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Theme of №2. Bases of orthopedic stomatology and [ortodontii].

Functional anatomy of maxillofacial system. Influence of the loss of teeth, maxillodental deformations on the general state of the human organism. Dental, maxillofacial prosthetics. Special preparation of the cavity of the mouth before prosthetics. Clinic and prosthetics of the defects of the crown of tooth. Clinic and prosthetics with the partial and total loss of teeth. Maxillofacial prosthetics. Forms of the defects of maxillofacial region, orthopedic apparatuses. [Ortodontiya] as science. Classification of orthodontic apparatuses, the periods of the treatment of orthodontic pathologies.
Functional anatomy of maxillofacial system. Maxillofacial system is represented: 1. 2. 3. By skeleton, which consists of the maxillary, nose and zygomatic bones. By teeth - organs, fitted out to the breaking up of food. By organs, intended for capturing of food and closing of oral opening (lip, mimic musculature).

4. By organs, which participate in the formation of food lump and which ensure its advance into the throat (language, cheeks, solid and the soft palate, uvula). 5. By masticatory and mimic musculature.

6. With three pairs of the salivary glands, whose secret facilitates the chewing of food, the formation of food lump, it provides the chemical phase of digestion in the mouth. 7. by Temporal- mandibular joints.

The deformation of maxillodental of system in adult person is developed after the removal of teeth gradually, and in children and adolescents - considerably more rapid. It does not disturb patient, but it is diagnosed by doctor with the inspection of dental rad in the state of central occlusion. In the later stages of this form of deformation the teeth deprived of antagonists can displace to the mucous membrane of opposite jaw. As a result chronic micro-injury is developed compression reconstruction of mucous membrane, which is clinically manifested by the topographically changed configuration of the relief of the toothless section of alveolar branch. Chronic injury can lead to the malignancy of mucous membrane in the zone of injury. Maxillodental system as a result of the loss of teeth undergoes the inevitable changes, as a result which appears this illness, as it periorodontitis. Furthermore, food enters the gastrointestinal tract of that of badly crushed, which leads to the disturbance of the function of internal organs.

scar changes in the mucous membrane after the previous inflammatory diseases and injuries.What is prosthetics. Prosthetics is employed also was when carried out the operation of the partial removal of the bones of jaw (tumor. In what cases prosthetics of teeth is conducted. Prosthetics is conducted both with the therapeutic purpose . orthopedist establishes. which can prevent prosthetics. crown. on which they are located are teeth) and jaws. . This connected with the fact that in patient there can be different diseases of the cavity of mouth. different anomalies of the development of maxillodental system.the substitution of the defects of the solid cloths of tooth. tire.the installation of prosthesis. . is whether the defeat of masticatory apparatus his degree. First of all. Preparation of the cavity of mouth for the orthopedic treatment. disrupted aesthetics and with the preventive for retaining of the remained teeth.the substitution of the alveolar branch (branch of the bone of upper jaw. .the special preparation of the cavity of mouth for prosthetics. Before the orthopedic treatment complex therapeutic and surgical treatment for the purpose of the preparation of soft and solid tissues of maxillofacial region for prosthetics is conducted. function of masticatory muscles. .this is the treatment of patients with different diseases of maxillofacial system by different orthopedic means (prostheses. For example. In this case they try to use maximally small and maximally convenient constructions of prostheses.orthopedist. Prosthetics . speech. in which it is included: .the substitution of the defects of dental numbers. inflammatory diseases). prevention of further destruction of dental arcs and joints. After complete inspection and formulation of diagnosis is compiled the plan of orthopedic treatment. Prostheses use for the following purposes: .the substitution of toothless jaws. ingestion. caries. During the consultation in stomatologist.restoration of mastication. supplementary sheet).the complex of therapeutic orthopedic measures. . . .the development of the construction of prosthesis and form of prosthetics. stomatitis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the cavity of mouth).

By the construction the prostheses are divided into: . Prosthesis in the transfer from the Latin designates the artificial part of the body. warning of the injury of orthopaedic bed. if it is carried out in proper time. creation of conditions for the fixation of prosthesis. . moves away the dental deposits (dental attack.supplementary sheet. which do not be subject to conservative (nonsurgical) treatment. Complex of therapeutic orthopedic measures before prosthetics. dental stone).arched prostheses.single crowns. Development of the construction of prosthesis and form of prosthetics. number and sequence of which it is dictated by the construction of prosthesis and by the tactics of treatment itself. Orthopedic treatment includes the series of the clinical and laboratory stages. .stomatologist includes the concrete plan of orthopedic treatment depending on the form of prosthesis.Stomatologist. plastic of the cavity of mouth. . It is conducted for the purpose of lightening the procedure of prosthetics. which are directed toward the creation of conditions for the best fixation of prostheses (elimination of belts. . All enumerated constructions are the basis of the orthopedic treatment of maxillodental system.pin teeth.bridge-shaped and cantilever prostheses. treats the diseases of the mucous membrane of the cavity of mouth and periodontium. According to the recommendation of orthopedist in the surgical office is conducted the complex of the plastic operations. Orthopedic treatment can warn a number of complications from the side of the organs of the cavity of mouth.surgeon moves away teeth and tooth roots. language and others).therapeutist conducts to patients the sanitation of the cavity of mouth. . plastic of the bridles of lips. The special training of the patient by orthopedist. the correction of the form of alveolar branch.plate (partial and complete) prostheses. Stomatologist. For the orthopedic treatment detachable and nondetachable prostheses adapt. scars. .

but not technical capabilities or desire of patient. Selection and the installation of prosthesis is determined by the stage of the destruction of a dental number. Bridge-shaped prostheses. necessary for this patient in accordance with the plan of orthopedic treatment and if orthopedist. use bridge-shaped prostheses. when defects have small value. In accordance with this rule at the initial stages of the disturbance of the dental numbers.Arched prostheses. When loss is significant and the remained teeth it is insufficient for the installation of arched prosthesis. if it includes all forms of the prostheses. but the periodontium of teeth is not struck. and orthopaedic bed is in healthy state. . comes to the conclusion that the prosthesis fulfills its functions. using different procedures. Installation of prosthesis. plate prostheses use. Orthopedic treatment is considered final. With the first signs of the manifestation of the diseases of periodontium arises a question about the application of arched prostheses.

The acquired disturbances appear as a result: 1) the previous diseases (syphillis. therefore they call it sometimes complex. nervous and other systems. and combined .orthopedist and dental technician) gives the possibility to restore in patient the disrupted functions and to improve his exterior view. The defects of the middle part also can be in the form isolated damage to the bone of upper jaw and sky or defects of upper jaw and soft tissues of face (upper lip. The defects of face cause not only local functional disturbances.e. It is the division of general orthopedics and is occupied by correction and substitution of defects with any kind the damage of solid and soft tissues in the region of jaws and face. but also disorders digestive. 3) operational interference apropos of different inflammatory processes..in the form the defect of lower jaw and soft tissues of face (lower lip and chin). The greatest interest the patients with the defects of the average and lower zone of face introduce for the stomatologists. cheek.Maxillofacial orthopedics. With respect to each of the enumerated cases the forms of prostheses and the methods of their production will be different. nose. the angles of mouth). which distinguish it from usual dental prosthetics. These disturbances can be innate or acquired. . used with the defects of maxillary bones. Maxillofacial prosthetics has its special features and it is connected with some difficulties. i. according to the function are divided into: Replacing. Damages to maxillofacial region can be accompanied by the severe consequences in the form of functional disorders and rough disfiguration of face. Forming. Mixed. tumors and T. p. in the form the defect only of bone of lower jaw. Fixing. The defects of the lower part of face can be isolated. 2) the injury of production or everyday). The inherent defects include the clefts of the solid and soft palate and upper lip. lupus). The aid of specialists (stomatologist. The orthopedic apparatuses.

The final goal of orthodontia is an improvement in the aesthetics of face and the guarantee of ideal occlusion. or orthodonture (Greek.surgical Surgical . The replacing apparatuses include also the prostheses after the resection of jaw. the normalization of occlusion and the creation of the optimum dynamic relationship of the bringing and abducting muscles. Orthodontics. correcting only anomalies of development the. Purpose of apparatus . maxillary bones. which appear in the process of the formation of masticatory. Methods of treatment. i. and to sometimes and hold broken ends of jaw from the displacement or soft tissues of face from the retraction.to restore the function of organ. Orthopedic stomatology is occupied by the correction of deformations. dens. They adapt for the fastening of the broken ends of lower jaw with the bone plastic. for example.straight line. Lat. which is occupied by the study of etiology. For example. In orthodontia adapt the following methods of treatment: • • • Equipment By apparatus. Thus.tooth) .. At present the majority of orthodontia entertain idea themselves about the need for the beginning of the correction of anomalies still from the moment of the beginning of an increase in the milk teeth. This connected with the fact that the most early beginning of correction at the childhood possesses the prolonged effect. They adapt for the formation of plastic material with the dermal-plastic operations with the defects of bone and soft tissues of face. orthos . it should be noted that in children the sphere of action of orthodontia exceeds the limits of facial skeleton and directly the cavity of mouth. or prostheses use for the substitution of defect. The object of the examination of orthodontia are the disturbances. by the damages. The preferred object of the interferences in orthodontia is the masticatory. The fixing apparatuses are auxiliary. with the isolated defects of lower jaw. The forming apparatuses also relate to the auxiliary. genetically caused defects. and due to an exuberance in the bone structures and larger elasticity of cloths it can be carried out within the more short times.vocal apparatus of children and adolescents. the methods of preventive maintenance and treating the maxillodental anomalies. The effectiveness of orthodontia is limited by the age of patient and by the nature of anomaly. the correction of increase and development of the apical bases of jaws. diagnostics. The mixed apparatuses use when apparatus it must fulfill different functions.e.vocal apparatus. orthodontia it can effectively change the reciprocal location of teeth and dental numbers. the replacing apparatus can simultaneously fulfill the functions of that forming and fixing the broken ends of jaw.the division of stomatology.The replacing apparatuses. but it is not capable of effectively influencing the anomaly of the development of jaws and facial skeleton. which was being formed after the healing of injury or pathologic process of maxillary bone. which arose as a result injuries or diseases. The tasks of orthodontia are the normalization of form and sizes of dental numbers. Orthodontia is not occupied by deformations. However. orthodontia. dentis .

With retention is achieved the fastening of the obtained result for the purpose of the guarantee of steadfast remission after the removal of apparatuses. Detachable apparatuses for mechanical action. Orthodontic apparatuses. The direct elimination of anomaly is produced with the active. The following groups of apparatuses are separated. Apparatuses in orthodontia are divided on the fulcrums and using the methods of action. Apparatuses for the combined action. Apparatuses for functional action (passive) Nondetachable apparatuses for the functional action Detachable apparatuses for functional action. p. For the preventive maintenance of data of complications it is important to in proper time produce the replacement of apparatuses and to accurately calculate the necessary acting force.) treatment consists of the 2nd stages: active and retention.• Functional (therapeutic gymnastics T. . It should be noted that apparatuses often can lead to the damage to the dental enamel also of periodontium and subsequently cause different diseases of teeth. • • • • • • • Apparatuses for mechanical action (active) Nondetachable apparatuses for mechanical action.