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Inception Report

Scoping Water and Energy Pollution Nexus in Urumqi and Qingdao for Preparing PRC’s Ministry of Environmental Protection Co-Control Program

Supported by: RETA 6498: Knowledge and Innovation Support for ADB’s Water Financing Program – Pilot and Demonstration Activity for the People’s Republic of China

Report submitted to:

Environment, Natural Resources and Agriculture Division East Asia Department Asian Development Bank Tel (632) 632-1582 www.adb.org Report prepared by: Circle of Blue, a project of the Pacific Institute, August 2012

The views expressed in this article are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. Terminology used may not necessarily be consistent with ADB official terms.
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ADB CEF CoB CRAES EPA GHG MEP MOHURD NGO PDA PI PRC PRCEE RETA WWC

Asian Development Bank China Environment Forum Circle of Blue Chinese Research Academy for Environmental Science United States Environmental Protection Agency Greenhouse gases Ministry of Environmental Protection Ministry of Housing and Urban and Rural Development Non-Governmental Organization Pilot and Demonstration Activity Pacific Institute People’s Republic of China Policy Research Center for Environment and Economy Regional Technical Assistance (for knowledge and innovation support) Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars

Abbreviations and Acronyms

Table of Contents

I. Project Background and Rationale ....................................................................................3 A. Project Background and Objectives ......................................................................................................... 3 B. What is the project about (i.e. rationale, objectives, expected outcomes at the project level and at the community level and beyond) ................................................................................................................ 3 C. The Project area and its relevance ........................................................................................................... 4 II. A. B. C. Work Plan .......................................................................................................................4 Work Plan Timeline Overview ................................................................................................................... 5 Detailed Work Plan and Methodologies................................................................................................. 6 Project Team …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..9

III. Monitoring, Supervision and Reporting ........................................................................12 A. Estimated financial expenditures from Inception to Midterm Report (Form 12) ............ 12 B. DMF .................................................................................................................................................................... 13 IV. A. B.

Appendix Interview Questions & Data Summary Sheet……………………………………………………………14 Terms of Reference………………………………………………………………………………………………..18

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I.

Project Background and Rationale
A.
The overall goal of the PDA is to produce a detailed assessment of how the cities of Urumqi and Qingdao are grappling with the water and energy challenges and whether the cocontrol pilots conducted by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) can be scaled and duplicated in other cities. The specific objectives are to:

Project Background and Objectives

(iii) Help MEP lay out a research agenda to expand MEP’s co-control approach to incorporate water.

(ii) Assist MEP in designing an integrated pollution co-control program in 13th Five Year Plan. This scoping work is an important step to develop the co-control program; and

(i) Collect relevant information in coordination with MEP and co-author a research report that will produce greater understanding about the water-energy confrontations in PRC, and will document potential measures to address them in two geographically, economically, and ecologically distinct cities: one city in PRC’s dry and economically challenged northwest and one booming city on PRC’s wealthy and relatively more water-rich north-eastern coast;

B. What is the project about (i.e. rationale, objectives, expected outcomes at the project level and at the community level and beyond)
The examination of the water-energy nexus in cities will involve on-the-ground field research and data gathering. The interviews and data collection will allow the compilation of the most expert and up-todate facts, and compelling new narratives on the confrontation between rising energy, increasing pollution, and diminishing freshwater resources in PRC’s cities. This will include consideration of such factors as water use efficiency and water loss (i.e. non-revenue water), extraction and aquifer recharge rates, trade-offs between use of water for energy production and other uses, including agriculture. The research will also highlight new innovation at the city level in PRC that offers models for international engagement to help cities worldwide decrease their energy and water footprint.

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II.

Aside from being representatives of the two economic—and in some ways ecological— extremes of PRC’s cities, Qingdao and Urumqi were chosen because both are targets of a new MEP Co-Control Pilot Study. MEP’s PRCEE, which is leading these research pilots, plans to integrate water into this analysis, for recent studies in the United States have demonstrated that improvements in urban water conservation and water pollution control can produce great reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.

C.

The Project area and its relevance

The second phase focuses on development of the scoping study, including assembling models and methodologies used in the US, organization of policy dialogues among MEP researchers and senior officials to understand their policy and information needs for the 13th Five-Year Plan, facilitation of policy sharing and drafting of a design for co-control program in cooperation with PRCEE. The third and final phase consists of preparation of presentations for a policy workshop with MEP and PRCEE to deliver final results.

The initial phase of this PDA focuses on the assembling field data in both Urumqi and Qingdao for the report document, including supporting field preparation and meetings, subsequent analysis and generation of the PDA white paper and PowerPoint deck.

Work Plan

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A.
Key activities 1: Research Report 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Work Plan Timeline Overview
Timing A Month 1 Month 1 Month 2-5 Months 3-5 Months 3-6 S O N D J F Hold editorial planning workshop Work with partners to arrange interviews and visits regarding water and energy use and constraints, and pollution interface Conduct field research, data collection in the two cities with MEP and PRCEE staff Analyze information and data, and share initial findings with MEP, PRCEE, and ADB Write and edit report Gather information on models and methodology used in the U.S. EPA and various U.S. research centers that incorporate water Organize policy dialogues with MEP researchers and senior officials to understand th their policy and information needs for co-control program in 13 Five-Year Plan Provide inputs to MEP and PRCEE on the design of an integrated pollution co-control program Draft design completed in cooperation with PRCEE Prepare PowerPoint presentations, other materials for policy workshop with MEP and PRCEE to deliver the final results Translation of report and PowerPoint into Chinese and production (following ADB approval)

2: Scoping Study 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Months 3-5 Months 4-6 Month 5 Months 5-6

3: Presentations 3.1 3.2 4: Reporting 4.1 4.2 4.3 Inception Midterm Final Month 1 Month 3 Month 6 Month 6 Month 6

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B.

Detailed Work Plan and Methodologies

1. Field Research 1.1. Hold editorial planning workshop ADB and the Pacific Institute (PI) signed the LOA for this project on August 13, 2012 and assigned an official start date of August 15, 2012. On August 16, Circle of Blue held a meeting of all major project personnel and partners to discuss and finalize four primary project initiation objectives: 1) Research goals and methods 2) In-country field work itinerary 3) Partner-facilitated meetings and interviews 4) Project administration expectations and timelines Editorial workshop attendees included Circle of Blue Director J. Carl Ganter, Circle of Blue Senior Editor Keith Schneider, Wilson Center China Environment Forum Director Jennifer Turner and PRCEE Chief Economist Hu Tao.

1.2. Arrange interviews and visits

1.3. Conduct field research, data collection in Urumqi and Qingdao with MEP and PRCEE staff Circle of Blue's on-the-ground field research project, carried out in cooperation with MEP and the Policy Research Center for Environment and Economy (PRCEE) staff, is focused on these priorities: • • • • • •

Circle of Blue’s director and senior editor, with assistance from the China Environment Forum at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, is arranging interviews in Urumqi and Qingdao with energy, water, data specialists, planners, and engineers. These experts are employed by cities, universities, provincial regulatory agencies, industrial enterprises, and trade associations. In Urumqi, Circle of Blue and its partners have turned to leaders and staff members of the MEP co-control study for assistance in arranging interviews. In Qingdao, Circle of Blue is assisted in arranging interviews by Qian Yi, professor and dean of Qingdao University of Science and Technology.

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Gather information regarding the substantive efforts Urumqi and Qingdao have undertaken to reduce their dependence on coal. Gather information regarding the environmental impacts of the coal supply chain that provides energy to Urumqi and Qingdao. Gather information regarding water use efficiency and water loss (i.e. non-revenue water), extraction and aquifer recharge rates. Gather information on current and planned trade-offs between use of water for energy production and other uses, including agriculture. Develop a snapshot (data, charts) of the energy footprint for supplying water to Urumqi and Qingdao. Develop a snapshot (data, charts) of the water footprint for supplying energy to Urumqi 6

1.3.1. Gather information regarding the substantive efforts Urumqi and Qingdao have undertaken to reduce their dependence on coal. Interviews to be conducted in Urumqi and Qingdao with:

Circle of Blue’s senior editor and director will interview the following authorities:

and Qingdao.

1.3.2. Gather information regarding the environmental impacts of the coal supply chain that provides energy to Urumqi and Qingdao. Interviews to be conducted in Urumqi and Qingdao with:

1.3.1.1. Utility engineers and managers familiar with coal consumption of their plants and efforts to reduce coal use. 1.3.1.2. Industry managers in manufacturing, chemical, cement, steel, and any other big industrial plants familiar with coal consumption and reductions of coal use. 1.3.1.3. City officials familiar with coal consumption and coal use reductions. 1.3.1.4. Members of the co-control team familiar with coal consumption trends. .

1.3.3. Gather information regarding water use efficiency and water loss (i.e. non-revenue water), extraction and aquifer recharge rates. Interviews to be conducted in Urumqi and Qingdao with:

1.3.2.1. Utility engineers and managers familiar with coal supply. 1.3.2.2. Industry managers in manufacturing, chemical, cement, steel, and any other big industrial plants familiar with coal supply. 1.3.2.3. Executive of coal production company familiar with supply trends and environmental effects of coal use. 1.3.2.4. Urumqi and Qingdao city environmental regulators familiar with coalinfluenced air and water pollution, and land use effects. 1.3.2.5. Members of the co-control team familiar with coal consumption and environmental trends in Urumqi and Qingdao. 1.3.2.6. Provincial environmental officials familiar with coal consumption and environmental trends in Urumqi and Qingdao.

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1.3.3.1. Utility water specialists and managers familiar with water use, water loss, extraction rates, and aquifer recharge rates. 1.3.3.2. Industry water specialists and managers familiar with water use, water loss, extraction rates, and aquifer recharge rates. 1.3.3.3. City water utility hydrologists and environmental regulators familiar with water use, water loss, extraction rates, and aquifer recharge rates. 1.3.3.4. Members of the co-control team familiar with water use, water loss, extraction rates, and aquifer recharge rates. 1.3.3.5. Provincial hydrologists familiar with water use, water loss, extraction rates, and aquifer recharge rates. 1.3.3.6. University water specialists. 7

1.3.4. Gather information on current and planned trade-offs between use of water for energy production and other uses, including agriculture. Interviews to be conducted in Urumqi and Qingdao with:

1.3.5. Develop a snapshot (data, charts) of the energy footprint for supplying water to Urumqi and Qingdao.

1.3.4.1. Utility water specialists and managers familiar with current and planned trade-offs between use of water for energy production and other uses, including agriculture. 1.3.4.2. Industry water specialists and managers familiar with current and planned trade-offs between use of water for energy production and other uses, including agriculture. 1.3.4.3. Members of the co-control team familiar with water use, water loss, extraction rates, and aquifer recharge rates. 1.3.4.4. Farm industry representatives who specialize in water supply and consumption. 1.3.4.5. University specialists familiar with water supply and energy use, and water supply and farm use. 1.3.5.1. Spend an afternoon at the provincial and city statistics bureaus to gather data publications. 1.3.5.2. During field work visits, spend time with MEP co-control staff members who have developed a good deal of this data. 1.3.6.1. Spend an afternoon at the provincial and city statistics bureaus to gather data publications. 1.3.6.2. During field work visits, spend time with MEP co-control staff members who have developed a good deal of this data.

1.3.6. Develop a snapshot (data, charts) of the water footprint for supplying energy to Urumqi and Qingdao.

See IV Appendix for Interview Questions and Data Summary Sheets

1.4. Analyze information and data, and share initial findings with MEP, PRCEE, and ADB

1.5. Write and edit report

Following Circle of Blue’s on-the-ground research in Urumqi and Qingdao, the interview notes and collected data will be analyzed by Circle of Blue staff, which will prepare an initial memorandum of results with MEP, PRCEE, and ADB. The memorandum will outline preliminary results and conclusions, and include data that forms the data snapshots referred to in #5 and #6 above. MEP, PRCEE, and ADB staff will review and comment on the initial memorandum.

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Following feedback and comments from MEP, PRCEE and ADB on the initial memorandum, ADB, Circle of Blue will write and edit a first draft white paper report and submit it to MEP, PRCEE, and ADB for comment. When the comments on the first draft white paper report are 8

returned Circle of Blue will write and edit a proposed final report. The proposed final report will be submitted to MEP, PRCEE, and ADB for review, comment, and final approval. By October 15, Circle of Blue will develop and disseminate to MEP, PRCEE, and ADB a proposed schedule for undertaking the writing, editing, and comment activities.

2. Scoping Study

2.1. Gather information on models and methodology used in the U.S. EPA and various U.S. research centers that incorporate water into energy and/or air pollution studies. CEF, with guidance from PRCEE, will gather information on the modeling and methodology behind water-energy or water-air pollution studies conducted by the U.S. EPA, U.S. research centers (e.g., Sandia National Laboratory) and NGOs (International Union of Concerned Scientists).

2.2. Organize policy dialogues with MEP researchers and senior officials to understand their policy and information needs for co-control program in the 13th Five-year Plan

2.3. Provide inputs to MEP and PRCEE on the design of an integrated pollution co-control program CEF will help MEP and PRCEE circulate their integrated pollution control program design among relevant U.S. researchers for comments.

PRCEE, with assistance from CEF, will set up some policy dialogues before finalization of the white paper to discuss some of the insights gained through the PDA research. Since one goal of this PDA is to show how the co-control research including a water-energy component will help MEP create more comprehensive air quality control policies, the dialogues will include research and government stakeholders within MEP and MEP’s research circle who focus on water, air, and climate issues, so they can discuss the findings of the PDA and agree on how best to integrate them into MEP’s 13th Five-Year Plan.

2.4. Complete draft design in cooperation with PRCEE

PRCEE researchers will use the PDA field research, compilation of relevant modeling information, and policy dialogues to write their design for an integrated pollution control program. CEF and Circle of Blue will review the draft and give feedback.

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3. Presentations 3.1. Prepare PowerPoint presentations for policy workshop with MEP and PRCEE to deliver the final results Circle of Blue, in cooperation with the China Environment Forum at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, will produce PowerPoint presentations for policy workshops with MEP and PRCEE to deliver the final results. The presentation will consist of text, graphics, charts, and original photographs produced during the on-the-ground research that illustrates the primary findings of the final report. The purpose of the policy workshop is to introduce the findings of this project to MEP and PRCEE staff and to develop new ideas that advance the co-control project in China. The PowerPoint presentation is an important element in executing this phase of the project. Circle of Blue will disseminate the PowerPoint presentation to MEP, PRCEE, and ADB for review and comment. Following receipt of comments from MEP, PRCEE, and ADB, Circle of Blue will produce a proposed final PowerPoint presentation and submit it to MEP, PRCEE, and ADB for final approval.

3.2. Translation of report and PowerPoint into Chinese (following ADB approval)

Circle of Blue, in cooperation with the China Environment Forum at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, has made arrangements to translate the final report and the PowerPoint into Chinese. Circle of Blue and the China Environment Forum at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars are contracting proven and experienced translators to accomplish this phase of the project.

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C. Project Team

The PDA implementation will be managed by Circle of Blue, an affiliate of the Pacific Institute. Overall project management lies with Mr. J. Carl Ganter, Co-Founder and Director of Circle of Blue, who will serve as the lead liaison for this project and will be responsible for insuring that the work activities are executed as delineated in the Letter of Agreement. Informal reporting and communication about the PDA progress will be provided in addition to the mid-term and end-term reports. Description of Human Resources
Proposed Position/ Expert Writer & Researcher: Mr. J. C. Ganter Qualifications & Experience Co-founder and Director of Circle of Blues. Globallyrecognized journalist on the issues of fresh water and energy nexus. Senior Editor at Circle of Blue. Several decades of journalism and communications specialties, with expertise in environmental policy. Doctorate in Environmental Policy with fifteen years of experience in carrying out research on China's energy and environmental issues. Assigned Duties Team coordination. Interviews and research gathering on-site. Assist with editing and writing white paper and presentation.

Writer/Researcher/Editor: Mr. K. Schneider

Interviews and research gathering on-site. Lead author for white paper and presentation.

Producer: Ms. J. Turner, PhD

Lead liaison with the Chinese research institute. Coordinate interview and data gathering. Assist in writing and editing white paper.

Field Coordinator/ & translator: TBD Graphic Arts: TBD

TBD TBD

Coordination of travel and appointments with experts. Translation duties. Responsible for layout and design of white paper and presentation.

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III.

Monitoring, Supervision and Reporting
A. Estimated financial expenditures from Inception to Midterm Report (Form 12)
Form 12

Category: Pilot and Demonstration Activity (PDA) for PRC: Scoping Water and Energy Pollution Nexus in Urumqi and Qingdao for Preparing PRC’s Ministry of Environmental Protection Co-Control Program
AMOUNT OF ADVANCE Less Expenses: I. Field preparation expenses A. Staff research (Keith Schneider 15 hrs. at $42/hr) B. Ruggedized large media storage drives (4 @ ~$185) C. Other small media storage, and accessories Particulars Supporting Document/ Reference/Receipt No.

TA No./Title: RETA 6498: Knowledge and Innovation Support for ADB's Water Financing Program

ESTIMATED LIQUIDATION OF ADVANCE – INCEPTION PAYMENT

Amount 1 (in US$)

II. Field research expenses A. Field staff plane tickets (US-China) a. Keith Schneider b. J. Carl Ganter B. Field staff per diem (Keith Schneider and J. Carl Ganter) C. Field staff research time a. Keith Schneider (150 hrs at $42/hr) b. J. Carl Ganter (81 hrs at $42/hr) D. Field staff in-country travel E. PRCEE per diem F. PRCEE travel G. In-country translator services (CV submissions to follow) ESTIMATED TOTAL EXPENSES 2 (at time of Midterm Report Submission) BALANCE 3

See attached drive quotes

6,300 3,402 3,000 3,000 1,500 2,000 27,932

1,785 2,315 3,000

630 740 260

24,000 24,000 22,370

Prepared by

1 2 3 4 5

____________________ Name and Signature 4 Designation

Approved by

-3,932

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Provide detailed computation All other expenses should be supported by receipts unless otherwise specified Any unutilized advances should be refunded to ADB immediately Authorized officer Authorized officer

___________________ Name and Signature Designation

5

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B.
Design Summary Impact

DMF
Performance Targets and Indicators with Baselines By 2015 (baseline July 2012): An energy regulation system and low-carbon development strategies developed for Qingdao. By July 2013 (baseline July 2012): Development of draft co-control models that incorporate water with existing air pollution models. Target: one draft model Inputs for Low carbon plan for Qingdao Target: inputs provided By July 2013 (baseline July 2012): Analytical documents Target: Integrated cocontrol of energy and water design Attendance list for meetings and workshop Target: interviews/meetings - 100, workshop 50 participants Data Sources and Reporting Mechanisms Qingdao and Urumqi official documents, MEP's 13th Five-Year Plan for Co-Control. Qingdao and Urumqi official documents, draft design for integrated co-control of energy and water. Project reports and technical documents, including Inception and Final Reports, White Paper, PowerPoint presentations, Scoping Study, and workshop report. Qingdao and Urumqi official documents, and draft design for integrated co-control of energy and water. Inputs Specialists Services/Personnel • Writer/Researcher: 81 hours @ $42/hour = $3,402 Designer/Graphic Artist = $2,000 Translator = $4,000 Assumptions and Risks Assumptions: Continued government support for low carbon development. Risks: Loss of government support for low carbon development.

An energy sector that meets growing demand, fosters energy conservation and efficiency improvement, encourages diversity in the energy mix, promotes clean coal and low carbon technology utilization, and encourages regional energy cooperation. Enhance PRC's Ministry of Environmental Protection's efforts to develop more holistic regulations for environmental protection in cities Outcome Outputs Improved capacity for decision-making.

Assumptions: MEP continues to prioritize Co-Control issues as it begins work on 13th FYP. Risks: Other PRC agencies are not open to cooperating with MEP on co-control concept.

1.1 Hold editorial planning workshop Activities

Assumptions: PRCEE remains on track in carrying out its co-control study in Urumqi and Qingdao Risks: PRCEE research trips to the two cities are delayed ADB Total $49,960.00 $27,960.00

1.2 Work with partners to arrange interviews and visits regarding water and energy use and constraints, and pollution interface 1.3 Conduct field research, data collection in the two cities with MEP and PRCEE staff 1.5 Write and edit report 1.6 Prepare PowerPoint for use by MEP and PRCEE 1.4 Analyze information and data, and share initial findings with MEP, PRCEE, and ADB

1.7 Translation of report and PowerPoint into Chinese and production (following ADB approval)

• Writer/Researcher/Editor: 299 hours @42/hour = $12,558 • Producer: 143 hours @42/hour = $6,000 • • • • Travel Expenses US-PRC Air Fare: 2@2,500 = $5,000

2.1 Gather information on models and methodology used in the U.S. EPA and various U.S. research centers that incorporate water 2.2 Organize policy dialogues with MEP researchers and senior officials to understand their policy information needs for co-control program for in 13th Five-Year Plan 2.3 Provide inputs to MEP and PRCEE on the design of an integrated pollution co-control program 2.4 Draft design completed in cooperation with PRCEE 3.1 Prepare PowerPoint presentations, other materials for policy workshop with MEP and PRCEE to deliver the final results

• Per diem lump sum = $150/day X 10 days X 2 persons = $3,000 • Air fare and per diem of PRCEE staff: 1 person X 3 weeks = $5,000 Equipment and Supplies • Digital media Project Management • Pacific Institute (5%) $2,500.00 • Office and overhead $2,500.00

In-country travel (Qingdao, Urumqi) = $3,000

$16,000.00

$1,000.00 $5,000.00

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IV. APPENDIX Appendix A:
RETA 6498: Knowledge and Innovation Support for ADB’s Water Financing Program Pilot and Demonstration Activity

PRC: Scoping Water and Energy Pollution Nexus in Urumqi and Quindao for Preparing PRC’s Ministry of Environment Protection Co-Control Program

Interview Questions & Data Sheets

Energy/Water/Pollution Control Officials and Researchers At Selected Sites (Note: Answers will be input into excel files unless otherwise indicated) A. Gather information regarding the substantive efforts sites have undertaken to reduce their dependence on coal. A.1. What was total annual coal consumption for both cities each year from 1995 to 2011? A.2. What was total annual coal consumption for the following sectors in each city from 1995 to 2011: A.2.a. Heavy industry - cement-making, steelmaking A.2.b. Utilities A.2.c. Household heating and cooking A.3. What was the peak year for coal consumption for both cities from 1995 to 2011 and what was driving the peak in consumption (growth in industry, change in coal pricing, increase in coal supplies, etc.?) A.4. What was the peak year for coal consumption for the following sectors from 1995 to 2011? (List year and input from interviewees on factors which led to the peak.)
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Site 1: QING DAO

Site 2: URUMQI

A.4.a. Heavy industry - cement-making, steelmaking A.4.b. Utilities

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A.4.c. Household heating and cooking B. Gather information regarding the environmental impacts of the coal supply chain that provides energy to sites. B.1. Where are the sources of coal for both cities? (list mine locations) B.2. Based on total coal consumption and use by industry what are the levels in kilograms of toxic air emissions, particulate matter, climate changing emissions, and water consumption (liters) for these sectors in 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010: B.2.a. Heavy industry - cement-making, steelmaking B.2, b. Utilities B.2.c. Household heating and cooking B.2.d. Transport—trains and trucking B.3. What are the land use disturbance and water pollution consequences of the coal for the coal supply chain for each city associated with: (collect qualitative and quantitative answers for each category below) B.3.a. Heavy industry - cement-making, steelmaking B.3.b. Utilities B.3.c. Household heating and cooking B.3.d. Transport—trains and trucking B.3.e. Coal ash disposal C. Gather information regarding water use efficiency and water loss (i.e. non-revenue water), extraction and aquifer recharge rates. C.1. What was total annual surface water consumption in both cities from 1995 to 2011? (include any water transfers, emergency or regular) C.2. What was total annual groundwater consumption in both cities from 1995 to 2011?
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C.3. What was total annual surface water consumption in both cities from 1995 to 2011 in these sectors:

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C.3.a. Heavy industry - cement-making, steelmaking C.3.b. Manufacturing (excluding heavy industry) C.3.c. Utilities C.3.d. Municipal uses -- households, small businesses C.3.e. Agriculture C.4. What was the total annual groundwater consumption in both cities from 1995 to 2011 in these sectors: C.4.a. Heavy industry - cement-making, steelmaking C.4.b. Manufacturing (excluding heavy industry) C.4.c. Utilities C.4.d. Municipal uses -- households, small businesses C.4.e. Agriculture C.5. What are the major aquifers used by each city? (list names and locations of aquifers) C.6. What are the groundwater levels in those aquifers in each city in each year from 1995 to 2011? C.7. What are the recharge rates in those aquifers and what affects recharge? C.8. How much water is lost during holding and transportation? C.9. How much water revenue is lost (difference between amount treated and piped versus paid for)? D. Gather information on current and planned trade-offs between use of water for energy production and other uses, including agriculture. D.1. To what extent are both cities concerned about use of water for energy production? D.2. Assuming there is concern, what changes in practice and policy were taken to address the concern? D.3. Are those policies and practices having any effects on water conservation in the energy sector and in other sectors? D.4. How are those changes measured?
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E. Develop a snapshot (data, charts) of the energy footprint for supplying water to Urumqi and Qingdao. E.1.Data needed for energy footprint snapshots will be collected in process of answering each of the questions above. F. Develop a snapshot (data, charts) of the water footprint for supplying energy to Urumqi and Qingdao. F.1. Data needed for water footprint snapshot will be collected in process of answering each of the questions above. G. Why do interviewees think that coal peaked in this year (2012) (list factors) H. Ask interviewee to describe trends shaping water consumption growth in the city I. Ask interviewee to describe some of the innovative campaigns/regulations that have helped/are helping to promote water conservation

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Appendix B:

RETA 6498: Knowledge and Innovation Support for ADB’s Water Financing Program Pilot and Demonstration Activity

PRC: Scoping Water and Energy Pollution Nexus in Urumqi and Quindao for Preparing PRC’s Ministry of Environment Protection Co-Control Program

TERMS OF REFERENCE The writer/researcher will have a Graduate Degree (preferred: Master’s or Ph.D. or equivalent work experience) and substantial work portfolio in an appropriate field (e.g., Journalism, Communications, Environmental Policy, Asian Studies or its equivalent), and at least ten years experience in researching and analyzing environmental issues. Ideally, at least two years experience in research and writing on China’s energy and environmental issues, with a specialty in water policy. The writer/researcher should be familiar with water-energy nexus trends in China and other countries. The writer/researcher major tasks will include: information regarding the substantive efforts the two cities have undertaken to reduce their - dependence on coal; environmental impact of the coal supply chain that provides energy cities; water use efficiency and water loss (i.e. non-revenue water), extraction and aquifer recharge rates; current and planned trade-offs between use of water for energy production and other uses, including agriculture; and energy footprint of supplying water for the two cities, and the water footprint of supplying energy, and efforts to improve water and food security. Writer / Researcher (international, 81 hours/$42 per hour)

1. Assisting the writer/researcher/editor in conducting a multi-day on-the-ground field research project in two Chinese cities carried out in cooperation with MEP and the Policy Research Center for Environment and Economy (PRCEE) staff. In the course of this fieldwork the writer/researcher will meet with city managers, researchers and other stakeholders to explore: • • • • •

To support the PDA activities, the international consultant could engage an interpreter/field coordinator as a resource to assist setting up and carrying out the interviews.
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2. Assist in writing and reviewing drafts of the white paper. 3.

Lead in the design of the PowerPoint presentation (text, photos, graphics).

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Inputs: 10 days Contract period: Intermittent work over PDA period (September 2012-February 2013) Costs: 1. Per diem: 10 days at $150 per day for a total of $1,500 3. Local transportation expenses: $3,000 [shared with Writer/Researcher/Editor] 4. Services for Writer/Researcher/Editor: 81 hours at $42/hour = $3,402 2. International air travel: 1 round trip (RT) international at $2,500 per trip

The writer/researcher/editor will have a College Degree (preferred: Master’s or Ph.D.) and substantial work portfolio in an appropriate field (e.g., Journalism, Communications, Environmental Policy, Asian Studies or its equivalent), and at least several years experience in research and writing on water quality and quantity and water-energy nexus trends and policies in China. Writer/ researcher/editor should possess a familiarity with the Chinese governance structure around natural resource management and energy. The writer/researcher/editor should also have at least 5 years experience in producing publications and proven expertise in coordinating team members in research projects. The writer/researcher/editor’s major tasks include: 1. Conduct a multi-day on-the-ground field research project in two cities carried out in cooperation with MEP and the Policy Research Center for Environment and Economy (PRCEE) staff meeting with city managers, researchers and other stakeholders to explore: • • • • • information regarding the substantive efforts the two cities have undertaken to reduce their - dependence on coal; environmental impact of the coal supply chain that provides energy cities; water use efficiency and water loss (i.e. non-revenue water), extraction and aquifer recharge rates; current and planned trade-offs between use of water for energy production and other uses, including agriculture; and energy footprint of supplying water for the two cities, and the water footprint of supplying energy, and efforts to improve water and food security.

Writer / Researcher / Editor (international, 299 hours/$42 per hour)

Final 18 Sep 2012

3. Analyze data collected and use information to write the final white paper and the PowerPoint presentation summarizing PDA research results. 4. Guide and oversee work by graphic designer. 19

2. Lead the writing and editing of the final white paper and text for the PowerPoint presentation summarizing PDA research results.

5. Solicit input from PRCEE/MEP on the initial white paper draft.

Inputs: Contract period:

To support the PDA activities, the international consultant could engage interpreters as a resource to assist in interviews. 37 days Intermittent work over PDA period (September 2012-February 2013)

To support the PDA activities, the international consultant could engage an interpreter/field coordinator as a resource to assist setting up and carrying out the interviews.

6. Assist the producer in working with PRCEE to do a scoping study on how the co-control method can be expanded to quantify the relative relationship between water, energy as well as carbon and air pollutants.

Costs: 1. Per diem: 10 days at $150 per day for a total of $1,500

7. Services for Writer/Researcher/Editor: 299 hours at $42/hour = $12,558

3, Local transportation expenses: $3,000 [shared with Writer/Researcher]

2. International air travel: 1 round trip (RT) international at $2,500 per trip

The producer will have a Graduate Degree (Master’s or Ph.D.) in an appropriate field (e.g., Environmental Policy, Asian Studies or its equivalent), and at least 10 years experience in research and writing on China’s energy and environmental issues, with a specialty in water policy. The producer should be familiar with water-energy trends in China and the Chinese governance structure around natural resource management and energy. The producer should also have at least 5 years experience in producing publications and proven expertise in coordinating team members in research projects. Preference is for proficiency in both Chinese and English. The producer’s major tasks include: 2. Help PRCEE researchers in scoping work for their co-control work, which will entail: 20

Producer (international, 143 hours/$42 per hour)

1. Liaise with the PRC partner Policy Research Center for Environment and Ecology (PRCEE) to coordinate joint research with Circle of Blue and arrange interviews and visits regarding water and energy use and constraints, and pollution interface.

Final 18 Sep 2012

Helping to organize meetings in the United States for a PRCEE-funded research visit to discuss the research work being done in the United States on multi-pollutant control policy in the United States, particularly with researchers examining the water-energy-pollution strategies.

Gathering information on models and methodology used in the U.S. Environment Protection Agency and various U.S. research centers that incorporate water into the existing models that calculate physical and economic proportion and elasticity between air pollutants and GHG. There are numerous “watergy” and co-benefit models previously developed that may be of use.

• •

Setting up at least one roundtable in Beijing with U.S. water and energy researchers. This is part of CEF’s initiative to bring together Chinese and U.S. researchers for a Skoll Global Threats Fund-supported exchange to create a water-energy nexus policy roadmap for PRC. PRCEE researchers will be included in these meetings, which will help inform their scoping research and broaden their network in the water-energy nexus sphere. Co-organizing a policy workshop together with PRCEE to deliver the final results Organizing policy-dialogues with MEP senior officials to meet their policy demands for co-control program in 13th Five-Year Plan

Inputs: Contract period: Costs: 1.

4. Oversee translation of any documents.

3. Assist Circle of Blue in the editing of the final white paper and the PowerPoint presentation summarizing PDA research results. 18 days Intermittent work over PDA period (September 2012-February 2013)

143 hours @ $42/hour * for $6,006*Any associated travel or per diem covered by other funding sources.

The designer/graphic artist will have a college degree and/or appropriate technical training and/or and substantial work portfolio in an appropriate field (e.g., graphic arts, design, communications, journalism or the equivalent.) The designer/graphic artist/desktop publisher should have at least 3 years experience in producing publications used at high-level government, NGO, foundation, and/or research centers. The designer/graphic artist/desktop publisher will take direction from the writers/researchers, editor, and producer to complete his/her major tasks, including:
Final 18 Sep 2012

Designer/Graphic Artist/Desktop publisher (international, 143 hours/$17.8 per hour or $2,000)

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1. Graphically generate charts/images that highlight key data collected from the in-country interviews and other collection efforts for both the White Paper and companion Power Point presentation.

2. Create a template that after approval from editor and producer he/she will use to layout text and graphics for the White Paper and companion Power Point presentation. 14 days Intermittent work over PDA period (September 2012-February 2013)

Inputs: Contract period:

Costs: 143 hours/$17.8 per hour or $2,000 *Any associated travel or per diem covered by other funding sources.

The translator/interpreter/field coordinator will have a college degree and work portfolio in an appropriate field (e.g., journalism, communications, environmental policy, translation or its equivalent), and at least 3 years experience in translating materials and interpreting interviews necessary for reporting on environmental trends and policy issues in China. The translator/interpreter/field coordinator should have a working knowledge of China, particularly its issues with water, environment, and energy. Preference is for proficiency in both Chinese and English. The translator will take direction from the writers/researchers, editor, and producer to complete his/her major tasks, including: 1. Provide oral and written translations of information collected in-country and through other data collection relevant to the PDA. 2. Assist predominantly in fieldwork coordination by establishing appointments and having a familiarity with Chinese energy and water experts and officials, as well as aiding in the data collection. 14 days Intermittent work over PDA period (September 2012-February 2013)

Translator/Interpreter/Field Coordinator (international, ~143 hours/$17.8 per hour or $2,000)

Inputs: Contract period:

Costs: 3. 143 hours @ $18/hour* for $2,000 *Associated travel or per diem shared between ADB and other funding sources. Any additional work needed from this interpreter/field coordinator would be covered by other funding sources.
Final 18 Sep 2012

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