electronic container data which pass through the PSA Singapore Terminals. In 1999, it became a website where customers can locate their goods quickly at anytime, anywhere around the world. The functions of the Portnet system includes, online ordering of services, fulfillment facilitation, track & trace (the container location, status), seamless documentation flow keyed once online (orders, government permit application), data repository allowing easy access, multi-ports use of critical coordination data (the detailed schedules and ship planning data) and financial functions. In short, the system is enables ordering of berth and pilot services, documentation, enquiry and tracking of containers, is a linkage to government and Port Authorities’ systems, also the Post Users Existing Systems and finally, the billing.

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General and Bulk Cargo Management System (GBMS) The General and Bulk Cargo System are similar to the Portnet system. It is launch in 2002 which allows customers to go online and carry out the normal procedures for berth applications, cargo declaration and bookings conveniently. The system operates with greater efficiency and is less time-consuming and also accurate billing.

Container Terminal Management System (CTMS) The Container Terminal Management System (CTMS) is linked to the Port’s web-based online portal- JP-Online which supports the full spectrum of container terminal operations. This system allows the customers to declare their cargo and containers details, perform enquiries and provide customer services. It also allows the port to track and monitor the containers-handling operations by the equipment. Also, it enables smooth transfer of the data and containers movements between the two ports.

Material-Handling Simulation The Material-Handling Simulation is a programmer that can figure out what to do should there be any problems. It plans how are the goods are to be transported to the users, across the complicated route. It is a great help to the port as it prevents insufficient planning that may lead to delays.

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Management and Navigation Software The Management and Navigation Software is software present in the AGV. It plans the route for the AGV and overcome the obstacles the AGV faces, and constant make checks that everything is in order.

In conclusion, the advancement of technology has aided us in all ways. Regardless if it is customers services or directing the cranes and other material handling equipment.

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Opinions and Remarks In our opinions, we are glad that we have such material handling equipments and technology. Again, it lightened the workload and is more efficient. The cranes, reach stackers, unloaders and automated guided vehicles helps us to transport the containers from one place to another. While the linkspans will us to move the goods up and down the ships conveniently. However, not all material handlings equipments environmentalfriendly. We hoped that all the equipments will be eliminated except the environmentalfriendly ones. With the advancement of technology, mankind is able now to build bigger and larger vessels that are able to carry more specific cargo. This enable mankind to transport more cargo at one single trip, saving both time and fuel. Because of such enormous ship, ports are pressured to expand and deepen their channel. The dredging of channels to accommodate the container ships results in the destruction of the bay bottom habitat and the aquatic life that depends on it. Thus resulting in these aquatic lives that may never recover from the damage.

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Recommendations We recommend that technology advances should not focus only in better handling equipment being invented. It should focus more on inventing not only better but also environment friendly handling equipment. Also, material handling equipment used, can be less “bulky”, this is because with less bulky handling equipment, port can now store more cargo within a piece of land. Which lead to more revenue for the ports. For cargo ships, port can consider using ships which run on environmentally friendly based fuel. As by using such ships, fuel exhaust from this ships cause less pollution to the environment; such as water and air pollution. Also, ports should consider investing money in area such as safety. As when a ship is equipped with safety gadget, accident rate of the ships being lost or sank can be minimized.

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Conclusion In conclusion, material handling equipment and ships used today is definitely better than those used in the past. This is mainly due to the advancement of technology, and also partly due to ever increasing demand of the world consumers. With this advancement in technology, all process in the ports more efficient and less timeconsuming. It also made transportation of cargo a much easier and less laborious task than the past. Although such advancement in technology has lead to invention of better handling equipment and ships, it on other side has also lead to a rise in pollution. In our opinion, such problem can be solved if ports consider some of our recommendations.

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Here are the pictures of the different type of Ships and Material Handling Equipment. Beginning with the Ships. Bulk Carrier

http://www.maybulk.com.my/images/index.jpg

Containerships

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http://www.providence.edu/polisci/students/megaport/images/trein.jpg

Barge-Carrying Ship

http://library.thinkquest.org/C004706/contents/2ndsea/engineering/page/e-2.html Reefers (Refrigerated Cargo Ships)

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.clydeshipping.co.uk/shipmanagers/images/89.jpg& imgrefurl=http://www.clydeshipping.co.uk/shipmanagers/viewvessel.asp%3Fid%3D89&h=280&w=400&s z=22&hl=en&start=14&um=1&tbnid=Mh7eNS8zjx1PBM:&tbnh=87&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3
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DrEFRIGERATED%2Bcargo%2Bships%26svnum%3D10%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26rls%3DHPAB,HPAB:2 007-01,HPAB:en

Ro-Ro Ships (Roll-On Roll-Off ship)

http://users.unitel.co.kr/~datrans/image/rorovsl.jpg

Passenger Ro-Ro Ship

http://sg.search.yahoo.com/search/images/view?back=http%3A%2F%2Fsg.search.yahoo.com%2Fsearch% 2Fimages%3Fp%3Dpassenger%2Bro%2Bro%26ei%3DUTF-8%26fr%3Dyfp-t25

web%26x%3Dwrt&w=400&h=309&imgurl=www.pmccontrols.com%2Fimages%2Fc_class.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pmccontrols.com%2Fprojects%2Fc_class.html&size=23.9kB&name=c_class.jpg&p=passenger+ro+ro&type=jp eg&no=13&tt=281&oid=d23a3cfbce359ddc&ei=UTF-8

Oil Tanker-one of the tanker

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://thomko.squarespace.com/storage/vlcc%2520oil%2520ta nker.jpg&imgrefurl=http://thomko.squarespace.com/display/ShowJournal%3FmoduleId%3D209208%26c ategoryId%3D35142&h=149&w=150&sz=5&hl=en&start=7&um=1&tbnid=AXGVs7lT56jJOM:&tbnh=95 &tbnw=96&prev=/images%3Fq%3Doil%2Btankers%26svnum%3D10%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den

Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) Carrier

http://www.imageline.co.uk/files/MUSCATLNGdeliveredApril_702.JPG
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Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) Carrier

http://library.thinkquest.org/C004706/contents/2ndsea/engineering/page/e-3.html Chemical Carrier

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_tanker

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Heavy Lift Vessel

http://www.geocities.com/uksteve.geo/heavy4.jpg Livestock Carrier

http://www.solentwaters.co.uk/Vessel%20Types/Vessel%20Types%204/_wp_generated/wpa4cb883f.jpg

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Equipments Rubber Tyred Gantry Cranes (RTGs) (4-wheels)

http://www.felscranes.com/rtgrange5.htm Rubber Tyred Gantry Cranes (RTGs) (8-wheels)

http://www.fantuzzi.co.uk/gallery/port_rtg_Gallery.asp
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Rubber Tyred Gantry Cranes (RTGs) (16-wheels)

http://www.felscranes.com/rtgrange9.htm Rail Mounted Gantry Cranes (RMGs)

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http://www.felscranes.com/rmg.htm Container Quayside Cranes (CQC)

http://www2.sea.siemens.com/Industry+Solutions/ProductionMachines/Hoists+and+Cranes/Container-Quayside-Crane.htm Mobile Habour Cranes

http://www.fantuzzi.co.uk/gallery/port_mhc_Gallery.asp

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http://www.fantuzzi.co.uk/gallery/port_mhc_Gallery.asp Reachstackers

http://www.liebherr.com/mc/en/56278.asp

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http://www.mhi.co.jp/tech/pdf/e421/e421022.pdf Grab Unloader

http://www.metsominerals.com/inetMinerals/mm_home.nsf/FR?ReadForm&ATL=/inetMi nerals/mm_bulk.nsf/WebWID/WTB-041125-2256F-BB9C3

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Continuous Ship Unloader (CSU)

http://www.metsominerals.com/inetMinerals/mm_home.nsf/FR?ReadForm&ATL=/inetMi nerals/mm_bulk.nsf/WebWID/WTB-041125-2256F-BB9C3 Screw Unloader

http://www.macgregor-group.com/?id=4280

Automated Guided Vehicles (AGV)

http://www.gottwald.com/gottwald/site/gottwald/en/products/agv.html

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Linkspans

http://www.tritonsa.gr/images/poti2-web.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Loading_3.jpg

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References: http://www.tliap.nus.sg/tliap/Project_BerthManagement/terminology.htm (Definition) www.dictionary.com http://library.thinkquest.org/C004706/contents/2ndsea/engineering/page/e-2.html (Freighter) http://www.geocities.com/uksteve.geo/bulk.html (Bulk Carrier) http://library.thinkquest.org/C004706/contents/2ndsea/engineering/page/e-2.html (Bulk Carrier) http://www.geocities.com/uksteve.geo/boxship.html (Containerships) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Container_ship (Containerships) http://library.thinkquest.org/C004706/contents/2ndsea/engineering/page/e-2.html (Barge-Carrying Ship) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reefer_%28ship%29 (Reefers) http://library.thinkquest.org/C004706/contents/2ndsea/engineering/page/e-2.html (Reefers) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RO-RO_ship (Ro-Ro) http://www.geocities.com/uksteve.geo/roro.html (Ro-Ro) http://library.thinkquest.org/C004706/contents/2ndsea/engineering/page/e-2.html (Ro-Ro) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanker_%28ship%29 (Tanker) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petroleum_tanker (Oil Tanker) http://www.geocities.com/uksteve.geo/tanker.html (Oil Tanker) http://library.thinkquest.org/C004706/contents/2ndsea/engineering/page/e-3.html (Oil Tanker) http://library.thinkquest.org/C004706/contents/2ndsea/engineering/page/e-3.html (LPG) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LNG_carrier (LNG) http://www.geocities.com/uksteve.geo/lng.html (LNG) http://library.thinkquest.org/C004706/contents/2ndsea/engineering/page/e-3.html (Chemical Carrier) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_tanker (Chemical Carrier) http://www.geocities.com/uksteve.geo/heavylift.html (Heavy Lift Vessel) http://www.geocities.com/uksteve.geo/livestock.html (Livestock Carrier) http://www.felscranes.com/rtg.htm (RTGs) http://en.zpmc.com/Product_List.asp?Column_ID=66 (RTGs) http://www.fantuzzi.co.uk/port_rubbertyredgantry.htm (RTGs) http://www2.sea.siemens.com/Industry+Solutions/Production-Machines/Hoists+and+Cranes/RubberTyred-Gantry-Crane.htm (RTGs) http://www.felscranes.com/rmg.htm (RMGs) http://en.zpmc.com/Product_List.asp?Column_ID=67 (RMGs) http://www2.sea.siemens.com/Industry+Solutions/Production-Machines/Hoists+and+Cranes/ (RMGs) http://www2.sea.siemens.com/Industry+Solutions/Production-Machines/Hoists+and+Cranes/ContainerQuayside-Crane.htm (CQCs) http://www.fantuzzi.co.uk/port_mobharbourcranes.htm (Mobile Harbour Crane) http://www.thpa.gr/en/nea/archives/nAug01MobileCrane.htm (Mobile Harbour Crane) http://www.liebherr.com/mc/en/21084.asp (Mobile Harbour Crane) http://www.gottwald.com/gottwald/site/gottwald/en/products/harbour-cranes/mobile-harbour-cranes.html (Mobile Harbour Crane) http://www.mhi.co.jp/tech/pdf/e421/e421022.pdf (Reachstackers) http://www.konecranes.com/magazine/spring1998/page3.htm (Unloader) http://www.rem.sfu.ca/FRAP/9619.pdf (Unloader) http://www.gottwald.com/gottwald/site/gottwald/en/products/agv.html (AGV) http://www.tts-marine.com/templates/Page.aspx?id=1314 (Linkspans) http://www.singaporepsa.com/html/technology/index.htm (Technology) http://www.jp.com.sg/news/archive/2001/text6.htm (JP) http://www.singaporepsa.com/html/technology/citos.htm (CITOS) http://www.portnet.com/03products/citos.htm (CITOS) http://www.portnet.com/03products/portnet.htm (PORTNET) http://www.singaporepsa.com/html/technology/portnet.htm (PORTNET) http://www.material-handling-simulation.com/ (Material Simulation) http://www.gottwald.com/gottwald/site/gottwald/en/system-solutions/software.html (Management and Navigation)

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