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TENSES In English Grammar

Budi utomo 815883 Information Of Technology

Study Program Of Software Engineering SEKOLAH TINGGI TEKNOLOGI DUTA BANGSA CIKARANG BEKASI 2012

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ABSTRACT

Proper use of language is an important element in writing scientific papers. This paper describes some of the tenses in English. with the exact language patterns in the hope to communicate with good grammar and correct.

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Preface

Praise be to Allah, The cherisher and sustainer of the worlds; God who has been giving His blessing and mercy to the writer to complete the paper entitled "Tenses In English Grammar. This paper is submitted to fulfill one of the requirements to task subjects English. The writer realize that this paper is far from perfect, therefore, criticism and suggestions from all parties who are building for the perfection of this paper. I hope this paper may help to increase knowledge and experience for the readers, so I can improve the form and content of this paper so that the future can be better.

Finally, our gratitude to all those who have participated in the preparation of this paper from beginning to end. May Allah always be pleased with all our efforts. Amin.

Cikarang july 18, 2012 Budi utomo

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CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT Preface Content 2 3 4

Chapter one TENSES 1.1. Introduction Chapter two VERB 2.1. Infinitive 2.2. Past Tense 2.3. Past participle Chapter three PRESENT TENSE 3.1. Simple Present Tense 3.2. Present Continous Tense 3.3. Present Perfect Tense 3.4. Present Perfect Tense Chapter Four PAST TENSE 4.1. Simple Past Tense 4.2. Past Continous Tense 4.3. Past Perfect Tense 4.4. Past Perfect Continous Tense 16 17 18 19 12 13 14 15 7 8 9 5

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Chapter Five FUTURE TENSE 5.1. Simple Future Tense 5.2. Future continous Tense 5.3. Future Perfect Tense 5.4. future Perfect Continous Tense Chapter six PAST FUTURE TENSE 6.1. Past Future tense 6.2. Past Future Continous Tense 6.3. Past Future Perfect Tense 6.4. Past Future Continous Tense 23 24 24 25 20 21 21 22

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Chapter one

TENSES
I.1. Introduction Tense in the English language the word comes from the Latin tempus which means time. talk about the tenses, means talking about the time that indicates when the occurrence of an event or events, the continuation and completion. So, english tenses are basically talking about the time of the occurrence of an event or events. in general, an event could occur at the present time, in the past, or will happen in the future. different from the Indonesian, in the English language description of time will determine the use of the verb. thus the verb could have been referring to the present, past, or the time to come. a phrase that refers to the current time is called the tense present. a phrase that refers to past time called past tense, while the sentence that refers to the time of the call will come in future tense. There are three main time (main tense) in English. 1. Present tense 2. Past tense 3. Future tense

The third time was still part of a general nature. to be specific, each divided into four parts, the simplest form, present participle, perfect form, and also perfect form and perfect continous. Each of the main tenses in the English language is divided into four sections following : 1. Simple 2. Continous / progressive 3. Perfect 4. Perfect continous / progressive

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The following sections sixteen tenses in English. 1. Simple present tense 2. Present continous tense
Present tense

3. Present perfect tense


4. Present perfect continous tense

1. Simple past tense


Past tense

2. Past continous tense 3. Past perfect tense 4. Past tense perfect continous

Tense

1. Simple future tense


Future tense

2. Future continous tense 3. Future perfect tense


4. Future tense perfect continous

1. Past future tense Past future tense 2. Past future continous tense 3. Past future perfect tense 4. Past future perfect continous tense.

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Chapter Two

VERBS
The thing to note when making a statement is a statement of time, whether it is referring to an incident that occurred in the presen in the past or will happen in the present, future. Tenses in the English language will determine the use of the verb. therefore, enses the verb can refer to the present, past or future. The following three forms of the verb in English : 1. Infinitive 2. Past tense 3. Past participle

2.1. Infinitive Infinitive verb is often called the first form is the basic f nfinitive form of the verb in English that have not been added or changed in its form at all. There are two infinitive re verb, to infinitive and bare infinitive.

To infinitive

Bare infinitive

To play To study To make

Play Study make

based on three examples, it is clear that the to infinitive is the infinitive in his writing preceded by to, while the bare infinitive is not preceded by to. although there is a term .

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in English to infinitive and bare infinitive, will not be difficult in learning English nfinitive , because it will be easier to study the structure of subsequent sentences sentences.

2.2. Past Tense Past tense verbs are often called the second form of the verb is the past tense verb in the English language that is used to indicate an event or events that will happen in the past. The second form of the verb consists of two parts, the regular verb and irregular verb.

a. Regular verb

b. Irregular Verb

play - played stay - stayed use - used work - worked live - lived

make - made go - went sleep - slept build - built take - took

based on these examples can be concluded that the irregular verb is a verb that forms its past in the form by adding d / ed on the first verb (infinitive). i irregular verb is a verb that forms its past is not in a form based on a provision, but has its own form.

2.3. Past Participle Past participle verb form is often called the third is a form of the verb in the ast English language that is used to form the passive voice, present perfect tense, past passive perfect tense and other forms of his sentence. existing provisions in the formation of
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past tense verbs, also applies to form a past participle. irregular shapes also has its own shape, mostly with irregular past tense, but there is also a change form at all.
Regular Verb

Infinitive study use smile

Past studied used smiled

Past Participle studied used smiled

Irregular Verb

Past participle Infinitive go think find Past went thought found gone thought found

The third addition to the above forms of the verb, the verb form of others who also need to know is present participle. Present participle is a verb in the infinitive is added with the word ing and serves as the title phrase in a continuous / progressive tense.

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Verb

To infinitive

Bare Infinitive

Past Tense played worked took taught used slept came did kept

Past participle played worked taken taught used slept come done kept

Present participle playing working taking teaching using sleeping coming doing keeping

To play To work To take To teach To use To sleep To come To do To keep

play work take teach use sleep come do keep

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Chapter Three

PRESENT TENSE

3.1.Simple Present Tense


Present Tense is used to talk about something in general. And it is also used to talk about something which is happened repeatedly or habituallly activities. The adverbs of time used in simple present tense are every day, every week, every year, on Mondays, after school,etc. the adverbs of frequency used in simple present tense are always, often, usually, sometimes, seldom, never, etc.

Pattern: + } S + V1 + O/C - } S + Do/does + not + V1 + O/C ? } Do/does + S + V1 + O/C Example : + } Sisca Reads book everyday - } Sisca does not Read book everyday ? } does Sisca Read book everyday Yes He does / No He does not (doesnt) For I, We, You, They = do He, She, It = Does Example in sentences :

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(+) She is a new people here. (+) He plays football every morning (-) She isnt a new people here. (-) He does not playing football every morning. (?) Is she a new people here? (?) How playing football every morning?

3.2.Present Continuous Tense We use The Present Continuous Tense when we talk about something which is happening at the time of speaking. We also use The Present Continuous Tense when we talk about something which is happening around the time of speaking, but not necessarily exactly at the time of speaking. The adverbs of time used in present continous tense are now, right now, tomorrow, etc. Pattern : + } S + Be + V1 + ing + O/C - } S + Be + not + V1 + ing + O/C ? } Be + S + V1 + ing + O/C Yes, They are / no, they are not For I = am They, we, you = are + } They are playing badmintoon now } They are not playing badmintoon now ? } Are they playing badmintoon now ?

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He, She, It = Is Example in sentences : (+) He is playing badminton now (-) He isnt playing badminton now. (?) Is he playing badminton now.

3.3.Present Perfect Tense We often use the present perfect Tense to give new information or to announce recent happening. Pattern : + } S + have/has +V3 + O/C - } S + have/has+ not + V3 + O/C ? }Have/Has + S + V3 + O/C? Example : (+) you have eaten my apple. (-) she has not been to Rome (?) have you finished your lunch? 3.4.Present Perfect Continuous Tense We often use the present perfect continous tense to give information or to announce something which is already happened at the certain time period and still happening at the time of speaking.

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Pattern : (+): S + have/has + been + Ving (-): S + have/has + not + been + Ving (?): Have/has + S + been + Ving Example : (+) She has been going to Malang since evening. (+) We have been riding a horse for three days (-) She hasnt been going to Malang since evening. (-) We havent been riding a horse for three days. (?) Has she been going to Malang ? (?) Have He been riding a horse for three days ?

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Chapter Four

PAST TENSE

4.1.Simple Past Tense We use the past simple to talk about actions or situations in the past. The Adverbs of time in this tense are yesterday, last.., a week ago, this morning , last night, yesterday morning, yesterweek, yestermonth, yesteryear, etc. Pattern : +} S+V2 +O/C -} S+did not +V1 +O/C ?} Did + S+ V1 +O/C? Example : (+) He saw a good film last night (-) He did not see a good film last night (?) Did he see a good film last night?

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4.2.Past Continuous Tense We use past continuous Tense to say that someone was in the middle of doing something at a certain time. The action or situation had already started before this time but hadnt finished Pattern : (+): S + was/were + Ving (-): S + was/were + NOT + Ving (?): Was/Were + S + Ving Contoh : (+) He was watching television all afternoon last week (+) They were talking about sport when I met him (-) He wasnt watching television all afternoon last week (-) They werent talking about sport when I met him (?) Was he watching television all afternoon last week (?) Were they talking about sport when I met him

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4.3.Past Perfect Tense We use the Past perfect to say that something had already happened before this time. Pattern: (+): S + had + V3 (-): S + had + not + V3 (?): Had + S + V3 ? Contoh : (+) When my brother arrived , I had painted my motor cycle (+) The ship had left before I arrived (-) When my brother arrived , I hadnt painted my motor cycle (-) The ship hadnt left before I arrived (?) Had I painted my motor cycle , when my brother arrived ? (?) Had the ship left before I arrived?

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4.4.Past Perfect Continuous Tense We use the Past perfect to say that something had still happened when another action had happened. Pattern :
(+): S + had been + Ving (-): S + had been + not + Ving (?): Had + S +been+ Ving ?

Example : (+) They had been doing the homework when I came yesterday. (-)They hadnt been doing the homework when I came yesterday (?) Had they been doing the homework when I came yesterday ?

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Chapter Five

FUTURE TENSE

5.1.Simple Future Tense We often use will in this situation: Offering to do something. We use this tense when we want to do something immediately or we want to predict something. Pattern : (+) S + will/shall + Verb 1 (-) S + will/shall + not + Verb 1 (?) Shall/will + S + Verb 1? Example : (+) I will visit to yogyakarta tomorrow. (+) he will met girl friend by seven oclock (?) Will he go to America next month? (+) President shall at Nederland the day after tomorrow. (-) President shall not at Nederland the day after tomorrow. (?) Shall President at Nederland the day after tomorrow?

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5.2.Future Continuous Tense This tense describe that something will happen in the future at the certain times. Pattern : (+) S +will + be +V-ing (-) S + will not + be +Ving (?) Will + S + V ing?

Example : (+) I will be studying tomorrow night.. (-) I will not be studying tomorrow night. (?) Will I be studying tomorrow night ?

5.3.Future Perfect Tense We use this tense to explain something that will have already happened in the future. Pattern : (+) S + will have + verb 3 (-) S + wont have + Verb 3 (?) Will + S + have + Verb 3

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Example : (+).She will have gone to school by 10 am. (-) She will not have gone to school by 10 am. (?) Will she have gone to school by 10 am?

5.4.Future Perfect Continuous Tense We use this tense to explain something that will have already happened in the future at the certain times and still happening at the time of speaking. Pattern : (+) S + will have been + verb ing (-) S + wont have been + Verb ing (?) Will + S + have been + Verb ing ? Example : (+) They will have been studying since this morning (-) They wont have been studying since this morning (?) Will they have been studying since this morning ?

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Chapter six

PAST FUTURE TENSE

6.1.Past Future Tense In English grammar we dont learn this in tenses but in conditonal sentences. We know this tense as type 2 Conditional Sentence. Pattern : (+) S + would + V1

(-) S + would + not + V1 (?) Would + S + V1 Example : (+) He would come if you invited him. (+) They would buy a home the previous day. (-) He wouldnt come if invited him. (-) They wouldnt buy a home the previous day. (?) Would He come if invited him ? (?) Would they buy a home the previous day ?

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6.2.Past Future Continuous Tense In English grammar we know this tense as Present Continuous Conditional Sentence. We use it in Type 2 conditional sentences. It explain that something has not finished in the if clause. Pattern : (+) S + would + be + Ving (-) S + would + not + be + Ving (?) Would + S + be + Ving Example : 1. I would be working in Italy if I spoke Italian. (but I dont speak Italian, so I am not working in Italy) 2. You wouldnt be smiling if you knew the truth

6.3.Past Future Perfect Tense In English grammar we know this tense as type 3 conditional sentence. It explain that something would not happen because its too late. It means that we wish something happen in the past. Pattern:: (+) S + would + have + V3 (-) S + would + not + have + V3 (?) Would + S + have + V3

Example : (+) He would have graduated if he had studied hard.

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(+) Nonok will have studied moth by the end of this week. (-) He wouldnt have gone if he had met his darling (-) Nonok will have not studied month by the end of this week (?) Would He have gone if he had met his darling ? (?) Will Nonok have studied month by the end of this week ?

6.4.Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense This tense is used in type 3 conditional sentences. It explain something that has not been done in if clause. Pattern : (+) S + would + have + been + Ving (-) S + would + not + have + been + Ving (?) Would + S + have + been + Ving Example : 1. If the weather had been better (but it wasnt), Id have been sitting in the garden when he arrived (but I wasnt and so I didnt see him). 2. If she hadnt got a job in London (but she did), she would have been working in Paris (but she wasnt).

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dhanny R. cyssco, Mastering tenses & daily conversation, Puspa Swara-Jakarta 2008 Alfred akerlund, The Definite Tense In English, A.B. PH. LINDSTEDTS UNIV. BOKH . LUND & W Heffer & Sons. LTD (CAMBRIDGE) 1911

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