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ple.issue) ergy, Inc.. South Central Avenue, L Milaca, MN 56.3'53 USA c-This periodical is" kf inted six times each year. One-year subscriptions in the USA&are $19.50 for "individuals and $25 for institutions; in Canada and Mexico, $25; foreign air mail subscriptions are $38 for one year.' Available from: 6' Alternative Sources of Energy, 107 South Centr-al Avenue Milaca, MN 56353 USA Reproduced by permission Energy, Inc. Reproduction of 'form is subject of the original of 4, this microfiche document to the same restrictions document. . in any as those * F6 Alternative Inc. .I . Sources of ,

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3 For the past 10 years. PHOTOWATT h a5 txx11 ant of the co~lntry~s . ( leading manufacturers of photovoltaic~ pc111c~Is syskm.s with C&V 12,000 atd dpplic;lltions worltlwiclc~. . If you dro illterc5lccl ii) tkJilly qualifik)cl <Is in clc~dlc~~~supply photovoltaic io systtuns for rcxnoi~ IIOIIK~, pI~;dsk)co~~tact: * , DI.%LERSHIP SERVICES 2414 West 14111 Stretlt. Tempc~. Arizoll;l 55281 . _ ,

Out Here Depe.r&iable El&tWity .. . Comes from the Sun! dh . I,


l Number 60 Diwctor of ASE, Inc./Executive d Editor: Donald Marier Editor: Larry St&ken Director of Advertising & Marketink Abby Marier Technical Art: Anthony Rau Special. Projects Coordinator/Public Relations: Abby Marier Circulation & Wholesale Atcounts: Linda Day, Nancy Eggert .
Alternative Sources of Energy IS published blmonthly Dy Allernalive Sources of Energy. Inc. 107 S Central Ave M~laca. MN 56363 (612) 963 6692 Second class postage pald al Mllaca. MN 56353 and addlhonal mallmg offices POSTMASTER Please send Form 3579 lo Allernallve Sources 01 En rgy. Inc.. 107 S Central Ave MIlaca, MN 5 3 opyrlghl 1963 ergy, Inc All rlghls ISSN-0146-1001 by AlternatIve reserved Sources of En-

energy 53
Warch/April, II
,i *

r altemativ6




Plqotovoltaics. ;

ISBN: O-9 17338-50-7

This publication Is avallable on Microfilm. For mformahon, write Dept FA. Umverslty MICROfilms Internallonal, 300 N Zeeb Rd.. Ann Arbor, Ml 46106 Purpose. Alferwrlwe Sources ol Energy. Inc 16 a nonprofit tax-exempt. sclentlllc and educallona orgamzatlon for those persons concerned wlh the development and use of renewable resources Parttcular emphasis IS on alternalwe enwonman lal lechnologles which are energy-related The major thrust 01 the orgarwatlon IS lo pubhclze ant share practical appllcallons of such technologle& as a means of altalnlng some degree 01 energy Independence Alfernafrve Sources of Energy. Inc serves as a locus lor a variety 01 resource people II IS a vehlcte by which Ideas and experwnces are shared See lasl page 01 lhls wwe lor a complete Ilshng 01 serwces Alternafwe Sources ol Energy IS publlshed each January/February, March/Aprtl, May/June. July/ August. Seplember/Oclober. November/December. Th,e pubhsher IS not responsible for prod. uc1 claims and represenlatjons Statements 01 opinion and facl appearmg In Alfernsfwe Sources of Energy are those of the authors. Designs and plans presented m arllcles In Alfernafwe Sources ol Energy are presented for InformatIonal purposes only The pubhsher makes no guarantee 01 Ihe workabIlIty or salely factor of such mlorma, lion Editorial Offices: Allernallve Sources of En orgy. Inc, 107 S Cenlral Ave Mllaca. MN 56353 Subscriplion Rates: $19 50 lor 6 ISSUBS. $35 O( lor 12 ISSUBS Businesses. Llbrarles. Governmen Agencies and Orgamzahons, $25 00 for G %wes $45 00 for 12 Issues Canada and Mer~co. $25 O( for 6 wues, $45.00 for 12 Issues Forelgn AI Mall. $38 00 for 6 kzues, $66 00 for 12 issues Smgle mues $3.50 each SubscrIptions, Re newals. and Change of Address, c/o Clrcularior Dept Allow 5 weeks lor change of address or de livery 01 magazine Correspondence relallng I( subscrlpllon problems should Include Ihc compuler/subscrlpllon code .Irom address label The month and year 01 oxplrallon appears on you label All edltorlal correspondence, c/o Edllo Slyleshool senl upon requesl Unsoluled manu scrlols and materials should conloIn a sell addressed, Stamped envelope Unless olherww Indlcaled. permlsslon IS assumed lo Include thl name and address of persons submlllmg letter and feedback 10 be printed m Alfernsfwe Source ol Energy Advertisers: Contact us for media k and rale mlormatlon

6 /The Future of Photovoltaics: An Interview with Paul Maycock
By Larry Stoiaken Vandrrhoof & Sam

2/Letters 3/Editorial: Donald Marier 39 /.Book Reviews 41/~pectrl1111

8 /The Photovoltaic Conference

By Sam Vanderhoof (Yopperficld

& Da&l *


energy focus
27lWind 32/Photovoltaics 35lSolar 37/Conservation

IO/A Sourcelist For the PV Shopper 12iGetting the Best of Both Wqrlds. . . The Photogenset
I,aurence Jim Cullcn Jenni&s

15 /A Photogenset Hybrid 17 /Readers PV Report

13rnic I);ividson

43/Cli~ssilid 44/ Directory 44/0rder
Ads ,

01 Advertisers I

.19/TRe Solar Breeder: A Bold Step By Solarex

Marcus J. Smith


2Q/Mixing Renewables: Combining Wind and Solar Electricity

Stephen I. Cook


Old Houses: The


Steven Kropper

-7 , .x

P .? ,



b .. I,. -_. , -z -,_F. . er .,.- ** I _ Y. &

Rubbed Wrong Way 0 r iif MPG Ad

Your issue (#58) is great in many I . ways. I learned a lot. But. the page 46 ad, re Oldsmobile with 78 mpg, certainly rubs me the wrong way. This is such a classic field for swindles; Did you look into the matter carefully and really satisfy yourself that a typical 1977 Oldsmobile could he converted, by a typical fellow with hand tools, to getting 78 mpg by installing $20.00 worth of new parts? The quality of ads inyour periodical has been high and I am sure you you&elfwantit to stay that way! Car makers are competing terrifitally. these days. to provide good mileage. They go to great cxpensc to cek out I more mpg. Yet this fellow in

the proclaim &I hw LI 30 duy r~rorwy Dont Miss An Issue back guuranree, which wf require ($ , Ive rccci&l my n~isscd issue and the. ttinil order advertiser.s. JLC qrtycl to I&I issue arrived at our nc& address forwurd the nmxs o~sott~t~ cws~ottwrx, ycstcrday. .Ytnir quick, personal re(IS recpcstecl. Hrtwewr, us ,hij Jitd sponsc is rcftishing. : dtmilitic~ Jiw thcj ksiw rrppnttrt*hd~ the Missing iIn issue made mc realize tmii0.s kid tiiu trrriwcl. A photri~ cull I0 how grcut the void would bc if yall .ILC wi.s ttitrtla (ml wrhtrl mwrww wcrcnt around. Thcrcs simply no pewris gi\wl lhul thp tic1mJ.s ~~~oltltl tw riodical a&und that covers the entire for~hcort$ng. Thty huve still not urrcncwuhlc energy field as.well as yall ri\wl mdiw bcjill ml run Ihi.s rid &uin do. Hope yall ca.n k:eQ Ihe owner/ undl the tiutms htrve hiwi rtwibwl. builder experiences and how-to artiGt~nerrrllg, 11~1hove ttwre suhtlt~ cles in every issue. $cnjoy:.,thehi imji&ytnctit.s to ttidw c~otri~t~rtritr~~ do. - mensel,y. not to mention the ,anctical For errttnplc. r/w witrcl itrtlrrsrt~~ hct.s.ytjt help Ive gL$-f?om them. Keep up:he. to rrtlrtpt .s~mclcirtl.s. trtitl so sottw congodd work, pitiic~s wti cltritti oirtpr~s Ihut lit-c optiMichcal Gibbs ttii.s,ic, hii, .sljll hcJ/o\~, Iheor&ctrl ir\,Ranbournc, Alahdma c~1.s. Cl~wr-!\I. the iticlustt~~ ttiiul adopt

PV Siting.

You really are to be complimented.on your work in the alternate energy field. Dissemination of the latest. up-to-date informq.tion and news of the latest innovations are the key elements of our future energy picture. Noel E. Kirkby Cave Cre&., AZ v
Manchcstcr. NH WOLIICI have us bclicvc that. Ior-;I mcrc !$20.00, the companic5 could up their milcagc by 20 or 40 111pg or xo! Who can belicvc this? Bill Shurclill Cambridge, Mass
Id .s Nore: Hill .Y /r,tc~r is rqmstw~~t/iw (!/.sc~*t~rul uhidi ut r-tJc~d\*etl frotti rcwtlers bc?lli .wriows cotIc.cJrtiiti,q l/w JLC curhirri~tor nd \\hidr qpwrd otl pgt~ 46 of ASE #5X LjGtw we qqtwf/ fo rutI r/w ml itI qiw.slioti, it w.s hased dttt Ib\it c*otrt/i li0tr.s. Gli~or.Lrrrty~ Sloitrkctr rcqrw~l~~il
,hc IIfII)IPS of Lll ILUSI 10 ,lr.sffvrl,r\ I,/

Ive been working with ph~lt~lv(~ltaic> il tix somcJinU2 and Would like ItI hIlillY SOIIIC insights 611 the suh~cct, A ~)I;II piltlel is 3 VCry SpCCiill hOllr~c lllc oLIt-. put voltngc riilc5 ~111 111i110~1 ri11~4 IO the (ltc~lI:141 VOlLlgC with II0 iIppIV~iIllll1~ in currciit. lhi3 I~~t!~ms-l1~iil WI111 IO 5 in VOl+l !I;lllCl illlkl II I2 VIII1 I\IIIIII~ I I I 7 VOll?l 1llil~lllllllll), YClll (ill1 lllll)ltl ItI dg,p OL'CI 2 Volt5 III IIIK; III\) with \+ir Illilll~ II11 ~1~~~1~11\1 I)(1 IIll Illilll~C. III 1
Yllll Iilll. IIbl .1(H) ltx*t L~IIIII~ll~, III i/I! \Cllll win1 Ih illlll?S

. e sottw .stiiticltirrl.s. As fitr thr ,Jrc/ wotlottt\* f!/ frrt~~ttttr~ t,ilo.s. OllC .shorr/t/ /W/J ,rtrYJ/Jti ttlftl,/ ,I\ lo bchrt is ttllcritrtrltlf~. (;tirtr/o/, II I.3 101 (11 likel~~ rlryl (I .ritrg/r* ttr*l*ir~r* 11,111 /Ilc~w
itlCt-Cl/;/J/P tc.W//\, htl Iht, J\

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tWiru/ rofr(tldfd It, Iwil~litiq tr~r/fwr~ hiks \dric~/r ,qf*/ /it,*/ 0 rwwltc*\ I)/ 75 ./ti /fKJ r,t/t,g. Irlr/rr~l/. rrltllrlu AlIS /llll~/ Ii-t
MW/~Vl. ;.\.\I,, hl,l,fV, /Ii\/ /hVl,ll/ I,/ l~~f~l,l1lll\: III , II,, ,4,,ll alItI //I,// \I(\ ,I/ 11) lllrl~: /71,* IIll;/ 4//,l,lflr 1.11111 ,\,, !/I,* I/ /Ill ./lr$ll /t~/rl,vrl, I\ l/I,. l,l,/l, l/l,*



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\. /AY.f f hlr~l,l/ \\./I,1 \1,11,' ,l\ IfJ\l ,I{//,I#II

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/lrw,'l~,'!. /1l//~///lf~ ,,/I\ /rr, /Il,\~ltIq I

1IlC. II/

the /~rodrciY IIim clirw~lq

,Irtrr his ~~fwlfl cfutlih I

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II \ AhI. .44\,,*1

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ing Ditwtor

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I )rA~ltl Rilrwiw

nor- 0111lI I&ll~i 101 \vI11 \-l/i* r.illc~ullllion \liltl~l\ IIll II111Illy I~nlc. II lh cells h!ct 1101,111~ iiilt~l vt~lliic(c tlr11p5, hut in .11111 \Vc~llll~l Yllll Il~llillly IlilVC more l)ll\VCl Ihilnll YClll Ilbl anyway. L A\ IOI 11lt* LII(ICIC, lhs nigh Icakage ~~iiii~~i~lwilhoul II il~oilc in the panels Iw lll~il~ll~~ll has ncvcr been more ~IIIIII iI lcw nlilliamps. Marc impoithnt A IIIL* tilcI IhaI il .7-VOII diode drop, is cqu~valcnt lo 60 feet of #I,2 wire Iilgilill ;II 4 i~ll~ps). II you need the disI;IILT antI do Icavc the diode out, meahl1i.C:the night leakage on your panel just lo bc sure. Why put the panel so far from the hattcry? Truly good sites can be-hard IO find. Rememter that a shadow on

. ,I. ~*


one cell reduces .the output current alARC0 and Solarcx panels wc,rc 1~ most as much as if the wholecpanel . scntcd. Then ihc Phojowatt panel W;,S ,, wCre shaded:If the shadow of so muc!Gribcd in. glowing tcrllls witll, 10 as a llagpole reaches your panc,l, yo; illltl hchi~ld. 110 nc&ilivc clualitics. ,s@~ld bc looking for a new site. A!1 aclvcrtisumcnt appcnrctl in front Ed Colaianni oltthc art@lc, indicating that Mr. Katz Ukiah, CA was introducing Pholowatl niodulcs. PV Controversy Hc is. in lilct, ;I /-/ro/oi~~~tr// di.s/rihr/or who no longer actively proniotcb comMany of us in th& day-to-&y business p~titorsproducts. That hc has a vcstcd of selling and servicing photovoltaic inlorcst in his own product line sucpanels were disturbed by a rcccnt articccding is quite clear. . cle you published. A Comp.arison 01 Mr. Katz further claims that he and Residential Photovoltaics (ASE his ;issociatcs have,, in three. years, #S6). that prcscntcd ;I biased and spccsold over 2,000 mndulcs and found. ulati,vc view of todays pri>ducts. It has Photowatts to bc the most reliable, done us and ,youzidcrs a grave dispanel available. scrvicc. L Isnt hc perhaps being a little ovcrThe csaay. by David t&tz and Pam enthusiastic about the product he now Wcllish, purported to rcvicw pros and distributes? Hes gained most of his cons (,f three brands of photovoltaic ficldaexpericncc using ARC0 and Somc)dulcs..Thc rcudcr was lccl to bclicvc Iarcx products. The Photowatt panels hc Or she couI_cl weigh the fcaturcs and havent been arourid long enough to. benefits of each module type to make ;I invite fair comparisons. Indeed Mr. morccnlightencd PurchasingddCcision. Katz states just that by letting us k+ Ducly. good a,nd bad fcaturcs of the
.s l

towards the end i)l the article, that his ckpcricncc with-lhcm 7s. litthed. Hoti then CiItl hc claim that they are the most rcliablc panel available, (A clear contradiction) The article also ins&ate8 that Photowatt has it full 5 year warranty which is completely untrue. Check their kiter-., aturc. I have personally queried Photo; watt on their warranty provisid.ns and had this confirmed by them..Their warranty is 2 years to Arsos-5, except
under special ~:itwitn.s/atzces

,I , 4, :>4 . I 6fy~~ 2.. ,, s; _ J ,a . =?: & $g?~ $f$


where $Q$ must incrcasc it in order to g&$tee a s%le. Firially, Mr: Katz attributes certain opinions t6 the Jet Propulsion Labontoiy. .He ShoGld quote such sources direcely, if hC can. I have pcrsbnally

ind lid& 8



to quote +nd use prerrm!p+gry

I rcccivcd such an inquiry a few days ago and I had to ,sit back and think. :Whcrc have I hcarU all this bcfore?: Ah yes, it was back in the,liftl! gr+lc when my teacher told mc and my classmates that clcctricity from nuclear power plunts~~was~ goingit bc so cheap that it would bc difficult to even -r mctcr its use. 1 It is time to barkofl from overly optimistic PV price piddictions. Anyone Cilll SCII [IlC lllIllW. I;l~~llllliltCly. iIS DilVid Coppcrlicltl@, $111 V;ltltlcrhO0l. Lapr-cncc Jcnningh and Paul ,Maycock-alt v&y involvccl in the PV Iicld-point out in II& i4suc 01 ASE Magazine, prcdictionh 01 the dramatic price rcdilctions ,just &hc carncr arc being toned down. The word i$ $ctting Olll tllill tI1CI.C Will bcatcatly ,i;ricc clccl incs iIS tll$ t~~hlll~ll~~y ~imi)rovcsnod the sudden hruakth?i~ughs which C~~~S~IIICI~~ wcrc hcing built up for. IJicn thcrc is the cltic5licni 01 total syhtcm cc&. lvcn il nioclulti prices {rap to the more rcalislic range ol2 to 4 clollar~ per peak watt by 1990, a Iin D iting factor will bc the cost of batterCullcn discuss imC ilSpCCt Of system -. its, invcr Tcrs, controls, and other design in this issue. There is still much hardware. Thcsc are already rclat~vcly ro&i foi dcvclopmenl in this arca, a mature tcchnologics which art not good cxamplc being the inverter, likely to undergo dramatic clccrcasc in which is constantly being redesigned 3priccj. Ifanythjng, they; will incrc;lsc in li)r iniprovcmcnts; is- more and more cost with inllation. Furthcrmqrc, retail cornpanics enter the field.. Load deWStS will not Rcccssar;~ly fall as fast as n;and cvnlrollcrs using computers, production costs, sin+ as the market such as in Cc&ii Powers Future I expands, distribution costs will prohahome. or computer-like circuits ar bly incrcasc. The unccri,ainty olthc ~LI- just beginning to be explored. New cnlure of tax crcdils ib also to hc consibiorgy cllicicnl water pumps, rGfrigcracrctl. As Laurcncc Jcnning pc;ints out tars. anl] oth~r,;lpplianccs arc now bein his article i;l t!li!, is,suc*: fjj, /err,ing intrc)ducc? on ;I regular basis. All thtrsitrg trll (I/ /lit, Ir\hricl .x\:r/utf (otuthchc ilc~~lti~pnlcn!~ take;1 togcthcr/~fJtrc,r/.s i .S,,U/// f/rltrlr/i/\~ c!//J/r!J/rJ- stcatly PV price rutluclion~, imp&cd IlY/h lr,l/rricx. ~Oll \lill Ire (/II/~ /I, lot A ,ill SYSICI!~tlssigns. and the dcvclopment /Ot/fl,l :v lo\~~r~lric~c~.v fltfd I)l,.cli,~il;/~~,/i~t. 01 nlorc cfticicnt appliances-arc hclp/Ire e.r/rettrt~!\~ rr//rrrc~/i~y ji~d~rtrl I[/.\ ing io niakc, pholovoltaics il growing . . c~rivli/.s /w/;we /~lre~~go //I(* II~/JI ,!/ /lr~~ .i!lltl incrcosingly nlllXcllVf2 Irjdustry.
iwcJ tlollf~r hill. As /h pricy par pet//i il(l// I?/ ~/ro/flloI/rric.s ilrll/l.s, ~011 (1111 .slo~~l~~ ridd io ymr etrer,gj* p~r~fit- Ii0 .




A ~OOCIapproach to cost reduction then is,tbrough cfficicnt sy,m, design and, whcrc posaiblc. mlnimlzlng cnorgy clcniands to stiirt with. Coiiscr-V~~-~~ Lion is still, and witI continue to bc. the P b&t policy! Larry Jennings and Jim

I/ \*ofti~~~lw ttfcrlc II j /I, t~qlwist i/l .i ,srhalrrll~ . .

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Wllld Ixuiw t/(2/




(JulylAt~ps~) #63/ W~~~~d/Hi~rlklh (Sc~~l/OclJ #IFI/ WIIl~I/~Il~~I~Iv~~llilicI (N~w/l)cc~



Sources ol Energy

, lindings bcforc they arc comprehcnsivc and linali~cd. JPI. doespt do it.) Mr. Kat/ also faila to tell the rcadcr ---.~!;I1 Arccj Ilila ch;lllgctl its I;llllilliltc dc\,~h-~y~lig;ilc this- LQismctic cllcct.
SIIILT !lCilld Ill;il-hlc,,~ Of ilIly JMVC 1101 SCLII OI i

Il~o~lUli-~ti~c0lorilti~~~~OC3 <urrlng. Nor hi\vc I cvc?h~c~~,.i~blc IO IIIc;Ihurc ANY p!)wcr 1oss in th>nl&l htylc IIICXIUI~S that have cxpcri~nceil ~~~~i~,c:lil~ll;llilin.It is also instructive to lltrtc th;lt IhOl~~Wiltl llSC<~illlll0St idcnti~111materials in the construction ol il their modules. Now make no mistakcahout it, the firm for which I work is Solar Electric Specialties Co., a fully factory autho rizcd distributgr for Arco Solar Inc. Mr. Katz. as a Photowatt distributor, is clearly our competitor. I dont quarrel the ostensible goal of his article: to hcll~ llc(>l>11: compare .,t<ldiiys s<jl:il clcctric products. But, the Katz article1;til.s to do this. Hc tells the reader whats bad about cotnpetitors products. and leaves Photowatt smelling like a .rose.My own opinion, as a product researcher and qngineer, is that both Photowatt and Arco manufacture bx-. ccllcnt products. I say Ict them compctc on their own merits-out in the

licl&noJ in [IlC IXIFCS Of iI carcfuliy written piccc 01 sales litcraturc which clainis to bc ali objcctivc arliclf. My main complaint howcvci. lies wilh this Illil~il~illL!. Ihilt lllCKlliIlllS will ICnd 10 unobjcctivcly CVLllUillC I conipctitor products .whilc endorsing lhcirtiwn is not ul~usual.z Howcvcr, it is your special responsibility as an cdtlcati(;nal mag;lzinc to guarantee the c~/~j~~*!i~il~r and factual content of the inalcrial you print. Otherwise why print it? Moot of the time I think.>ou demore than an cxccllc,nt job. But the Katz ar- _ ticlc is a damaging exception. Expectlng the cat to watch the canary usually is. Thats why we have agencies like JPL. Why not submit such articles to intlustr$ peer review before printing o tlum~,. I wouldurgc you to do the S;~I~IS with Ihis Icttcr. . D Laurcncc Jennings // Product Rkscarch :,\nd D,e,velopmcnt , Solar Electric Specialties Co. I Wil/its,, CA

Katz and Wellish Respond

WC would like to thank Mr. Jennings for extending us the opportunity to respond to his letter. WC do not believe Mr. Jennings read

A lot ofvalue for your money. ARC0 Solar Remote Home, -power Systems. ARC0 Solar <,
PtlolovollnIc PlllOllC15 Today Isolated Plc~trlc:ll ,I IS posslblc homrs wllh pow, to t>rov~de CVC,I the tmosl a rcl~ablc source of ARC0 Solar photovoltnlc syslems can p&er most 12.volt nppl~ances sllch as radios. T Vs. Iwo-way radms. wnlcrSpllmps. srriall relr~geralors or many other ~tcms W~thil slmplc AC ~nverler, they cilrl also br USId IO ,ur, num~!rO,,s ,slllatl l?IRCIrIc tools and eq!llpment The heart 01 any pholovollalc power syslcm IS the rnorlulr ARC0 Solar !rtod~tlos are Ilc~htweqht, ruggod ;ind spcc~ally orlr~lnwrcd lo qvrz you rnnx~m~~m powr us~nq m~n~rnum spncr ALBAN SOLAR OFFERS POWER A FULL SY$TEMS. LINE 6F ACCESSORIES FOR


For More lnformaiion & Name of Nearest Dealer

CALL COLLECT (301) 355-6700

1401 Cherry Hill-Rd. Baltimore, MD. 212?5

Altcrnativc Sourcrs of Energy/60 -

our iIrlicIc wilh ill1 Ojxll mind. He thinks ou< :!rt.iccc conyludcs that Iho tOWiltl 1% ncls iII.ClllC ,hCSt ;lVililillilc I I .j pan& and, Ihat Ihc Arc0 illlll &jl;Ircx pilllCl!i arc no got?d. This is cntircly ih.__ correct. In the very beginning ,;?tT;c ,, article WCstate, All of these companits make excellent products. , As a matter of fact. some pcoplc have read our article and then selc,ctcd Solorex panels. Nowhc,re in t&z article is the Photowatt described as the niost reliable panel av$lable. . Mr. Jennings claims the Photowatt panel was ,de%cribdd iti glowing terms and with no negative qualities., Rereading the article will prove: our description o,f the Photowatt panel. to bc objcctivc and certainly- not glowipg. That our cxpericnce with the Phdl towatt panel was limited (at the time I the article was written) .by the rclativcly short amc&nt of time WC had been selling it, w;!s niost dcfinit$y in- : tcndcd to be a negative quality. If we . . had known of any other nc.gative quali- ! . ties. we would hhve included-them, and. _ . if Mr. Jenqifigs knows of any. we . would be most intcrcsted in hearing _ about them. WC believe we gave Arc-o credit f6r lllillly postiive qualities (for example:. i , exceeding power &tplit rdting, five year warmnty. pioneering home markot). In fact. WC we& thanked by C,h8les Parker, Sales Manager of Arco, Solar, Inc. It would nat.bc responsible. \ howovcr, to Icave. out., the problems wcvc rcpcatcdly cncountcrcd; specititally the cas!lly broken output terminals and the encapsulant discolomtion. When a customer comes in to ask why his panel is rusting (arid, this hippens fairly often), is it enough to an; * swer that Arco doesrit believe this will cause any .pr&blcm? 01 C&X, there ;;re no published iesults of JPLs preliminarp findings; and weStated in the -nrticlc that the liniil results tiont be known until mid 1983. Because ,thc studi& i;rc being paid for hy the manu. facturers, it YilS difficult to &t info!- . mation irom JPL, WC dti finally talk to a reprcscniativc who furnished us with the informat@n WC used in the ar- + .ticIc and who did not want to be clii~tCd by name. We arc happy. to hear that Arco has changed its lamination design and sinccrcly hope this will solve t,hc discoliiratitin problem. A possible reason Mr. Jennings has, _ no1 bqcn ablc%i IlllilSlII% power loss in . modulcswith discoloration is because these panels have beep in USC ICSSthan* three years. compared to the acccldr-, 6 0* , / .

anct: Al-co panels may. appear to bc idCIltiCi!l. hut tlicrc is a difference bctwccn nickel and silver metalization -and the way it reacts with the PVB enfl0." capsulant. , As we stated in the article, Arcos 5 year warranty has forced Photowatt, as _. * well as Soiarex, to extend their 2 year warranties; Consequently, every Phot&s over the last lhrcc years and was* towatt ML5010 and ML7010 panel we clearly lab&d as such. Mr. Jennjngs sell carries a 5 year warranty. calls for letting the various solar panels We-sell photovoltaic panels. We do compete on their own merits, ou not own stock in Photowatt and do not the field; We couldnt agree more, have a vested interest in their comthat is exactly what we stated in the pany. We do have a vested interest ,in 18 last sentence of our article. selling high quality solar panels at reasonable p,rices: We now carry photoDavid Kaiz I voltaics produced by three companies: Pam ,Wellish .ARCO Solar Inc.. Photowatt IntcrnaAl&native Energy Engineering Altcrnativc Etlcrgy tional Inc., and Solarcx Corp. Mr. JenRcdway, CA nings sells only Arco panels. If any, a Painting Our FutureU . thing, we are far less tied to- Photowatt Energy Picture than he is to Arco. We strongly object to our article beWe recently received ASE #56ing described as a carefully written another excellent issue! Our firm enpiece of sa1e.s literature. We never 7 works entirely with photovoltaic claimed the article to be compjetely crgy systems,. so we especially cnobjective. It was .written based on joyed the article by David Katz on our cxpcrience with selling solar pancomparisons iifPV equipment. A very

iltCtl lOotO 20 YCilr CqUiVillClll lllOdlll~S used in the JPL testing. VW ni:ktcrids udxl in the construction Of ItlOl~~Willt


Missing an.issu~@@Bke .I the void wbuld bad Theres simply. rib b&f the . entire renewable ef .
;:i,. '

Micheal Gibbs * Ranbourne, Alabatia --objective and &cise &ncise summary of available products. Q Our 16 page. Planning Booklet and Catalog is. avaiiable for $1 and inh eludes farmore information than prod uct literature. It features a resource list - that we feel is genuinely helpful and that, by the way, -includes ASE as one ~ ,, of only three magazineswe re;c,o.n~- mend. l -0YOLI reafiy arc to bc complimented .I 1. .I .,. on yourtisork in the alternate energy field. Dissemination of the latest upto-dat,c information and news: of.the latest innovations are the key elements 01. our future energy picture. Noel E. Kirkby, President , Solar Electric Systems Box1562 -, Cave Creek, AZ 85331 _ J . I

to Electrici@

Sources of Energy
Surdigkt in One Step, (B&house. T


In your book Photovoltdcs:

Publishing Co.), you statedbat photovoltaics will be fully ecoilomic for massive private use befores major .utility can design, purchase; and install its next nuclear reactor. Arc you still comfortable with that piediction?

* : I<

Paul Maycock *
I think this is absolutely true with the Sunbelt utilities, especially in California. where the intervcnor cycle takes maybe an extra two years. I assume, and most pcoplc indicate, that it takes twelve years from start to finish to build a nuclear reactor. Thllt means, if we start .with 1982, al lcast 1994 bcfore one could come on line. ,I think theres absolutely no doubt that PV systems will be installed lir-about twd dollars a- watt, or two thousand hollars a kilowatt, with about a 22% capacity =-+--v factor by then, and,that comes out to bc,cconomic with peaking power from coal or nuclear in that. kind of climate. So I think the statement still. holds,


Sources of Energy

L -The catch-22 on.photovoltaics seems to be.that those people who arc doing their research and seriously considering a purchase, invariably come across the information that within two to five years the price of photovoltaics will drop dramatically. Will it drop drrimat- ically if those same people .thcn decide to wait? In other words. hill the largest price reductions result from an accelerated rate of purchase or from R&D that is unrclatc,d 10 talcs vt,lumc?

And people will buy, IO-20 megawatts. When PV is, +wn to five dollars .a watt, the market will be on the order of 100 mciawaits a ycai and at that time, a 100 mcgawatis will bc sold. So this Xlca that ~COPIC ar(: waiting is correct, but thcrc arc cni>ugh of ihcm iLI the a prcscnt p&s lo pull in some cosl rc&u&in. Now your scoond point, the nix ol market pull versus technology 4! Cvelopmcnl; I woulcl si;y ii*s about 50/50 right now. As WC grow , size factories to S~IYC ihc largcrmarkct, the cost reduction in economics 01 scale and automation and so on arc about half of the cost reduction that occurs and the other halfqcomcs ffom intrinsicillly IlCw proccsscs. So jts not an either or, its sonic kind of Combination of both lbrccs. Now tt point in the market is when WC get to _ roughly ttio dollars a watt. Then the--,market will easily bc a thou&d mcg~iWatts il ye* r or more, on a worldwide f basis. I think those numbers, I-Omcgawatts at IO dollars, 100 megawatts at fiVC dollars and a 1000 megawatts at 2

\ 1 \; I *,


lion. I oil cri:

CwllC k

. I. .:..~.

mntic movC to 1

thats.1 with 3 tilli~ati take o p.robab

those who do market rcsqrch, myself. Obviously. its a crys forecast. but SO far itscomc ir CIOSCto what WI: cxpcctcd. .



Sourcq of Euerg~
for .

Paul Maycock
A very interesting market r~latctl question. Thcrc has always been, whencvcr thcrc is ;I possibility of a luture reduded price, a certain group 01 people who will wait. This was tr-uc when the calculators wcrc coming down . . pcopl~ btiught calculatol:s at $500, a few of them, and then a bunch of them boilght them at $10.00. All of uswho have been in the business of doing market rcscar?h know that this is, $,allcd price ClastkiIy. And price CIiIsticily is prccisly what relates lo photovoltaics. WllCll photovoltaics ilK lcn -~---__c is SO~Cdollars a yatcO Ilrc~rarkct whcrc bctwccn IO and 20 IllCgaWiItlS.

DO YOU SCC il IlLW lilllClilhlC


cluclion of PV prices?

Pnul K/laycoCh
@crluinly. Im now IO~CI roughly two tl(lllilrS (I9H2 &I .,


Paul Maycock


century, near2000. well havcli3ur 01 five niajor producers, as with any olhcr cimimi~dity and well scltlc in. I would suspect that thcrcs a good probability that Arm and Solarcx could bc one of those four, or five.
. I

In ASE #58, ARC0 representative Arthur Rudin was quoted as saying that the American PV manufacturers are at least bne year, and in, some casts two years, ahcad 01 the Japanese in amorphous iilicon technology. Rudin admittctl that the Japancsc will give us
a mii fidcnt Ibr i~iir~iioncy, but hc was ctin-r


Sources of Energy
do you seew.inin9 the short run

Which PV technology ning out and the long run?

that well niaintainour Icadcrship role. Do you agree with this scenario? Do you 4 share ,Rudips confidence, cspcci+lly in light of: your recent trip to Japan?

Well, we cant do mucl?ibout it. Mr. Reagan has made his mark. The industry has responded. and moved ahead with their own risk capital. Althbugh I think that a larger Fcdcral progtim is in order, I just want to keep it from going any sn~aller. As long as we have a 60 million dollar federal PV budget. I think WC can go ahead and keep the American industry strong. When I think about it, I guess the thing that bothers nit, !iiorc than anything clsc is that whilC WC arc c;utting IhcPrc-, ncwables to hell. WC arc still incrcasing the fission, fusion. and thcdhrecdcr. I just think thats an unbclieveably diflicult policy to swallow. I

,; I


Sources of Energy

Paul Maycock
Well; il youre rcfcriing to niidi~lc~ Icchnology. cleiirly its single ~~++Zi hilicrm in the next two to three y$ars. The Scmix is coming up $fy quickly antI will hc number two in year three, clearly. And it will hc silicon and ~mix in the next live years as the tlomi11ant rnarkct technology. Ribbon will alay at ten lo liliccri pcrccnt, conccntrators will also hc at about ten to . Iiliccn pcrccnt five $cars off. and then. the thing that will cons right through lhc pack. gaining roughly twenty live Lo thirty pcrccnt of the world market in I990 will bc amorphous silicon. I can see no other matqitil gaining nluch more than IO pcrccnt of ttic world n&kct by IWO. The new prc)rluct is always at+ ;I disaclvantagc. You donl have pr~~vcii Iongtcrn~ dqt;i, you dont ha\c proven liability hla, aid YOLI get bonlc pcoplc who arc doing it hcttcr lh others. You alwayr, have ii rcluctancc oii the part 01 the market to shift lroni sonicthing lhcy really bclicvc in , mcl undcrsland. cspccially il il.r conlinually dccrcas<ng in price. So il just I;IIW time. Not that ;I wholly new nr)nsilicon cc41 is no1 going to hccoinc jl reality. its jusl going to take il lo1 niorc time thi1n sonic pcoplc lhink. The h~;iillirics Ihill My 00 CWth ;I W;ltl h ~1111orphotibsilicas is jtisl fmppy6.k. Its lust no1 going to happcii on all in~IilIIl~IIICOLI\ hasis; lll;lylW in I990,

I understand that youve got another If you divide technology into research. book &the wings on photovoliaics. in jh.e laboratory. then I think his stats- . Can you givC us an update on that? mcnt is nearly corrcct,in that3thcrc are Paul Maycock some research teams in the U.S. that 1 I have two, well actually three. We , arc ahcad of .thc Jupancsc. . whether have updated Photr)~~olttrc~i.s: Sutdight its six months. a year or two years, its IO EIcctr-iciij7 in Otw .%c~J and the new hard to know. So I think if you said version shoujd bc ,availa,blc this that technology identically equals rc. March. WC have just published a starch in his statcnicnt, then hes cormonogt;aph called Attrc,ricct ChuI~ rcct. I fyou said that technology equals Im,gd: Pl1olo~r)ltrric.s in z/trptti. That /~t~~~s.s IP(~/IIIO/O,~~~. is, the ability that hook is now available $roni hiy comto product arcas with cfficicncy, lonpany. Photovoltaic Energy Systems. gcvity and sonic of the cost reductions Inc., and costs $200 hccausc of the in the phy&s of amorphous silicon; 1 very limited 1parkct and thE cosf of the think the Japnncsc arc at least I8 research-weve sold quiic a few copmonths ahead of the U.S. There arc no its already. The third hook, and we haU.S. Iirms in Ijroduction wl-iutsocver. vent picked with the ublisher t e ex9 although thcrc arc sonle very high ilCt tiilc. Im. calling it PV fl 0111 PE quality U.S. rcscarch teams. The only -a Ditwt~Jt;\ wil.l.covcr sonic 200 photodilfcrcncc I see bctw&nthc Jnpancsc voltaic powcrcd houscs,~mainly off the rcscarch a@ the U.S. rcscarch is that grid. with pictures and descriptions of the Jqwncsc rcscarch. is using prcprowhat the owners like and dislike aboul v~~ccutiiii cqL1ipr duction multi-chanlhcr will bc at lcast one incnt & the U.S. rcscarch is still in n cvcry state in the hell jm. So lhc Japx~sL; transfcrthci1 US. & rcscarch results into production niuch a Purr/ Mrryrm*k is u~twtitl~~ t/w jwsicluickcr then the U.S. dots. The Japn(IctJl o/ PhotcJ~d~~tic~ Ettrr;q,y Sytettts, wsc arc ahlc to take the rcscarch Ittc. (2401 Cltilds Lmw, Alerrrtrrlrio, rcstills at the University of Usak#, in VA 22308). He is m rlitmmr of i~olh the lab. and lhcn translcr ;,, Dr. I-laniakawas Solrrr Etrrtyyy. 1tldlt.sttjc.s As.socicrtiotr .Ihal to lhc inclus~r.y, I hclicvc, much 4i;iT/- hu Attwricnn Solrrr Etwrg.v Sodlui~kcr lhcn any other ;icadcniic procvy. Ptrrd \\U.S rlrr rlirccl(Jr f$ r/w lkrani in the U.S. ptrtttwtrt (f/ Eicr;qy .s PIto9(~~lolttriL..s , Di~~isiotr rrtrtl lwfitw t/lot ?@pttt, 13 1

Paul Maycock


Sources of Enepy

- y

Wlial do


of the govcrn;iicnt

ywr:s Iilitlr Thus rir,.s tf/ pt.sitiotr.s

tl(J/(J<() jJr.iJdliit

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7 *

* 1

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it aI) but impc~ssiblu to ask qucs-.

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~O/Alteroative Sobices of Energy B , e .. .

By Laurence Jennings
he characteristics of a photov:ltaic utility-remote home power system I read like an alternative energy friends generated wish list. Photovohaic electricity is simple, clean and quiet-. It is a non-violent energy source with virtuglly no moving parts and is thcrefore long lived. Its ridiculously easy to install and maintain, rclntivc to Y \ other hltcrniHi.Vc sources of c6 4&al and power. Ecluipmcnt availability tiarrantics arc tht best ,to bc found, Finally. the modularity of a photovoltaic power system makcg future expansion (or contractioti) an absolute brcezc. Figure l.shows a typical photovoltaic utility-rcmotc home power sy?tem. A photovoltaic array which pi~d~ccs d.c. electricity charges a battcry bank through the PV charge controller. The battcrics ,providc ,input power to an invcrtcr which ig turn makes a.c. clectricity available to the dcsircd loads. lil addition, d.c. power directly fromthc batteries is avaiiablc for any d.~. loads present. The PV charge controller scrvcs 2s tl1c tmin of the system, . making sure that the battcrics arc not 1 ovcrchargcd or over discharged. As cvcryonc knowi. the mi~jor dis- I advantage 0.1stand alone photovoltaic power systems is tlicir high initial co,st. Its neat stuff but its cxpcnsivc. The price pcr.,pcak,;watt is supposed: , to drop radjc$$@~ough just when. or at what ray?, $$$y!\~~~~s gucss. On the otl&$md thcrc iS an ilbUlldant sour-cc obcl&irical~ cnc.rgy thats been aiound for cluilc awhile illld fib quircs tik lowest initial capital otilay cncrgy option. of any ill~C?rlliltiVC This is Ihc Gcn-set plus system. One li)rm,, ils illustrated in Figure II, utilizes an cnginc generator that produces a.c. power to drive a large industrial ; grade haltcry charger which produces * d.c. clcctricjty to charge a gI;oup 01 storage hattcrics. As with the phottian invcrlcr IJicn VOltiliC SyStclll, changes the d.c. power stored i-n the batter@ hack to a.~. clcctticicy l&,usc in the home. Naturally, ,for; d.~. loads, . d.c. electricity frtim the batteries can bo used as well: Again, a modified
1 n


version of the PV charge controlle; act: as the systcn; brain, coordinat, ing the vniious components into a _. . complete, .automalif system. The Gcn set plus systems chief advantage is low intial cost for a! almos\ limitless quantity of clcctric;ty. The drawbacks howcvcr act numerous lind read like a list of photoioltaic opposites: .- Engine generators ,arc noisy and, polluting. The large quantity of movIng parts they contain rcquircs them to9 have frc&ent,,maintcnancc pcrformcd and,virtually guarantee cquipmcnt failures. They arc also absolutely dcpcnd&on a sou~cc nl fuel. No fuel, no power-period.

. .

: _ ,

The Beauty Meets the Beast


Y (0 0

photovoltaic and Gcn %iet plus systems certainly dont have much in common. It is for prccisely this reason that. they can bc mated together to produce . a hybrid system which goes a long way toWards solving .thc original problems oIcw~. Such a system is ill&& ltud in Figure 1II.,Lct Us, take ;I momeh*to ex~illllillC, Some Of lhc synergistic ctfccts



crcatod wheri the photovoltaic SIIbsyskm is intcrlilccd with the ion .sc plus :t subsystem to produce, the ?Phol.ogcnI _, %.sc1 hybrid. By vjrtuc of the variable riaturc of 4. I





Alkrnativcr$;ources of Energy/60

.: . p equally asinsidious, is the .larger fraction of the anay output required to offset battery self-discharge losses and ulorc irtiportant: to provide the n&ssary periodic equalizing charges which usually takcthc form of a measurcd ovcrchargc. The latter point is not well documented and often overlooked by photovoltaic systcn~ designcrs. (especially when lead antimony deep cycle batteries are utiliz>d). a.

3 . the ntcessary repairs arc made. The V~IUC of this cheek and balance design approach should not be undcrcstimatctl, us reliability is the watchword wticn it cu~ni&S to altcrnativc power
gCnkltiOl1. .

,, lnting the Gen set to backup*status. The reasons for this arc simple; and a little backtracking will show why. .+ n

Reducing lnefficiencjl


In cxchangc for solving the autononly r~l;ltcde~p~~~sc: problem, the PV subsystem tnitigatcs the chronic en: ginc generator shoricomings by rcgu-

cncrally, photovoltaics as a function of the battery iioragc s~system, are a IOW rate tharging sat-cc. A suitably sized Gcn set plus syytern on the other hand, is a very high rate charging






By Laurence Jennings
n the golden hills above Fremont,


<.j . -

TJrc incorporation of the Gcn sets plus suhsystcn; into the phoh~voltaic system design, as shown in Figure III, totally cliininntcs the need to build in system autoflorlly. iIS it climinatcs the worst cast sccnjlrio. When the PV leg of the system provides insullicicnt power lin any rcason, bc it iidvcrsc wcathcr or incrciiscrl power dcmancl, the gcn set is autoniatically brought on line to jnovic!.c thu rcquircd baci?uup power. The rCsultant savings arc suhstantial as well soon see. A fringe hcnclil of this approach tocost rcduclion is the added systcni rcliahility that the in~or-l):;ltic,n 01 ;I hackup cncrgy source proviclcs. Should the PV suhsystem go off lint liar any reason, the , cnginc gcncrattrr is siiillding hy, ready 10 provide power illl&ViCC vcrw. until
I * .

The retrofit cost about $1 I;000

60/Alternulive Sources of tinergy

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source and is most efficient when operated at peak ou!put. Ndw to compiicat,e matters, deep cycle. batteries of the type commonly tised in these power systems, like both high and low charging rates. High when they are in a low state of charge, and low when they are in a high state of charge. This situation results in the gcn set being mn very inefficiently for a large portion of its duty cycle (the last 25-35% or so) because its large output capability is wasted to a degree as the battery charger automatically tapers its output downward, providing the lower charg. ing rates the batteries require in order to prevent the deleterious effects of severe ovefcharging. The problem is solved in the Photogcnset hybrid system by using the backup Gcn set plus subsystem only lor the initial high rate charging. This is accompl,ishcd by the brain of the hybrid system, the photovoltaic charge control&r, which is designed .to automatically bring the engine generaivr on line when the hattcrics reach a maximum allowable state of discharge (typically about 70%). The Gen set plus subsystem then runs full bore at peak efficiency until the batteries are at an approximate 60% state of chBrgc at which point the charge controller shuts the engine generator off. The gentler low rate charging characteristic of the pho- tovoltaic subsystem is then available to perform the upper leg of the charge cycle and to finally top the batteries off in a trickle mode. In this way the hybrid system capitaiizcs on the strengths of each of its power gcnerating subsystems and minimizes their weaknesses. Overall system efficiency is kept high; as needless wear and tear on individual system components is kept low. This* ih turn guarantees longer component life aild hence reduced evential equipment costs, while insuring a more reliable and flexible power system. Indeed, with proper system sizing and design, demand, is hard pressed tg,excecd supply. (Good rlcws to mosf PV system owners!)

w.a$& as are days. $&the same time the currently available tax credit& rclcvant to alternative energy gen&ting equipment are here today, but may very well be gone tomorrow. \

. * things these most


Cost Comparison
Now lets take a look at two different 24Vd.c.1115Va.c. remote home power systelns to .illustrate the above purdhasing strategy. .Both systems power identical loads, utilize the same invcrter, system brain or charge controller and battery type. The main difference lies ih the alternative energy source themselves, and therefore the size of the battery storage bank. Table I details a stand alone system that derives I&)% ofits power requirements from photovltaics. Table II depicts a Phbtogenset hybrid that employs a much smaller PV army with, a Gen set plus backup subsystem. As the tables show, the stand alone PV system costs roughly three times .

The Photogenset hybrid provides a sitnpli solution to this dilemma. By purchasing all of the hybrid system components with a small quantity of: photovoltaics, you will be able to lock in, todays lower prices and be eligible for the extremely attractive federal tax credits befofe they go the way of the two dollar bill. Then,, as the price per pehk watt of photovoltaics drops, you can slo$ly add to your energy portfolio myth the same way a commodities trader .cautiously adds to his holdings in a bottoming futures market. -. ,




koTovoLT~Ic ARRAY; 1520 pW @ $l2/pW


,, &24a 13,68( 1,m 2,301 35,22( 31.dh .






$ b.ool ,

Why Buy Today?

Photovoltaics is a price declining markct. Few people want to drop a sizabld chun.k of cash down on a large photovoltaic array, only to see the price per peak watt they paid for their PV mod_ ulcs drop by 50% in the space ofa few years. On the other hand, the cost 01 photovoltaic balance of system com, ponents needed to complete a remote home power system are spiraling up-


2,85( ioc 2,30( 2,40( 76(1 225 15,235 11.235

, .

14 I.

Alternatiie Sources of Energy/h

I what the Ptmgcns~l totals, l-ora 1x3

initial savings of $20,000! When one nearly $14.000 batten years or so, the point is divcn tmnc. Also nolc Ihut ig wintcr, our. worsl c;isc situalion. thC s(ullcJ :llonc PV systcni is c;lpahlC 01 producing ;1 ni;lxiniuni :lCCfilgC Of 5 KWH per d;iy ;~nd is without ;I hac)ctCp p()wcr s()urcc, Tlic Ptiotogcnscl. on tllc other h&id, has fhc abilily IO clmlicizc to nicclalniosl any tlcil~antl Ihis rcniolc home is likely 10 ttnlnl t~p.;~~;tl hi)!, built-in h;lckLlp pOlCfl~i;ll aSa WLLl,I. Thcrc is ;I catch olco~~~~sc.ltic IIIo- . logcnsct*intikc il5 rival. .docs IllilkC noise illltt p;ir1 01 the systclii rclyb oil I.4tltrcw7 .Icttttitt,q.v is- 1111~ pro(/tt(y r(nIiIssil fuel. I Iowcv~~~. Ior [tic ~Ituat$~~~l,,, +$C(lrCll .Spc~itrlisl \tliflt Sttlttr E/ E. q,,,,,, sysiclll. Itic ;Ivcr;ipc gcncraltir ninnlQf+a,j ,,,, .$#jcrjfje.r:, co. fp, 0, H(,.~ j-77 +,, liiiic wilt I>c iii [tic ilcighhorlio~,~l~~~~~ + !,I~~,~;~~:Mlil~~~.~;~~~ 95490), A Of lllrf only niiic hours per WCC~. Not had br ,@gp.~f AR~~~~iIi~~tritttit~tr.~ III~ 11. itr .\*, Ihc iriili;;i savings involved. Also, keep ill niintl thal ;IS you cxp;bnd your by~ICnI in Ihc ILiIurc (when PV $/pW Cf)sls rlcclinc) Ihc gcncnttor will mn . Ichb illld tCSS illld.

A Photogeiiset I
By Jim Cullen Waite? and Edvidge (Eddy for short) Ross decided to build their beautiful home above ,Healdsburg in the coastal mquhtains overlooking a sc8nit wine growing area of California. Their three story dome home is a spacious 3200 square feet, complete with solarium, Jacuzzi, clothes washer, dryer and a myriad number of hbusehold appliances. 12 vplts d.c. is used for liqhts and five circuItiting pumps for hit water. O?e pump each circulates water through two wood stove heat exchangers. Three more purrips circulate water through a solar drain-back domestichot v& ter-system. All the pumps are monitored by a 12volt temperature differ-. ential control: A converted Maytag wrj-@er washer works on 12 volts ho. A vacuum and nu[nerous other % light household appliances are run through a, BEST M12-1000 invorlnr j tha! delivers 600 watts of conlinour; 12.0 volt a.c. pokier on demand nnd up to a 4.0 kwh. surge for starting 11 I duction and capacitor motor!i. Pro pane gas is used for rnlrlf,lo+PIt/n~ 1 and cooking. Tlae BEST Irlvortui ~~llt isfies most -of tho Ro!i!;:i ic~f,l~~l~cr r+ents, bet whon hi\fI 1 @@P)ln(I WII
ler pUmpJti(I l.lI ;I dll~tJ ttJ+Jt III

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enough power !

prolonged sunless period; Illorc~ II plenty of time for ropnlrs, ov(911 !I ~(il ill most remote -aron. Eddy rubs thal tllmwal \~cllw~r&~t tom just two CIAYAA wmk,. mi\&\t Imrrm, while cloin~~~ 101 cl101818~~~,atlll~Q 0tI olnctricity, wlii(:l~ ~)~nv/clc~t~ fl~4rrr3lllac I .4 kwll, ~.I~\lly(IIPWMI OII IIIII rbmtrq~~~
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YN lo &&N .wnd Eddy would have / mxcec~lncl $12,7.00,00.. Because the lr~x oredllii dro llrnlted-by the governrrr@nt lo PI maximum expenditure of Ifi ttiocr8end dollars in any one year, rf;2,700.00 of mtvta?idAlonm system would not have qualillcel:l.

I (1\;;1/i:l,(:.). I tl,is lu 010 plrrjlrrvolAdc tnl(: 411rbiy~~i~lpirl 41f~l yrnr lima 14t1 lm pr nrrwlvw I Il~rlly !QlrlsCll ocltplrl total. t(:wI 111~~~otilrl :I,: kwli ur dtx5.d 9&O
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Tha paradox is the more k-&h. one netids, the.more economical tha Phoiogenset Hybrid b&omes. Walter Ross is a Ships Master and Is away from home for up to two months at a time. He needed a r&i
,_ able, simple power system, One he,

I :I )f8rl 111~rrnnns r~lhoiil $9,600.00 (ex- II I (:I(It IIt t{j tI I(3 @WlOr~~i~orthey already I IWI IBJ~ r41.1c.l I) li5(%1 of thabwill be re-,

needed, thciy riwltc:h OII l)lfij II,~: ;~~VJII orator It +: irl.lUtr> :C!I kwl I I Ilrriirhl

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liii 1101 to thorn as tax credits for I 1!111;?, ~~ltIr:othsy qua!ify for a 40% lill( 10rcll crncl ~I!Y/o California state tax r:r(!9dlt on tha cost of all equipment rind inr@llation except the fossil ftislocl generator). II AYlC:( ):I!, WIllI /)!;I U1:%1)00I
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twci ~I,I~IIIWIU~:U IUI~~I~IIV~I trrlckore, . IIIVI IJIIIVIII~I rA~r+ioI(,) 1 II kwll, daily, Jim C&en is.the author ofhbu Zb Be kM1 Y Ii/h :ilb) 11111~J 12 vdt d.CL ; system but would have required a toIll(,j ~10111 Your Own Power Corn y (Vi~Nosl )111lt!t Iti IX )I IIw~;~o~ 111 II pwmllol. This tal of fifte?n photovoltaic modules bund Reinhold Co. ld? $10.95) nnd iiI1if)iitIt!~i 111 ;I.IS kwll. 01 storage plus two larger and mote costly pascurrently the energj consultant for IIIIIIII~,J~I IIJI 1111iu bir3von sunless sive tracker.s. At about $400.00 each Real Goods Wing Compariy, 308 ! fily~r I VIII I g 0 10 goneralor should for the seven additional modules and East Perkins St; Dept. ASE, Ukiah, I IIWI~I11 II looI lilnicnl trouble during a I about $300 more for trackers, the CA 95482. z 0 0 I5 6WAllernative Sources !)1Energy , * * I, :1 *

felt confident Eddy could deal with when hes away from home. I asked Walter why he didnt hook up to public utilities, being just two miles away from their power pole. I checked the telephone company first, since they are about the same distance away, He said, ,They walited $13,585.67 to @stall a telephorie. I wasnt about 10 spend more i than that for utilities, so I didnt even call for an estimate.

-Hoofig .
by Ernie Davidson


: ,_, -
Alicr weighing Ihe, pros and cons, WC decided on ~lourcsccnt lights. The first thing Iclid was rcplacc Ihc cod while tubes with. w;um white tubes. IIlkiC LLlbCS product ;l niorc Iliitllcll color of I ight. One good thing itbout I2 VO~I I~OUWSCCII~S is that ~!ILY clbn!~ buzz like I10 volt Ilour&&n~s. Another thing in the lighting tIcpartmcnl: The newer, silcnl type swjtch& quit working after about, ;I mgnth. They arent made IO handle dir&t cur-

. aa I

Witllotct 0 Ic:r,qeetmrgh creek m hourproperty itt sorith ~wst Wcrshingtott for hylro~3ower and not enough winL!.fi)r LI wind generuror, photq~volt~iicswm our otily pi;actical possihrIr~y~~3rct rrnewable energy sohrcc. Wb tlavr c~ot~siciereri hnokittg 1113 the power grid. to
p;~ncls woultl*hc lo mukc it possible lo been looking into phMLlV0lhiCS ,) plug ,~htm into c;~ch olhcr. lilr ;L YGlr WhCIl I IlCiLkl L\hILlt tllC DCIllc rcgul;dor, inclcrs ill111 billtCrics p;irlmcnl 01 Energys Approprialc t arc CCnlIGLlly lOCillCL1 011 thC second Y~chnology Sl;lilll lincrgy Grniils ProIloor of the house to keep wire runs to gram. A\ncr \iding llyrbugh the pi)11mininiuni: I use ai1 older 100 ilnlp pcdork, I sail ifi my prop&al lb-a lusc box wilh the screw in fuses. Thi 7 S mall. 12 volt photovol~aic system. WC, is ill1 CilSy Wily lo run diffcrcnt circuits. wcrc plcasiinJly surprised when WL li)unrl out WChilt1 rcccivcd ;I grant lor $3900.00. .* Our syslcm carrcnlly consists 01 tight Arm 33 watt pads and six 105 amp clccp cycle 12 VO~I hqttcrics, with ii 20 Wlp regulator alld illllp g;lLlgUS t0 + mcasurc both charging rate ,aml r;tIc 01 YOU CiIn get ~USCS li)r thcsc panels all USC. There is a built in volt nmcr on the way cl& to 41/z amps. With just *, 1hc rogulalor. lhc lights illlil slcrco hool&l Up I am r Alter shopping,arountl consitlcrilbly. using, 6/2 ilhlp. ILlscn on iIll four cirWC purchased all ol lhc ahovo coinpocuils. AII ths wiring runs oi;;my Icngth ncnl5 lilr our.syslcm, cxccpl die MtcriIK! with ,#I0 wire (0 keep LtlC 12 Volt its, Jroii! Allcmllivc Eric,-gy , Engilint loss lo ;I n~inimum. Im ills{> hL!ildnccr%g (PO I!o.v 339, lIc~)i.~ ASK, ing ;I box for thc,,battcri& Ihut will hg Rrtluvr~~, CA 9.~560) whom WC lixmd vcnlccl to lhc out&c. OLII ahou~ through, guess who. ASE. .I li~und the folks al Altcrnativc Energy Engineering lo bc Iricndly and very helpful. Their prims wcrc the hcst I could Iintl a( Ihat lime and dclivcry WilS I;lSt . . When buying p;uicJs, I suggest you lry lo lid mdhcr intcrcslcd pqrly and gcl,logclhcr iin orilcr 01 al Icnsr io 01 1.2. This CiIn somc~imcs S~VC.YOU LIS tllLlCh iIS $50.00 per panel. I had

At. the presbnt time we are running all our , lights and stereo and have more than ftnough _power. * ..-
rent and the ConIiicIs bccom& qorr-odd. WC now have iill d&r click Iypc switches. -L+ .l\lrii niost of our lights on a$ the source, howcvcr, to +t down on the Icnglh of wire funs. Instd of using (hc cigiIw:ttc lighter lypc plugs, wc optctl for convcn~ional outlets with 3 prong plugs (0 prcvenl any possible rcvcrsc contjcclions.

VV t r) .

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When wiring nncl inslallinf, ;,ur panels I WilS 011 lily OWIl. I JlilLllll &art1 01 illly Of David Coppcrliclds hOOklob :I& alI the hooks I hiId COI~IC;ICIOSS on phOlClVL)lkLiCS wcrc skimpy on wiring rhC [>illlClS. ,I cllclcLl up rouling my wires hclwccn p;uicls lhrough l?V.C. pipe and connecting thcsc 10 #3 wire ruqning into the house. I think iI great irnprovcnicnt in thcmilllLill~~iUrin~ 01


AI lhc prcacril Iinic \vc ;ik ;;iiiniiig III our li~li[~ 211~1 s!crco ;11i11 hvc m~)rc hli CIIOII~]I po\vL~?siN~ll W~II Iw ;ldll- . II~ ;I I.! \,oIl c,li;irgcr Ilrr NI -C;i~lllaal,iglil hillcric*5 ;iml ollicr 12 voll ilcmh: wL**lY ,ylrcw1 III IIll\

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The NO-WATT energy saver is a compact electrical dcvi& r^nadb _ Mylar. It% guaranteed to reduce powcr,consuml,tiorl 111 cnch fluoros . -. cent lighting fixture by 30%. or your money back, At $14.95, the unit pa& for itself within a year. /n.most ;lr(?;ls. NO-WATT fits most 4 and 8 fluorescent lights, requires no wjring and comeswith simple, easy. to-follo-w directions. It is UL tisted, with a 5-year warranty. Snap on NO WATT and save.. ibtl& ~, . I IilX

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- ihe Solar Breeder: A. Bold Stepby Solarex .

. by hilarcus J. Smith r

October, 30th: -1982, the worlds first solar breeder was didicated The.Bqeder, braInchIld of Dr. tlndermayer. Sotarexs vlsonary designed to use solar energy to power a plant entirely for the manirlacl~rririg of more photovoltalc
-.-. -.--..--.L ..-.._. --l-_---_...__ ~_.__I-.-..--.-.~.-_--.~ _.

On .

St;il~sl~calty It IS mpresslve; 25,000 sq~nro Icct of PowerllnerH phdtoooltalc pan& produce up jo 200 kw. of olcctrlc power at 30.0 volts d.c. Most I ol 111atpower, stored IF a 2800+ ;11nt17iour ?toragc bank of Exude batIcrIcs, (ou01.1qh for four sunless
cl;=@), IS ~rsccl tilrcctly for powering rrl;lc:tllrlcry or rcslslance heaters, wIIIio~11corlvorlln~j II to a.c (thus sav-

company may now have more knowledge about how lo custom tallor such plants to match the site and pwrpose than any other solar firm. At present: Sotarex 1s no longer. just marketing KSsolar panels, bllt also Its &per&e In bulldIng to rnaxlmlze fhe

slve hydropower prefects or nuclear rnstallations. Consider; for the pnce of one nuclear powei plant (roughly $2 blltlon) a country could build well over?300 solar breeders capable of operating 30 years wIthout major maintcnence (or major catastrophe)

1111 f)owor) I ho c:omt)Icted plant cosl 111 I~c!lcll~l)orlloo(l of SIXrnllllorl dolII10

1;~:;. ~IIVIII!J (:;III!;(: to sonic lo call II 3 I )lllllCl\ !~I/K:c Itic cost 01 comner c:~;llly ,1v,1ll;11 110tmwor I:; st111 loss (us lIl() ;I vllry IIiI1IOW mX)IloInIc- tloflf~l~ llllll) lll;lll lll;lt ~llotl~lcocl I,y ItIc Il,III(!I,, <I ~J1OlI !;l(JIIl(!(l VI(?W <II 1)(!:;I

Consider; for the price of one nuclear pow&plant (roughly $2 billion) a country could build -well over 300 solar breeders capable of oDerating 30 years without major maintenence (ormajpr catastrophe). ,n ) .
c:lf~~ency and longtivlty 01 the entire

The Real Breakthrough

_ t11(! IJi(!o(lc!r rc!t~t!t;c!iill; lhc lirsl Ir~Jtit ~III~I~:;~II~II t)l;1111 ,lllywlrctrtt 117 world Ihc . 11~1I(! I( II; illy :;ol;u t )oworcc.l It IS III ,! Il,!llcl~:rl lo IJO il tJrolqlyt)ct of other ~!l;llll!,, WLlld 1 uNr!tl IJO L,c11lt plilctlc::illy OIIlywllc:l(! 111lli(! worl~f. 101 Ihc Ill~llllllilc:l~lllll~J 01 l)il!X: coiIsttin(:r ~too~l~,, Il011i III(X~I~:IIII!I; IO 1~111i1tl~c to ))~Iflb I~IIlII(~~IIIIlII. ~llll~O!;l illl~llllll~j * WJIIt: I1 Ill )I ovC!ll.y l!lN!l,! Jy Illl~?ll:;Ivr! I )lIY I!# lll(! io;1I Ilrl!~llttllroll~jl1 WllllO 0111(!1 1)lIOIOV~~IlilI(~ COlIl~)Cllll(!S FIZIVC

systolll Accorclirig to the Solarex people Iliq arc riegoliaL4ng with loreign cnuntrics to conslruct similar

Naturally, they WOLIIC~bc vlablc only rlnticr special ctrcirmsta~~es. s~icl-ias Ihc I-iigti cost 01 pr3rolc~mi
Imscti gcnoratcd power: plus re-

rllolciless Irorn any power grlcl Pllo-

Imllarly. m North Amenca.. there $, are iany isolated areas which could benefit lrom photoyoltalc based generating plants. bul even more, WOhd benefit from the ladt that the system IS silent and nonpoltutlng From an economic standpolnt, if one amor- Ilzci a photovoltalc powerplant over 30 years It would actually * money, based on reduced cnvtroil. . _
rnonlal impact What dots thls tiean to the ZIVCI qjc Iioiiieowner? If Sotarcx cm IIIX~ a niche for its breeders III ttlo

Iovoltaics arc 11171qiicly s~11lct1to this t)urpose IEC~XISL wllllc llicy ;irc h~jtl IccJi to I-build, hey are veiy low Itch IO opcrale. which m;lkes %lcII il.planl even more ntlractivc to ;I dcvolopirig ~:OII~:OIIIIiIt~!~t 011 Iliitling Ways of . country trriagirie il., a solar powerecl III~II~tlI~t ~~llolovotl~llcs colnpotlllvc manulactunng plant which makes wit1 i (3 ~II~~~!IIII~II;IIpowcr by the inld more s6lar p;lnels to run lrngatlorl lo 1;111! (:i!llitio:;. Sot;lrcx has striven lo eqiipmenl, roniole radios and televihiIt I ;II~I!;I:; wl lert: c;ot;lr power caf-I sion scls, plus rclrrgcratlon A solar X!IVl! ; IINI c:clrrlpotc! ll~~llt IKIti brccclci for imniiy 01 the workls fossll I )\I! (!XI)C!IIOII(:O Sol;lrcx )l;ls l~ict poor CoLmIrios woiild IIICEII~ Jlavr/4llll~!( I II1 I !lll!] II!; OWII pIIIIc COll~ iii() ;I so~irco 01 energy ~nc-le~miclent 1lill:l1ll *Ilil!: IilII\]Ill IJII.! corrl~,;lr/ly 01 llio work1 market lor the htsl. !I~C It ~llIOlll 1111) ~l~~~lll(~iltlO1l !;Ol;lf fIOW(,Y _ yxlltl 01 ha/c Ii3 less ccologlcat . IITOil GIlI III(III!;lII;I~ !%;;-IlO a Ic)I;(lll, III0 7.3acI arid oconofnic cost than iimAt; ,< t .
,.., y

world market, and thus rcducc


pr+!s through dconomies of scale. OIE would have to BSS~II~C ttinl the price lor all IIS prbducts would come down And that means that In .thb not

loo distant luture, more and more

homeowner .wI.I) llnd PV t~qiols hardel and harder to resist. * * For more inforniatlon ori Ihc Sotart:x Iinr3ol PV pa?&, corit;icl: .Yo/1tt?.\ lil~flrt~rl (iJt~Jt~~//;~Jt/, /hilY~. /k/J/. d?:, 1 /.{.I.$

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Dee, 21.66 -..* IX.39t

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34,76 ,.f

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wind is hlowing. mcl when wincls lilil (~uillm!~?) lhcrcs plcnly 01 sun. My IarniI,y is sure Ih;lnklul lor the IO0 walls 01 b(llil(. power @hen our 200 w;III wind gCllCr;tkiT ih Iciiipor;iriI~
OK. cii0tigli gcncr;lli~iiliori. ICI.5 inlaginc il libnlily ncda ill1 ilVCriigC 25 kwh. 01 clccIriciIy per month. NOI inucli cncrgy, hiil doch cucryonc rcqli/,c h0W IUr lhil Cilll go with lhc righI


I? VOII ;l[JpliilllCC;? power 4 bnidl





good (nlo5lly


,qti;lrlz-iotlitlc) lighling l(G)1hoii~c~. hlnch whiIc IYAM/I:M slcrco cr~asciic.

IOot) qJnr-c
vclllililliilg I;ln, .viictiti111

ordsj), perhaps in LittIc Rock and ~lroni lhc wind unil. Rajancing ;ivcrugc . Spri&ilicld. hut would bc inlprilcIicJ clcclrical oiilpuls lronl wind ;~iid sun is in Pwlhwl with its lack of winIcr sun. lhc Iirsi slj_p in slriving. Ior 113SlL:,,, When WC comhinc sys~c~lls, the situpidCill SyS!Clll. ~rl~lll lilhlc 1 , WC C:lii lion in P~~rllillltl iinpro,vos dr;llll;ltiSCC Ihill Willd il~t>llL! WOll!il hl! illlprilclitally. A liunilyoclcsiring 25 Kwh./Mo. CiIl ;II Lilllc Ro<k nntl Portland. St!ch ;I. ,lhcrc niighI ~CI hy with ;I 200 watt syslcni would work niuch t>cIIcr iI; Wince and. IfiS watts of soI;lr Cells. In Denver or Sprin~~cltl---fi~~l~~l .suIlcr Springficld,~ Ihc scasonnl variaI,ion in front ouipuis varying by ovcr 4tix iniliv.icluiil .SysIcnis ilIT snioothcd 0uI . Ironi avcragc Values. SOIilI- doi~c. ncwiIh Ihti cornhind systth and wily coiding lo Ihhlc 2, woiiltl work linc,in sndl IlltmlIily oulpul variations, mngDcnvcr. with only IX%>nlilxinlunl vilring from 11July IOW 01 51 kwb. IO an iilbiOl1 (hCWilrC ilVCril&!C WCilthCl r!XApril high ol69 kwh.. result. AI Little


3 - ~O~HINISI)

WINI) AND k,(Jl#.a~,

-h. ,m

,v c


siinitllcr cIc;Incr.



nlicroconIWC really illld

(&!enrralbr?, IIS in jublcs 1 md 2)


BilSiCillly WC S;!l



consiilcrcd Wllill WC IIff(l. @OW, lhc.jkilu;llcla consiclcr how dillbrcnl Iion .looks in li)ur IocaIions. I Ihcsc outputs have hccn con!puIcrrlcrivccl Irom SOL ELECT and WIND ELECT (see box). Note IIUI while I~C . sanic: wind gcncraIor hiIs hccn CI~Iull locations, pholovoltuic c;lpticiIy has hccn sized IO roughly

_ Ikllvcr, CO 55. IO

07.SJ Mu r.


Jb 74 l *.







JI.45 Jilll. 33.hS


24.1s Oct.
IO. I6 July


pioyd al



?0.7H 57.62









tYVAlternalive Sources of Etkrgy ,






h,ybrid ph~lovollaic~engme power Sysfem. generator


o-15 1N 3493A




*Costs up to l/2 what o.ther systems do *Easy to install *Eligible for solar energy tax credits*Complete system packages available in any size range required.

I/ you need a remofe power system, we are a complefe ono-slop supplier. Our corporalton has been In business a/ ourpresenf local/on loro~er 35 years



* 1N 3493A




Aulhorl~sdD~frlbulors Depl Ml, Box

for ARCOSolar 537Willlls CA95490

(707) 459.9496



and 72 VOLT appllcatlons /or the home Spring Spoclmlr on ARC0 PhotovoMc Modules



' Ml.40 watt

* Mel, . ' ' ' '

30 WBII. sell.regulallng , OTHE~I~PECIALS: 12 ~011 Soldering Iron, 30 ws,, 19.06~ 5 smp Voltage Ragulalor 120.96 eav0ll.220 amp Solar Ballery870cw 111158' 186' 12 volt. 104 BLIP Bond RV Ballsty SCI Bnllur~ Savdr, sd(ualehle low vollage alaru~ "1 low-vollege dlsconnacl (apeclly which) 8EQ - Innaon I2 V0ll Chlllrlasw 6140 * xl WHll Ill' Flwrnncanl Wllh bulbn 1za.02 l II YUII r~intlllar aED - AIICO IH ?ooo. Clnnn 0 PV MIJIiIIIH (2nd I!0 ~HIIHIIIII~) Ilrnll~d lo .aloch I,,! hand IZES

a370 8410 1209

Rock, the situ:ltion is cliffcrcnt: the comhinotl system output undcrgocs miicli lchs v;lri:ition th;m wind only, ht still niorc thnn S(jlilr Only. Al Dcn7 vcr ~hc col~lhincd sys~cms m;Iximum ilcl~ilrltlrc fhill ;tvcragc is nearly as go011 its soklr. Howcvcr. in thaw locat~$)n, cithcr, intlivitlu;il syslcni coultl proh;ihly supply the rcquirccl 75 KWIH/Mo. II SO KWH/Mo was dcsiktl. the comhinctl systcni. in Iknvcr, ;rs. in Springlicltl. would scrvc nicely. Ill pl-ilCliCC, I1 VOII ll0lllCs will not Il;IVL! ~OllSlillll YCill round lO;lllS, illtllOllgh SOIllC lllily roughly ;lpplI~;lCh il. Whcrc rclrigcriltion is cniploycd lljcrc Illily hC suninicr Ik!ilk IOildS, while SlllilllCr systems (Ior light%, iwslly) niiEh1 show winlcr pCi1k.S. II 0nC hns ;I prnpcr lllltl~l3lilllilir,lg 01 S~ilSOllill Olltpill vuriatii>ns o& pholovolt;iic ilri;lyS or wind gcncriilors. il~~~~liilllCC LISC' Cilll hC cust0lll IililOr~d I(1 niorc closely match produclioii. Ailiiiittcilly. lhis ovcrvicw. 010tlcsignihg c*onlhinctl systcnls hcks ccoiioiliic illlillySiS. IlO~~LII1lIIy, iIS Slllilll wind IllilCllillC prices ;lllil phOtovollaic prices ~triitiiiu~ lo gel closer to C;l~h~othcr. this will 801 hc ;I CriliCilb




collscl $2.00 lor

VISA 111111 M~nl~~rc~rtl mlillrlylrlI. rlttwltIllbln r.

hormrod. .&nd "" IllRl otdnr

. .

THEEARTHSTORE DOPI. El --* P.O. Box 671 N. San Juan&alllornla 95960

Phone Ordorr: (916) 202-3396 -& tlqw.y.vion Jitr ttrr Awr(t~c PIN~I. jiw (I Wind Muckirrc~ I; hy cc! Hic*hcirtl Powc~ll, Solw Etwr~y,


vol. 26, /,/I 77-W.

Allernulive ,Soimw

culating HT for specified tilt angles. WIND ELECT inputs various wind \, Introducingthe -machine specifications, the average 1 & p* . monthly wind speed a 1 a reference height, tower height, and site terrain ,d .;; ihdex. Its outputs are based on a simb&i...: plified relationship which assumes a Rayleigh wind speed dlstributlon. It can help assess hbti outputs will change with different wind machines and tower heights. If youre Interested in these corn puter tools, compuSOLAR can help. SOL EL-ECT, WIND ELECT, and many other solar related mlcrocomputer programs are available at very reasonable prices. Input data [solar WhirlW radiation, etc.) is provided for speciFour Kilov fied locations when, available. A 1 SASE will bring you more InformaRICf-.P tion.. * The aulhorb100 wall PV array and he barely If you dont, IcIvc , , , v~sble 200 wall Wlnco in Ihe backgr, II ~~ncl but are Interested 111 having abetter Dealer and Foreign lnql understanding of how a photovoltaic array or a wind generator might per-\ form at your location, you can send for Information o,n compuSOLAqs low cost individualized computer serSOL ELECJ and WIND EL&T are --Dl,.eh IyL MN 5 -7 ,, vices. Enclose size SASE. The programs written in BASIC for a miaddress is compuSOLAR, Route 7, 0 crocomputer with at least1 6/K RAM. L Dept. ASE, Jasper, AR 72641 Each provides expected vwh.lMo. belore losses due to transmission, voltage regulation, battery [neHlclencles, and Inverters. The values In Tables 1 through 3 are lIkewIse uncorrected for theze losses z/nd dont Include lbsses from ob$huctlons which block sunllght or hiinder free wind flow SOL ELECT c!an readily assess how outputs change with lo- dation, photovbltaic array slz.e, 1111 angle and ground reflectance. For ex- ample, according to SOL ELECT, owners of small PV arrays at Denver and Portland can Increase annual output by 11% (over Table 2) by 1)adfustlng the tilt angle once monthly and 2)mounting the qray on a surlace of high grotrncl reflcctancc (say a shiny metal c?r Iighl-colorccl, roof) The program IS base,d 011 lllc i slmplfiecl relationship;

Computer Assist

; 1


rhr,l!s ill ,rrolr//r x /(r x ,lldS o/ IV Cfrptrc~il\


42.5,7oot where E IS the kwh./rno. output and 51 I-IT IS average solar radlatlon In BTU/ I 1)OW( 7: 5 srl. ft day. More dela~lerl assessIlml~S


IO hl<C pholovollalc


v;\rlallr,l?s wilh Icmperalurc I h+rogram tnljuls atierage historical values 01 sunshlnc hlllng a horlronlalsurface ahd Ihe cloudiness lacier for a locatlon In calinl~ accour~l.

N.IIII~~ ,lll(l II___



Ret I clingY rr le SUP r-Ins

By Steven Kroppcr
years ago. I prcscntcd plans ;I super-irdlatcd triple dcckcr. With one complctc heating MLI~~ -past. 1 can now report on the projects success. In Ic)XO. yis cspcrts met to study how their technical spccia!tic5 inconhcrv;ition ;mcl cncrgy productior~ COLIICI~ yiclcl the Icast ~3bt energy Itilurc Ii11 the rcsitlcnt5 01 Ri)w,cll Street iii Darchchtcr. MA. WC stucliccl ccmmttnity x71lc distriC1 heating .sy5tcms and indi-j vidual optiorih which woul~l~ ilsc waste kit hut puiiipa. ACES. boliir or cogener:ition. WC csaminccl coiibcnution option+ from low and no cost to I.;iclic;+ siII,Cr-iriaillation. 2 WC co~~cl~~dcd that the costa ancl savings of district heal (hy cogcncration) girl su[,cr-instil~ltion wcrc cquivalcnt. Howcvcr. li)r the Iatcr to suc~c&l. WC

TWO. for

had :iricl







the hari.k. With the district heating 5ystcn1, wc .woilld need cost sharing agrcciiiciits Iroiii twqnty honicowiIcr5. This would 1x2 xi inmicns~ task. rcqtiii-ing iiiorc iimc and nioncy
than coiistructiiui 01 the aystc~ii itscll.

J Wu chose sLiI~Cr~insulation. Sikrr heating was dismissccl hccatisc not hc our ;iiidit rcv,calcd that it woulcl
cos( cllcctivc until wc: had invcslcd

%X),OC)Uin conservation. Further. Y&I can not solilr hoat ;I tljrcc. Inmily eiiorgy hicvc in ;I shadctl urban ncighhorhood when it5 rool covcr5 .only 1.000
qiurc I\ stir 13oslon. rool, lion IKICk Icct. ..I I1 trIpIcrucclicr It is ii~clc arid hs C;iCIl has INill 01 wocd porc~~ IS one in l.,ll, Iranic 011 the ot

. 15.000 in
I1XS ;I cl~llsll-Llc~ Ilat ..

l1cncc [ripIConstruction


01 thC

Iront and three apartnicnts--~


Wc il into the i~ool to ;I ~kpt. , ;IncI IiIlcd the w;111 cavity Ii Iour inch tlcpth. Blown insulation ( rclrolit supcr- insulation) is tisiially st;iIIcd lroll1 thcsxtcrior 01 the hotr~~.

w;Ix ill ,,ol,l. c,,I1( repair. It would soon 1x2covcrctl

sccl~IllI rlllls. Slll~LI~ ILWing Ill \VI




,.I. ll,,l,>~#~

rcrlilcing inliltratior~ with 01 w~;lllicrstril,pirlgI WC hlcw .

;,,I,! lll,B l.*\l>l.l#~ll \11..111

II. :..



h()lcs into tllc w;

liiloxc ih Iirc-trcatcd, .shrclltlcci newsIZ 15, ill print. It is 2 loc;ill~ prodti~~l, low iiig hi?; 1 technology, low ciicrgy, ni;rtCri;il which , I,;lttsj ~IIILICI.the ( has the lust cost per I< oI;lny ilistlto I{ 711
; Allrrn;llivr Sourrrs ol IhckgyMl

Source reduction of polluta.nts is-cheaper than, and may eliminate the need for, an air to air. , heat exchanger.
ing Defen&ontnctor who closed one of our new, tight windows and exclaimed, Sounds like a submarine..

Before we started, the heat provided by occupants; appliances,. and the sun (called miscellaneous or intrin$ic gains oifree heat) was insignificant. This tfree heat provided, at most, five percentof the require heat. In our newly retro PItted super-insulated home however, the miscellaneous gains dominate, and provide up to:, half of the required heat. Our refrigerator, two warm bodies, a. reasonable lesl of lighting and appli$nces can keep the house at 70 .when it is SO outside. Further, a supcr-ins&ted bohic is so tight that it remains comfortable at five degrees below a normal house. Thus, the miscellaneoulgains can keep the house cozy to 45. Close off two rooms to heat and we have free heat to 40. Only below this temperature, called the balance point, do WC need auxiliary heat.


By replacing-thd winbws and blowing in the cellulose, we drove the heat loss evkn lower. Next. on the inside of the perimete walls. we built a frame of 2x3s (24 o.c.) set three inches away from ihe wall and installed six inches of fiberglass in th& resulting cavity. With great care, WC caulked, taped and stapled a six mil polyethylene air/ vapor bar&r over the insulation to keep moisture in the house and infiltration out. Finally, tic scrcwcd l/z inch gypsum board to the frame. With a skim coat and paint, a rfew home was created. The result is a super-insulated wall of R-38, eight times the original wall value. Since we super-insulated from the inside, tk floor joists and ends of the partition walls are untouched. Although heat is.wasted here, insulation <is not justified. The goal is to invest wisely ih conservation, not merely to have energy. To insulate those spots would have been difticlilt and expenatsivc, resulting in conservation $3.00 per gallon of oil.

The exlstlng, cdnventional 30 gallon gas fired waler healer now provides both peak space and water heating requlrements The pump, supply and return lines and tempenng valve were added to the water heater once II was decided lo use II for space heating as well as water heating. One unforseen. problem arose. Warm water from the heater, located in o the basement, thermosyphons past the circulating pump and up into the radia-, -, tors. The result is overheating and ) some fuel tiaste. I wonder whether a properly located heater wc>uid enable , thermosyphoning t:, drive the system thus eliminating the pump.

Staying Bat

Chasing BTUs
In a typical old New England sicvc, the air change rate is modelled at two per hour. This means that all the warm air in the house is replaced by cold air twice every hour. In 1911, when the house was built, a high level of infiltration was a blessing. Drafts. carried away pollution from stove pilots, space hcatcrs. gas lamps, the stove and Irom sweaty unwashed hodics. Our super-insulated home is modclled at 0.25 air changes per hour, OI one air change cvcry four hours. A new super-insulated home can bc so tight that the air changes only once cvery twenty .hours. With a retrofit, it is diflicult to achic\;c such a ti$ht house. To minimize pollution, we prohibit smoking and USC a11 electric stove. WC were also caulious to select builcling materials which emit few pollut&ts. Source reduction of pollutants is cheaper than, and may Eliminate the need ,for, an air to air hqat.cxchanger.

Each apartment, in the triple-decker, was originally heated by its own 75.000 btu. per hour (btu./h) forcedhot-air furnace. Each ,furnace satisfied a peak load of 5S.000 btu./h (at 65 Chasing Dollars dT). Now. super-insulated, the apartNOTE: figures are fo1 or& floor only! _. n ment peak load is ll,3,00 btu./halmost a live-fold reduction in heat The pro.ject cost $8120 per floor. All work was performed by contmctors, lo-KS. Heat is now provided by the conventtilh IV) .s~rhsidies. Bcforc super-insutional 30 gallon gas fired domestic walation, each apartment was in decrepit ter heaters which were in place prior to condition, and in need of rehabilitathe retrofit. Each heater has a gross tion. They sufiered fro? high heating output of 30,000 btu./h and supplies costs and commanded low rents. both space and domestic water heat. In accounting for the projects, we Confronted with a possible choice beConsider that in addition to low heating tween a hot shower or a warm home bills. the quality of living space is imon a winter morning. WC quickly inproved too. The total budget is thus divested in shower flow rcstrictors. vided into cosmetic improvements The smallest circulating pump avail(l/.3), and actual ronsdyation (Vj), or , able moves hot water through a con$5415. vcntional rcvcrsc-return system of linThe prc-retrofit fuel bill was $1250, and during 198 l-82 (post ~ctrolit) it, radiation (copper tube/ -tube aluminum lins). The radiation is over was less t,han .$200. Thus a sdvings of sizccl to bc compatibic with a future $1040 per unit, and, a conservatiofi ex low temperature solar kilting~ SystCnl. pense of $5415 yields a 19% return on a investment and a five year.payback. When tourists visit the house, they starch in disbelief for the fur&e, but The project cost is further,reduced . b;ccmx WC originally faced a bil! of find only three wutcr Ijcatcrs. Using a water heater for space heat : $2200 to replace the furnace. With SU* pZrZinsulati0n. the fiirnace is not,necdots levy an cllicicncy pcnal~y. but it cssary. That sum can be invested in suis very CllCfip ($150) illld Of IOW OUtpdt. per-insulation, thus saving money Ncithcr fcaturc c&ld be found in a high cflicicncy boiler. Linstead of burning it. In addition, an -* ,

60/Alternative Sources of Energy


A unique


WlNDIHYDROlPV Alternatlves for the Mldwest immrdlrlrlt hlltw~np .$~I-c & ( <>I une 4, 1983 U ,nd u: wk+<lp ,I Minneapolis, Minnesota
practical workshop. designed to anmvar you lestions and provide mforrnation. Conducted b! perta in each field. Coordinated by Donah arier. Executive Editor, ALTERNATIVk )URCES OF ENERGY mqazine.


A tlralty

WIIK~OW (Iqtl) laced

WIlldOW ILitxicc WtUCil

an adtacent

lxxn~ il and tess.heat loss a .-





Of $150 is s;ivctl. - How hluch

dcjmxia[ion n

cxpe~sc :

Is ho

ll*aiil 0licri aakccl. How much, is too IllLICIl! ;IIlcI :With ~1 inuch in,sul;itii,n, how can bllL! IlOLlS~ l~lu~h? I

ofcoLrrsc, hc p+siblc to drive thcaLlxiliary heating rcqLiircliumt5 to zero. H~~~~d~.,ihc cost of ihis cxtrcmc step ~~oLIILI, cscC+ the Iiicl Aavin$ (i.n ;I l;lr mper-insulalctl hoiiic). ParlrwrS$ith The
13anli -


lun workshop II desi&d for the patantml co umnr or inveatur mtarented in learrung abaul LI lractuxl aspexa of LqtrwaLing electricity uail enewablr ~ntlruv wurce~ Particiwnla altand M iona which pertam to theu field of inlerool. Su ecta include. connwling to utilities. fifwil rayback. aitmg and output eatimataa. p.<d typea * quipment.






i .1
: :

RICHARD KOMP .utha;. PRACTICAI PHOTOVOLTAICS PAUL HELCESON. WIND SPECIALIS Sdc of Mlnn. _ 11111111111111111-11-, Ilq$~fml~~n I~w~. $55 urlril .4prilY5. X/i5 Irnlr* fw -.

Please send more

M,wk..l,, P

WORKSHOP INFORMATION. ,rlwl~<.dinrm 1,An,,-ric

l~kwrvwr~ ,U U7,rd

: Nom,, ;,Addrurs : (%

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Send to: CNCRDY DLSIDNS : Milaca, MN 66363 I ;,,!QlZ) 983~~~or983-2:183 20 Altrrwllive

To finance rhc ZLqcr-insulated. triple- iniaginc piiak Iihcrglas5 ILings .straining -dcclxr, kq: homowcd lbncls lroni ;I . JOr air. hank. The loan~cnahlcd Lb tu n1;1Cc ;I ,. In lilost homc~. kc Icycl til insulahave : lion~in Iii< v?alls.i5 Llci%cil hyalhc depth. .grcalcr in\~cs1nicnl I&iii vc b+x~L~ltl hcCn ahlc IO oil our o\\,ri. Invcsling in 0I lh? V~OOLIrcqtIircd to sLipl$,i7 Ihc II cL~nsci7alion \\,ith Iinanciiig [rciiii ;I rool. In Clic royal. ITic right -ainoL~lil IxinL ;ibhLirc+;L ,~;iblc liscd price (,I * ~h0Llld~I~~ ahlc IO lllCl( lllC 511(1\\, hill. 5lrll mihc voLi ;Ich on ;I hot 5L1nin~c1 . sulci-iri~ul~itic~ii, Ior- the km of the Icyii. It) is 5iiiiil;ir IO scctiring ;10long . ~ da) SOLlllLl?, Ikll)~. . Vriii lix&i price ccmir;iti:610 r>ccivq~il. 13lC ~XqjClw o,,(.~l;;ll** ;~llloLllll 1)l PI~~LII;I~IOI~ ;I home Lkpcntls capon _Whc!l lhc Icriil 0loLir 1~1;111 is over. SLIli)r - IjcrT.inhLll;Lti\uI quill c(Lst nothing. -I 111; cost of cncrgy aild the cml 01: conJii ;iilcli(iyn to insLilatinpusl.~cln,~f.Ll~i my;ltion. In the IY(,Os. R-IS may I;li\,c pJi<b inflation. beak linancjng stubihccn ~~ptimal. In the IY7Ok: e-20. Fo; li/ch -?sjicnscs krL>LlghOLII the year: , k3YXOs ;I& hcyor~cl. R4 i<thc ininSjncc-0L1r ILICI bill iss0 lo\v. the . iiiiLiii1. Fliti hi$icr the fucl price. the iiionlhiy flayiiciil 1!, ,lhc hank con- 1 niorc~ insLilul,ioii rqiiik4. The q1iiIi;Ll pri5c5 our :.hcaiing hill. While olhcr * ;~iiioLin~ c~l.ii~sLilalioii.cj~~~cri~l~Lip011lhc p~~qilcb energy csji~ilscs kUl7 cvcry: iiilcrc41 rate. cliiiialc, lhc cxGl5 ;inLl \r.iiiIcr, 0Lir c,.spciisc i:, conslanl, prc, saving5 til insLil;iiibli. ;iiid lli? cLirrciiI Llickihlc and Iovcr! 21111 ILl1Llrc IwcL! 01 ILlL4. I .;ixlly. the !!;iiik is 0, WC kept ~;icl~liilg iiisul~ilioii Liiilil llic c~apit;il Ior lLu11. wc I rclurn on i,Lir .iii\~csmi>ii~ in coiibc.i771~ loti cqLi~iII~4 th5 r;l(c ,L!l ifj(crczI Iunds in pun ~chlrgcd 11) Ihc hill.. Ill orhcr u~o!Ll~, \vc invcalccl Iiiorc mcl iiiorq moyy ii! co1lw17~lic~1~ Linlil. the lasl dollar spcnI cc)51Lih iiiorc .iy lin;iilcinjg char& Ihan : i( xiv~? iii ILicI Iiill5. For 130sl011Ioday. IGO ;I! &-~;illh, !t-SO in Ihc loot, R-15 iii lhc Ilo0f and R-3.;1[. rlic ~viiiclows iire opIin~;il .,b[l!csc arc imlp Gmplc guidc.lincs: If woultl. 1 e *v,.. d , . ,P 0 _ - y. *. . \ , LI .-

Sources (II I,ner~y/(,O 1.


f&& 1

2 A

an:inf&matik upbate \.i -on al! aspects of renewable en&y


. . *.. . i(C I

.. weighs just 3.25 pounds per I& and is cquivnlent in strength to ;I stwl towcrP wcigliing ;ibout 14 pounds per liar. Apparcntty, BrigJxm Young Uhivcrsity is testing the da,ptive Column ,, (U.S. patent No. 3.SOl.880) concept lo cvnlilatc its slrcngth chlactcrislich and miss production caj%ibilitics Ii)1 :ipplicatiorls such :IS h-id&x and tow-,


llic tower Ix5illg Ccs~@ hy JEklCO m i m P is 4.5 Id high and hing+ ai1 rlic txisc ttlC Vilklgc G$!, Cljursc iii:hiloc;i~~,lc;l~t4 ' for lilt-up operation. JERICO has, Min!lcst)la,wllcrc iI is. il~s[;llt~~j~.t;(~~ mounted its MO&I, Zk turbine: wl~ic~ furbcl inlimiialic~n oli41tlc fcs[ pftj~~~, . has ii 20.5 foot rob dianjctc!. on,dic coma?: .lI:RJC.O, pt. .I. &IV I 7111. tower. According to Denvig Jacobs 01 @?I. :iS%. ,~l/dchv,: h!N .565/l. t:op , JERICO,n during the Iirst n>onth ol I Iurtticr iiiIor.lll:ilioll 011 ll~c (:lp[i\c testing, ktic IoWcr wiltislood win& iii (olulllll rculccpl: ~olll;lcl: &,.\3// [Al/,B csccss 0J 5Oiiith~ancl thc4ind system wrtrbr~~.!. I71( I7t11 .st. s-0. I Ills/),. o gcncr$cd 1200 kwh. of clecti-icity tier :l.S/:. /~;rr~r~. NI) .:M/t;1, o,, .

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Cdargek Control.

T Livingston Montana-H&bed gF I - _--~. A Wind Activity

A number of.wind projccis arc hing proposed for the LivingsIlm, M~II~I~\I!I area. Randall Tinkerman 01 Wintlcnilt IIndustries and Amcricm lincr~y IrlIi s ect (AEP),in San Frnncisctj, (illill)rllirl indicated to Ihc Livlnpst~rn (ity (WII

dq 4.H




will1 II 2.40
opctril~n~ iI1

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I1rr 4 I I OH:.!,

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Upgrade your 12 volt system. Zharp;e any multiple: 24 volt

-36. volt - 48 volt - 120 volt! etc.,

Wlntlpow~~~~l M;lchinrs, l.,~d. has. iq~c*ili*(l IllI II 1,7(H) sq, Ii. liicilily in

from.12 V-Source
Prices ~ 2

start at $139.00

and 3 .KW ,Whirlv&d wind generatorwin stqck. I :, 5

cil in mid-Dcccnshcr lhril his-cnlllpiln) wants lo IeascJentl Irir ii wllltl ~III/IY:I, Tinkcrtillllr imliql lhyt Witltlcrilll kw. lntluklrics woii 111 I1111II .J@l11 Wintliu~c syst1~1.11+, -by I)illli+ lulill

I ,ivltipaul l:oi, Ilk* tlcvclopiiicnl of its IO 1001tlinilwlor sail lurhing. Greg (.curk, pr~sitlcnl of the Chicago-based reports thnt lhc company llllll~llllly,
InIs itislrlllctl Ihc liiolings for the tur-. $inc n11t1 insIallaIion is now proceedIIlK,

iu.ihtr silt*.

111:\iilloi~MTa: I11311
lh prIbp~b;l $ I

919-A Eart Avcnuc Chico, CA 95926. Phone 916Pi>-1722 *


pr~+*cl w11111tl itivolv~ fhc IIIHI~) I)( liyi* witkll /iloilili,ring


I hl;llilIl~n ~IIIII~~IIII~ in,illso r1tporcctlly itil~~.Hri* p~~~sililliiy tilil pn~,jccI


~II I,~vitl~?ti;~~. Ml+t*iin~s I~CIWLCI~ rhc IIIHI 11w MOIIIIIIIII Public ScrVl~~ij~ioi~~iiiisnil~I~

lhc Livingslon

(c)f~ncil hllvc IIIIUI~~ hccn held. 1111* CXIIILY~Ibchintl Ihc pmjcct would Ill* III SII~II)IYIlilrI ~llhc lotid of an $800
. l

contml pmols l Il*no voltgge


IIliIIiiIn illlllllilllllll Snicltcring plant, bj.hic*h Altiiiiax Coipordtion is proposin): IO IIKYILC in Montana. The plants clcclrical load would be upwards of ) 0

Ihc CiIy ol Livingston itself is considcring llic installajion of four*more wind systems, most/likely hycarter uniis, aI its municipril wind farm this summer. This despite additional design problems experienced by the Ci14t;s prcscnt four Carter unitS in Deccmbcr, 1982, whet> blade failures occured on both the Montana Power. Company units and on one of the City r of Livingstons machines during JO . mph whids. The blade failures occtirred just ll months after blade problems at the Livingston site in January, 1982. In the most recent cases, the blades were damaged when the rotor, which nor-

*roguIet~d~ powe dlvortors

4iO3 Idaho Sl. 116 fian Dlsgo, CA Q2ip4 (714)683.141~1~
. _

fiectric .

Pourer From The UJind I 6b DHV


4 P _

: is Ovwstock~d!!



RV POWERPAC 1 Corn lete 36 &c 70:watt installation Rardware & regulator package. BATTER-Y GAUNA4iD & TEST MODaUCE - 100% solid state regulation device with complete inetering & controls. 12 volt models 5 am . .& 10 amp. COrjT,C! us BEFORE YOU BUY
SEND $1.00: For Planning Booklet Catalog with sizing workaheet. &

Touwks II Inv&rs

H lhtterias



0 Insttall0ti0n -sanricr

BOX 1662, Dept. ASE Cave Creek. AZ 6.6331 Phone: (602) 466-3706

(408) 4257636 \ 8 Qd b /



of Energy/60

,I . ,

u 1.

ctcctrolyzcr froms wind*iystcm, the electrolyzcr takes lO.ampcrcs of current and will produce about I/H cubic feet of hydrogen, per hour. For more information, tat t : Hydro~ett Wind
Inc. , L. E. ,Spic-e t R. R. #2, Btt.v262, 7 Dqtt. ASE, Litwvillc, IA 50147.


Wind Project


omrng sent this plclure 01hts 125 watt wind LI~~IIwhich he Reader Pete Gardlnei 01Laramie&,,W Box 786. Depl ASE, Tams Rlvor, assembled from a Kucharlk KII (Kuc NJ 06753) Gardlnernoles lhal he ~sexper~ment~ng wllh the unllln an urban setting Tile wind ml 1s mounted on a guyed pole wllh. a plvol al the bottom lor ease of working on the who10 assembly facing the wind upwind and started up in strong winds. This conditionoccured after the brake had been applied during gusty winds to prevent yaw instability and then rcstartcd. Carter has now rc-dcsiincd the hub IO prevent the yaw instability and will bc upgradingOthe machines. The machine that failed in Dcccmbcr has already hccn repaired by Carter. Ed Stern. director of commuriity devclopmcnr. for Livingston, stated that the new design recently survived winds in excess 01 100 mph, during which the out-ofbalance mechanism was not even activated. I.. I-Iydro&n from the Wind

Unique Investments of San Francisco, California is seeking to install up to five Bendix Wind Systems in Livingston, Montana. Bob Conrich, gcncml manager of vnique Investmcnts, stated that the project is still in the planning stages. The project is loclking for a site and Livingston seems like a good place to locate it,: Ctinrich Wc ilIT some distance Il~llll llotcd, !naking the deckion whcrc to locntsmuch dcpcnds on the utility,contmct. .Hc indicated that locating the project in the Gorgonio Pass was also a possibility. No dcnl hns been signed with the Bendix Corporation yet, Conrich 1 . said. Dul WC arc in very serious con- -..:J$. VCrSiltiOll with Ihclll. According to . Conrich, invsstmcnt money for the projccl would c01iic from a large New York invcstmcnt firl;i. At

For Larger Diameter Rotors ., by ) ~ -,( 1 \.

you can gencratc your own hydrogen gas with an clectrolyzcr unit manufactured by H.ydrogert Wind, Ittc. of Linvevillc, Iowa. L.E. Spicer, president of the firm, notes that the company previously sold plans for the units but has now set up for manufacturing. One + electrolytic cell rclilils for rt;I35 with the clectrolytc (potassium hydroxide) costing an cxtrn pi,15. The plates arc sintcrcdnickcl, such as those used in nickel cadmium batteries. According to Spicer, under typical operating conditions, with 6 volts applied to the

Santa R&a h$achined Props (707)5&&h

Wecan now produce bl&es . da,,+ . *. . . !f upro u4Joorawmeters
.* ., , ). ,,


6OIAlternative i!

Sourcm of Energy


present, negotiations arc in progresi with the Montana Power Company and the Montana Public Service Commission to set !he stage for a power purthase contract. To make the project viable, Conrich indicated that a long term contract with a levelized buyback rate of 10 cents per kwh. is desired by the company. If the project materializes as planned, from one to five 4.5 mw. wind turbines, supplied by Bendix Corporation, wo$d be installed by 1985. Bendix has been testing drive train cofnponents of its design on its Schachle machine near Palm Springs, California.

MOD-~S Shut Down .

All Boeing MOD-~S at Goodnc~c Hills and Medicine Bow have been shut down pending a rcview of the design of the low speed shafts on the maI chines. According to Jim Couch, manager of field operations at NASALewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, a crdck in the drive*shaft of Unit #I at Goodnoc Hills near Goldendale, Washington -extends to about twothirds of the circumfcrcnce of the

ponents were going to be mounted oq shaft. The crack is fatigue-@ated the shaft. Accordivg to Couch, duripg and caused by the w&ight of the rotor t-he whole design and construction on the shaft, Couch stated. A techphase of the MOD:2, 2thc;effects o? nician discovered the crack while he drilling thd holes in thr shaft tias. was in the process of resetting breakers I ., somehow overlooked. in the nacelle due to an automatic shutCouch states. that the cocsensus of down of the machine on November 12, the Boeing-NASA review committee, 1982. Since then, the th&e MOD-2 established to evaluate the causes and machines at Goodnoe Hills and the what corrcctive.measures to take, was ; L tinit at Medicine Bow, Wyoming have that all machines would have devel,._.. been shut dew. Similar, but vcry opcd the cmcks in time. The correotive small cracks were found in Unit #2 at measure will be to install new drive Goodnoe Hills. No cracks.have been shafts on all five machines in the field. found in. the other machines shafts. Although the solution is simple, ii is . Unit #1 at Goodnoe Hills had earlier nonetheless expensive and presents-a been repaired due to the falurc of an problem. Four of the ,ma, improperly lubricated bcarin B7 in June, .I political chines arc owned by the Government . 1981. . and an additional request for funds will The cratik in the dri;c shaft of Unit have to bc made,. Costs to rcdcsign,, . * #I -each shaft is about four fret in bliild, and install the new shafts are es1 diamctcr and is made of three-quarter timated to bc aiound a half million dil-. inch thick,.steel-started in the region - Iars per machine, bhich could amount of a series of small holes that were to a significan.t perceniage of ihc DOE . drilled into the shaft skin to support wind budget. Congressional supbradkets. The bmckets are used to hold port&Js ilre ilppaKxltly willing t0 ,V$C, . $aridus pieces of equipment which ar? for the funds, but there is no guarantee mounted on the outside diamctcr of the that it will bo done, given the present sjlaft. The bracket holes were npt in economic condition of the country. the original design for the MOD-2. alDcspitc the shutdown of the Goodtholigh it was known that various comnoe Hills a.nd Medicine Bow ma-

:its blades and generators and that Lhc chines, PC&E has apparently decided coefficient o<fperformanqc of the comto continue operating its MOD-2 while panys blades has tested out at 46)ermaking frequent inspections. Comcent. This after redesigning the blades pany cngincers performed dyct,hrough computdr analysis and wind pcnctration, magnetic particle, and ultunnel ,testii@ of 80 different modets. t?asonic tests on ihc shaft and this led -Hinton also states that, the specially to the decision to ontinue operation. wound induction generators which the fficials plai !o c ntinuc the dyeoc penetration tests as w I as visual in- . company .uses are 81.5 percent effi cicnt at l/j l6ad <for the 3 kw. model. spection for every ten hours of opcraContact: F&t+ ! Energy R&D Carp, tion time* until the shaft can be Cqrretercl Estnral No. 113, Dept. ASE, replaced. which will probably be about * Zrho Indc.~rrial, Q~rcbrdillus, Puerro six months, at the earliest.

Conning Events 6 ; I WIND WORKSHOP VI, June l-3,

Minneapolis, Minnesota :

Sponsored by the Wind division of the American Solar Energy Society (ASES). Contact: Dr. Irwin Vai, C/G
Fk, Wind Corp., 21212 Kertc, WA 98031. 68rh Av. So. I


Minneu)xdis, &finrie.soro Workshop sponstired by Energy Designs and Minnesota Solar Energy Association. Presentors include Donald Marier of Alternative Source,s of Energy. Richibrd Komp.of Skyheat Associatcs, and John Gulliver of St. An!,hony Falls Hydraulic Laboratory. FOI niore information, contact: Alternuli;vJ.v Workh~p, I421 P&clAv, Mintrerrpolis, MN 55404, #20/ 1

Wind in Puerto Rico


Elect;o&tic sensor The City of San Sebastian, Puerto Rico will rcceivc a 25 .kw,. wind sysElectromatic has introduced ,?n optoILIIJ from Fulur-c Crcr,yy R&D Corp. wind direction sensor. Elecunder a grant from the Dcpaytmcnt of tromatic Components Ltd. (1531 But-Energy. According to GayIon Hinlon, ,ptrll>l Ptrrkwcry, Dcp/. ASE, S~reatw vice prcsidaut of cnginccring with Fu1WMXl, IL (5(1103), Li lllaIHlfi~CtUrCr of turc Energy. th$ grant CilllCd liar the inniodular~control circuits for industry, stallutiol; ol,a IO kw. system but the has dcsigncd the moc!el SO II5 wind company bi,d to install a 25 kw. 11x1- _ direction relay which ,-wo&s in conchine for $32,000. including tower junction with their model OD 02 optoand installation. The machine will IX clcctronic wind vane. The wind vane conncctcd Lo the PUcrto Rico Electrical rcgistcrs each change inwind direction Power Authority grid afid cxccss elcc- d . i)f 7 deg. and sends its signals to the tricicy will bc sold for.7 cc&s pcfkwh. SO I 15 for controlling yaw motors. A Hinton als(j reports that Fiturc Entime delay is ad,jtiitahlc, from 0.8 to crgy has improved the cflicicncics of I x s&mls.



1, 1983.

Cuhfhxi~~ Contact: TMAC, 680 Beach SI., Sltik 428, Son Frcrtwistw, CA 94109.


the latest


in this series of wind energy programs.

Results of sludies In the public and prtvale sectors will be featured In technIcal presentations, plenanes and wor,klng, topics of interesl lo the wind group dtscusslons Several energy communlly WIII he coLicrcd, Includtng I U S Wind Energy Program lnternallonal Wind Enerav_, . Proarams l Large Wind Systems . Small Wind Systems . Verltcal AXIS Systems l Community and Wind Farm Aoalicallons
l l l l

Aerodynamics/Wakes f Namk .___Performance and Testlno ., I. l Wind Characlensllds -~A I Arldress . Perlormancc and Testing I ,. 1- ----------~l Safely and Environment l Stand-alone Systems , 1 ~-~~T..---l Dynamic Analysis, l Ulilitv lnterconnect~on I leiepnone I

I7 Please s&d md prograni and registration 1 Workshop VI al ASES 83 q , canno, a, ltend the meellng, but please 1 -.J vvurnbl~p 0, rlu~aeu~~ly: mallon on Willu \&,^-l,^L^^ YI n _^^^ *A:I-s, I \

ForFMhqg.Information __-___._--------- -

information send on Wind inforI I --$7~I


me oidering

,... ________


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) _l_l-_-----


thla lo:

. 4 ---7

Aliend a major renewable energy product exhibrllon with a special Wind Pavilllon dlsplaylng the lalest hsrdware rn the marketplace. . Inlcracl wllh other disciplines and professIons onGaged in renewable energy development at the 1983 ASES Annual Meeting iX,+. ,:a: . ,...I *


I 7 , I I

American Solar Energy Society 1230 Grandview Avenue Boulder, Colorado 80302 e 303-492-6917 -------iI---,A--iJ ,

.\ ..i;:. .z.rp+.> .$$Y _ ?,



of Energy




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Photovoltaic Producti

AR-CO Solar Ye ($
line structufcs of ARC0 Soln~r modules, support t & system acccssorics
-invrttcrs & lint, i






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,jIl~l TIN!

SolilIWCsl f%xTric hils ils IlCW I YX3 PV CillillO~. . Inrr&ing


32 p:lgC

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history. siziiig is ;ippliciihlc

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;111d siting. IIc

tied inverttry Photovoltaic storage batteries DC appliances & lighting sj;stcms water delivery system compon&s _. Ultra violet water purifiers Full line of mob& and marine radio systems and acccsSorics Rcmotc location<pkwcr systrms

Cilll IX! iii-



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ifi winlcr 10 Up lo 55 ia S~IHIIIC~ when using ii so1;11

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lairchase 01 over SSO. For iuorc inli~r~llilIO illly

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305 N. Republic Avenue ,Joliet, Illinois 60434 (815) 744-6444 ioll free inquiry telephotie,s U.S. Wats 800-435-9313 Illinois 800-892-1611

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CLIIl Inlcli up to 17 IV

I~holoco~ii~ii Soiilhwcsl

Inc., clistrihulor now Ils oflkrs SR-scricS the li)r ;iti(horizccl Arc0 rcg\rl;itors rcgul;itorsVCllt Sol:lr li)r

r~iiulli IriCCS illorc

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~411 Ir;icF il ;il

txdi ;I%ncccssary. $3M). 77l(, For I:rr-


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p;mcls sy~lciiis.

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IOr 1llC 1GlL~kCr alaO

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cr;q\ ,Sll,l/J /Ill.. , I. 0. /hl\ 1.512, Ihp. /I.SI:, I;c~/cJll//lr~. (,I 023Y2.

01 21 Vtrll (111 l0 I60 ... I tic rcgul;itor hiIS for lxillcry

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co1iil,cns;ilion. For ils large ;irrny%, ollkrs rcg0l;llor


SHM mns(cr ,Al<.S SIiIVL!

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IhcpPV inoilulc with ,switch. When shod cir01 the moclulcs rc-.


iIIlIlC,sl zero VOIIS ;IIllI the current rim 10 il nominnl 0 ~ll~lp. SO Ihilt
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BEST ENERGY _ ._ .-.-IS. INCORPORATED CflTFM wt4 boBs5-7100 PO Box2eQ~Nrrm dab. vmcrnll

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kil $2 Ifi S27(i Wifi I)clivcrcrl

By Briar-aShovers
ome PV installations do not require fancy amortization footwork to make sense to the hardnose econo- ,, mist. Such an account lollows. There is a winding, hilly stretch of Highway 70 that cuts through the ca, nyonlands ,of. Utah which has .been plagued Qy serious truck accidents due to a lack of proper warning sislems. The obvious solution to this problem was 3 fltishing sign to alert J truckers to Iie upcominQ danger, Thus seems a simple enough soluLtlon, but in this case, the nearest Ihe available power source was 17 I/Z Way warntng signals To brlrig 111 power hies would have cosl llie sple -125,000 &I: miles away. ,Severiteen .mjles, of lars. power line would have costthe Utah Is to demonstrate the ~0~1ef- Departmenf Of ~Transporation bver - of $125,000. tectiveness of using photovoltaics to There was, however, an. alternalight the road sign. The solar powt1v6 to this dilema~hotovoltaics. In ,- ered sign, developed by Applied Re- 1 1980 the Utah Department of Transsear&h and Technology of Salt.Lake: pprtation applied for and received a, iS powered *by eight 1 x 4 foot solar / _: pdnels, each co.ntainihg 33 photovol. taic cells. Storage batteries, placed in an insulated box, can keep the signs operating thr0ug.h three sunless * days. During its first ydar of operation, the only significant problem has been vandalisrri.. The PV cells, locatcd on a b&It& above the sign itself: are 1,000 feet from the roadway, eliminating most tampering. According to (John McEwan, an employee 6f the Utah Department of Transportation and an author of the proposal y to DOE, this is the first system of .its type in Utah, but it wont be the last. The success of this remote site applic cation has inspired other applications , by the department. McEwan said they are considering using photovoltaics to drive pumps at remote rest $ areas wt%r& the pnly sporce pf energy to pump watdr would be gasoY line generators. .He also. mentioned that the Utah Department of Fisti and Game is loo.king intb the use of photoyoltaics for pzlmping water for jivestock in remote locations. For more injormation about the Utah project: contact: John McEwan, Utah Dept. of Transportatiqn, Room 408, State Office building, Salt Lake City, UT 84114. .

illi W.111 I. Arc0


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l Construclctl
cncrfi 4 htstandin)! scrvicin~

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. A$ low as MI .oO dclivfrctl

Yriur. be@ awr& r


CATALOG $3.00 lha!r



_.,. -I.
Alternative Sources of Encrg,

., A-


The. new TEF SunRunner has an aulomalrc, llrerrnoslal TFF oilers a unqre (Ilrarantee II

rnlerror shutter whrch IS conlrolted by a sample llmrl II the unit lreeres wrthrn 5 years, they simply replace

The No lljl:


Guarantee h;is rcccnlly

01 11~ ih ;i I~rc~lhox will1

. au.Ywlypc

llic The w;ilcr availabiliry unit Iicalcr

/trrfrnc,~ S(~;II lwi~l.

;II~ iliWrcs[ing

The $899 unit is shipped as a complctcly asscmblcd package with its own mounting Ilangcs and two plunihing connections which run to your cxisting waler hcatcr. Thcrc arc no clcc(r;uiic conlrolIcr.s, sensors or valves lo
llC collllcclccl. I;or lnorc inli~rma~ion on kc TEF SunRunncr, con~~t: WF Mmr!/irc*/~r~-

maintenance cost. of $228. Allowing for the cffccts of conven-, tional cncrgy an -assumed 10 pcrccnt a year, savings could grow to $334 annually by the fifth year, $538 by.thc tenth yearand to $1,394 -by year 20. If the price of the system is $3,800, and the fcdcral tax credit is 40 percent or $1,520, the actual cost 01 the system is $2,280. The systcrn has an assurncd scrvicc life of 20 years so the average cost per year of owning the system is $2,280 divided by 20, or $I I4 per year. Thus, itallthp assumpLions hold up. it will cost the homeowner .Y;II4 to save $228 in lhc first year. Each year thcrcafter the savings incrcasc bccausc of the cffc,ct of inflation on the cost of convent&al fuel. According to Grumman, the savings represent an average tax free yield over just the first ten years of ownership of 14.6 percent on the $2,280 investment. Someone in the 40 percent tax bracket would have to earn about 24 percent on a taxable invcstmcnt to do as well.

Save up to 2/3 the COSJ o/ .a phot,o-voltaics only / system with a

IIw iri5iil;ilcd 5hullcr. which is gc~icrally ~ii;ini~ally opcralcd. is corn Accord~rollc~l hy ;I Iimlt 0wrn~~~1l. ing lo cc~tiil?aiiy prc5idcnt. Thomas Krisly. This lypc 01 non-clcctronic liiiiil tlicrmhl;il has hccn in use for
lorly ycara iii hc gas Iurnace in-







Fresno, CA 93 70.?.
Invest in kui SSA Account
Wondering whcrc. 1;) invest your hard carncd nmncy? How aboul a Solar Savings Account (%A). GrIu~u~uuI IGrc,r;q~l~\~IPIIIS has an inlcrcsting anglc lo consider in lhcir SillCS lilcraturc, Sunstrua~nsys~cm is The Gr~rnmny lrscil :ks ai1 cxniiiplc, bul the cconoiiiics should apply 10 olhcr well dcsigncrl and dUhl?lC solar hOl wulcr syslcills. You skirt with the assuu,iplion that a rcprcscntnlivc Grumman Sunslrcani syslciii will cosl irhoul $3,800 and that annual opcraling and inuintenancc will avcragc aboul I percenl of thal cOs1, or $3X a year. Assuming the system will S;IVC ils owner ahOuI I3 million BTUs Of cncrgy ;lnntl;llly lilltl ilSSUlllillg tllC honicowncr is prcscntly heatjug waler a1 a cast of semi ccnls per kilow.att hour, savings in the first year of use would be $266 minus the $38 annual I.. -

over duslr-r.

The prcscr lcnipcralurc lii%its tlilkr hy approxiiiialcly IO dcgrces, . which kccpslhc unil from continually cq>ciiiiig ;iilil c,loaing oil a parlly cloudy hy. . Ihc IllSlllillill~ shullcr is lhc *only iiioving par1 on lhs unit. l,IlF ib apparcnlly quilt co~ilitlciit aboul (hc tlc~ign. Kcnnclh H. Russell, dircclor 01 rcscarch and ilcvclol~nicnl, says The sheer simplicity of our solar waler hcalcr is the key lo its high clficicricy and whal ;~llows us to oller whalVwc coiisidcr lhc most unique guaranlcc in the intluslry. Tkir guliranlcc is siniplc. Providing 1110unil is properly instnllcd, if lhc SunRunnc~ Ivezcs within I lhc first live. years 01 oj~ralion, TEF will rcplacc it a( no charge. The guarantee applies anywhere in the continental United States.

ComtJtclc~ systrms inctudc:PV drruy wlpassivr tracking system, AC gcnrralor, qaltrry charger. solar micro~t~rocrssorlconlrott~r. 13csl invrrl(r. atrlb.lrdnslc~ swilch rlncl tlccp.cyctc ballcries.

Edch syslcam ib cusloni clcsr!tried dccmrling Lo iridivitluat rcquircmenls. For more ~nlb~mation conlact: Jim C*n




308 E. Perkins Ukiah CA 95482 (707)-468-92 14


Send $3.50ppd. for Allijrnalioe Energy Calalog. -.

complete Alternative Catalog in the world.



Sovrces of Energy i ,,.

, 0

Delta-T _ Solar Products

According to Leonard Rothenberg, vice president of the Grumman Energy Systems Company, The amount of money that your solar system can save i depends on how much hot watei you use, the size of the system and the cost of conventional fuel. But solar definitely merits consideration as a solid iniestment, right up there along with CDs and.IRAs. For more information on Grummans solar systems, contact: Grum-


4. man Energy Systems, 445 Broad low Road, Dept. ASE, Melville,




Soltrr Rrrdiruiorr Dcrttr Mtrrrrcrl. (.Stoc*k ; The CII~~ZO l&in in cast&n Sah Luis Ail,. (16/-(X~~-(~)~Y.;I-5, :.x4. 75) qm: Obispo County is the planned site for scnt ltillil ilCClllllUl~ll~d and synthcsizotl * ,, design of a solar cncrgy project pmover ;I 23 yyar period lt.1~11 24X NILposed to bc three times hirgcr than any I tiOllill WCillh!! SlilliOllS across Ihe nllnow operating in the w~dtl. Pacific . .. Gas itnd Elcctcic Company, ROC~WCII , lion. .; International Corporations Energy The rcfct&ce works UK the IVS,I;I !I Of ill1 cxtcnsivc coopcrntivc cllorl T ;I S~S~CIIH Group and ARC0 Solar Jn;I iitinlher or or~~tiizations, dus!rics will sham the cost of dcvelo$- illlltNlg ing the design with. the U.S. DepattS~~JS Roland I-Iulstrt;m, Chirl cif . SER!S Rcncwahlc Rc~t);u;~k~ ASSCSSmcnt oJ Energy. A contract for, preliminary design of the plant has IllClll illld, Instrumcnta(ion Hranch. .shoUlll 1 been awarded by the DOE to Rockwell. Collectively, thcscL: vollllm!s Intcrniitional. prove cxlrcmely V:,I luablc not only t6 HELIOTROPE The Carrizi; Plain, about midway solar cnginccrs, designers, a nd in;iiiiiGENERAL bctwccn San Luis 6;bisp.o hnd Bakers1;acturers, hilt to-nidcorologist and ilg/ 3733 Kenora Drive ri&lturnl c ngin&rs ilS WCll. field, is .I@W ddvotcd to agricultmal Llrzt!l ,Sprlng Valley, CA 92077 uses. The plants design. when comAll three publications arc availah!& (619) 460-3930 endent of Docu plctcd, could include a field of api,&xl from the Slrprint Northeast: (203) 453-0476 CALL TOLL FREE: men/s, Il. S. Covermw~tt Pr Ming imutely 2,000. heliostats covering OJIn Caltfornia (600) 552-6636 . ,about 250 acres and .a power tower jfice, Washiuitorr , DC,, .2040 12. Orders Oulslde California (600) 654-2674 must be prepaid and I thk siock.num,bcrs over 400 feet high. The heliostats, Dolta-T leadq name sola, Ihe I, con,,.ol Y ww~,r ) should<be reference d when ordering. each with more than I ,ooO square feet il .\ , .I 36 3 Afternative Sources of Energy/d , .

A Complete L.ine of Solar Heating and Solar Hot Water Controls. l Delta-T Differential Temperature Thermostats available with the Temp-Trak digital temperature display. l Del&T Multi-Logic? u (DML) provides for multiple differential . control in a sintile unit. * DER-BOOW Remote System Temperature Monitor with six . station digital display. rAlso available is the Helio-Logic@ multi-mode !/ solar controller for completely custom residential or comm&cial solar applications and Motorlred Damper for space heating with air systerqs. For complete information on all Heliotrope General products write or call

of reflecting area, would retlect sunlight to a cenfral receiver atop the tower.,, LiqLqid sodium circulating through the icceiver would be, heated to more than 1,000 degrees (F). The sodium transl&s the heatifrom the receiver to a steam generator which turns water into steam to powePa turbine generator cApable of gencrdting 10,000 kilowatts. When opemtional, the. plant could produce 75 million kilowatt-hours of electricity a year, the electrical consumption of more. than 12,000,typical households and replacing more than 160,000 barrel; of oil use per year. Altcr the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plnnt starts opcrdtion, PG&Es plans call for 100 percent reliance on alternative resources-cogenerdtion, hydti, geothermal, solid waste and t-enewable resources like wind and solar energy-f%r the remainder of the 1980s.

1 L

U.S. Solar Resource Data Basep Now Available

A comgrchensive collection of sf)lar radiation and mctcoro~ogical data (or the United.Statcs has been publishctl in il three volume series. by the Department of Energys Solay Energy Kcstarch Institute (SERI). The Solar Rullicrtiot, I:r~~~&y R+
.Tolrrc< Atlrrx of the. Utritcd Strrtcx, (Stwk No. 06 I - 000~~ 00s 70. 0, $IH.OO) the Irr.soltrtiorl Dirtrr Mtrmctrl,

--.. The Carrlzo Plain, In eastern San Luts-Ublspo County, Calllornla, could well be the sue of a new solar power lotier three tlm& larger lhan any now operallng In Ihe world

Worlds Largest Solar Power o 6 Tower in Planning Stag&s

(Stock No. 061~OW 004X0- I ) .$7.SO) ilnd its iItlclcIlcluI)l, the Dirc*r*t Norrrrcrl

I t 6-

Itw. t.;rrsw trmss


c uodcsics rkucc the nimhcr

and of

saw shapes

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make rhc lask 01 building much less cxpcnsivc and LI very easy task. This siniplilitx~ion hroughl ti)rth ;I tlcsign which his only 7-4 Irianglcs ins&l of Itic 45, 60, 90, or cvcn 120 conimonty Ioiintl Along with olhcr with ihc &signs.

AS.1: rc*;lttcr~Jchil I$, t Iugtlcs tlq ct1111t1111 w11lI ;111Iilli~ichliilg ;Illci.!l;i IIVLY II Ih ~l~11ltl: /t/.\,\;lc ,srJ/rrr /k\i,L,vl.\ I./r/ 7 tlilb tlLVll~,t)lCt ;I sl!iltdilhvl llillll ;ysl,blll c~:lllcYl ItIt* I .;llvll l:l11, I: \\lll~~tl L {Ill IN 1lUll I1y ;I11 11\\1111 111111~1~1
III 1011,1111~~l1111, .01.,,11 I ,I ,\ WIllI ;I llJlll;ll ll;lllllll)! * , % ,d

24 lrianglcs the hildcr must cons~rucL3 trapezoids, all ;il;sciihlctl with Ihcir skins bctim hc ~OIIIC is crccktl. Acconiing lo Gcnc. (his iii~~diiI;ir col~s~nrclion willows you I0 hiilil withotil;illl~, lhc p;lrIs li)r il I-I~!X;ld~~lllC C;lll h builr ;II

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-taincd when pH. solids content and yeast concentration arc niaintairkd at rcconinicndcd Icvcls. Under I:lvorabtc conditions. commercially fcosiblc quantities .of alcohol arc obtaincd in three cloys. For more inlhrmantion. conlact: Wtrstc~-a-hctl, /UC. , L&IV .16A.

Dc~I. ASE. Cltrtmrtroo,~o.

I.53 Mir-~~/to~rsc~ hlrrrt, TN 3 74.2 1.

Conklin Compkny Urlinchcs Ollt I

The Conk!in Con$my. which nmnuliiclurcs and m;irkcls roofing ;!hd ccxiliiig pimluc~s. clancr, agricullutxt and ciiqy rcI;ikcI protlucls is now ottkrIH~lrvcSl . i~llct 4s I. inglhc , The Harvr$ Fuct 45 I is ;I 4 I .0(X) gallon CilpilCily fuCt :llCchl~l phllt dcsigncd for on I:irni use. II yields 1.3 gnlloils of 190 proof alcohol per hushcl- and products 1,200 Ibs. ot high-prorcin distilkrs grains (6Ov) nioisturc) u?;iqi SO hushcls of tixistocks (corn, wheat. niilo. or wheat-barlcy) daily. The onfurni sysrcni fmtiircs six stainicss-steel .. ~lcrmcn-tnlion [antis. distitlntion column. boiler. solids scpumtor. plus plant training and site inspection. For niorc iril%rnialion. conlact: Cotrklitr

The Ha&es{ Fuel Compjny for on I 200 Ibs 01 Iw$ 1~111f~alores SI solltis sep~xalor

45 1 IS a 4 1 000 gallon capaclly luel alcohol plan1 designed by the ConkIln tarn1 use IJ yleliis 2 3 gallons 01 190 proof alcohol per bushel and produces prolcln dlsltllers grains usng 50 bushels 01 fee&locks dally The on-larm sys slalnless slee lern~enlal~on tanks (ptclu~ed above), d~st~l~nt~on column boder ~Ilus.pldnl Irairlifl(j al,cl slle ~r~spccl~on



to Alctihol

lincc nurc the (xithogcnic parrs of the nx-

Wustc-a-hol. inc., ;I corporarion ~ercd in Tcnnc~sce. has ;~nno~~nccct






cihyl ;Itcohol out 01 milnurc. Accorcling (0 the invcntim, lhc proccs5 iS toss cspcmivc ;ind rcclilirc5 Ia5 capilal and labor Lhan pociil iiic~hocls of okiining ethyl ;ll~ohol. prootypc. built on 01 llic invcnlor5. i5 rcporhxt to hc p~oclucing IO g;illons of alcohol an hour. Besih ethyl alcohol (ethanol). rhc proccsa atbo prmlucca Iwo other d&~t~ in Ic53cr cluanliik. hu~anot ;init nicth;uic)l. The rc5iduc Icll
farni olonc

A .conmcrci;II







01 lhC



01 mnurc


Double SAVl lHOUSARDS~ OUI Use low-costFactor D~recl \ Ir~rulaled QJSS 401 IAX CRtDll OUANII Y DISCOJJIS

ACT TOOAYI [4041691-1960
Saultmrtarn Ennrpy Control. Oapl I P 0 Ilot 44066 MImIa. GA 30336,

arc rcmovcd. i( cc~uld hc5okt 2s ;I cottf[ltf,I. Dqtr. AYE, 4660 Ii! 77th soil contlitioncr or Ikrtilircr As an alSI., hlitrttcwpolis, MN 55J3.T. Icrnalivc. (11~2 iiianui~c rcsiduc could hc _ iimt to product mclhauc gas lo p0wc1 the tlis~illatiori uriil or provi& Iucl Ior tSiog:ast~it~tiogr;~phg NOM Avaiiatde gcncrnl liiriiiusc. A hibliogl-aphy on hiog;is. Hiogas invcnlors Roy Ia(lcrtroll :inil i):ivitl from Agriculture and .OtWcr has hccn Morgan slate thal lhc proccha ~wtes has .hecn compiled by rck51cd on nuiiicrou~ xiim;~t nI;inurcs scarchcr and wrilcr Gregg Sh+tduck.. z and Ihus 1.~11. worked on ~111 hx ollhcn~.! This is ;I comprchcnsive subject liibliIrcliniinnry lcsts indic;ilc dial ;I I .()#I ography that will intcrcst pcpptc inlh. jc;o\v w-ill prc~llllcc cnullgll I111lI1LIrc \~otvccl wirh cncrgy procluclion and daily lo niahi anywhcrc trtlni I.8 lo 2.7 w;islc iiianapcnient. it covers lijur clc-> gallok ol;itco~iol. aiicl iI at7pc;lrs 1h10c;~dcs puht icalions on id gas produc., rcricalty pob5ihIc ti) okiin 4.4 gallons lion hy xiacrobic cligcslion of such. . da iliy iiialcrials as livcsk~cti wastes. crop rcsIhc dcvclbpnlcnl is ;I lirmcr~,l~~tion idtics. lim.l, processing w;is[cs, njunici-, prt~ccss using the Saccharomyccs pal solid waste, and olhcrs. The LICccrcvikik .and Saccharoiiiyccs clI,jplors involvccl in jlfl:lcrObic tligcstor , * siodcus strains of ycasr, Thcsc arc the clcsign and opcr;iLion xc cover&. as - :., s;inic ytxists cimnioiity uscd to pro-arc many digc+r types. duct cdlyl atcuhol. The LX;ICI mcchanism by which alcohol is pri~tlucccl is , Copies 01 this publication arc availablk Irom kc National Technical inno1 known. it is thcckccl thnL Ihc crllim&on Scrvicc, 5285 PorL Royal ulosc tlcc.oiiiposing linclCri;i break Rd. Springlick!, VA ,22 Ihl. Microdown uncligcstccl ccltulosc to siniplc Iich$ chpics cos( $4.07 and paper copI sugars. which the ycasl converts to alits cost $24.00. Both have the ordcl cohol. Although ihc procuss is :I very nun$xr DEX? 011534. simple one, Lhc hcsl rcsults arc oh-


Aiterrlativc Sources of hiergy/60 1* I

, ,

,, 3, S-J ,r

1nterna;ional Project for. Soft Energy Paths Friends of the Eaith Books 1045 Sansome St:, Dept. ASE San Francisco. CA 941 I I $11.95 288 -pp.@ This highly rcc~~mmcndcd book is ;ICtually a ctjllection of articles which. ccintain a gold qf useful information supporting a pragmatic, worldwide energy strategy--the soft energy path -for industrial land developing countritts. The strategy is based on. energy efficiency improvements and appropriate renewable encrgy.technologics. Suiiimaries of soft energy path studies are provided for the United States (the solar and conservation study by the DQE;s Solar Energy Research Institute that the Reagan Administration tried to suppress), Great Britain, India. China, f&laysin, and Bra@. , Other subjects that arc c(,vcred includE supcrinsulated homes, air-to-air heat exchangers, earth sheltering, an Alaskan double-envelope house, solar inclustrial process heat, the Small Farm Encfgy Project. alcohol fuels, the food vrs. fuel controversy, organic farming an,d much more. ,Revipl& 6)
Iys, ji-ottr

much practical, it$ormationon the art of cofdwood construction, both from himself and the many cordwood huildcrs hc has made it his business to nlcct OVCI

you are intcrcsted in cordwood, this is the only place to start. Roy offers many additional resources in this book and during the building season he even of-fers semina&iin construction. His new address is; Earthwood, RR I, Box \95, Dept. ASE, West Cbazy, NY 12992.

Tile Book Of He&t: A Fout Season Guide to. Wood,and r Coal Heating
Staff of,, Vermont Castings, Inc. William Busha, Stephen Morris, editors -0 Stephen Green Press Fesscndcn Raid at Indian Flat I Brdttleboro \iT 05301 $lO.?S I81 pages An interesting approach for a woc>$ heat book-splitting the sections into scasons. Woodburners around the country know that the work of heating with wood starts well before November Ist, and never really ends. The staff of Vermont &stings, drawing from their own experience and that of their .customers has produced ;I thorough and often hum0rOUs acclxlnt that might IlilVC been titled A Year in the Lift of a Woodburn&.

eryone seems to, have a different definition for. Bc that as it may, this book . proports to INN only cydminc what a network is, why it works, and how IO USCit; hut also to provide t -Iiable, up to date rcsearc i% flnding>l .. about the new age in which we live.. I dont know about that first part,, but after reading some large chunks of this book, I would agree with the second< I&t. If youre looking for information. /on an drganizationathat is part of the >!ncw age (ASE is in there, so youre all part of it), this is the and stop lace p _., to find it. .l

Sqlnr \ Handbook of Consenktipri and I Solar Energy: Trends at@ Perspectivis

V. Daniel Hunt Van Nostmnd Reinhold Co., Inc. 135 West 50th St. NewYork, NY 10020 $39.50 464 pp.

~. .>,



Ne~sEsot~,ml cttergy IL


Cord\~wod A4monI-\ Ho~rses: A Prmticnl Guide fh- the Owner-Builder

Robert i. Roy Sterling Publishing Co., Inc. Two Park Ave., Dept., ASE New York, NY 10016 $1.95 160 pp. Roy takes the reader on a tour of cordwood houses, with a new sclcction ol color photos. The homes arc beautiful, energy cfficicnt (both in USC ancl in terms of material -selection), and cxtremely affordable . if you have the time and inclination. Rgy also presents

Netwqkitlg: Tl~e First Report and L%re;to,~y

Jessica Lipnack and LICITI& Stamps .; Doublcduy Sr Co. 245 Park Ave. New York NY 10167 $15.95 416 pages c

This new, title from V. Daniel Hunt zero& in on practical and ecbnomical methods of solving the problems we will have to face in our energy future. Hc present.un overview of the major thrusts and sti-atcgies of current conservation and solar energy ,progmms and .discusscs the key roles played. by go+ crnmcnt and. the brivatc sector. Hc also dctailsthe gamut of new and recently developed .t&hnologics that arc involvcd in cbnsclvation and the USC of _ altqnatc &ncrgy sources. The Handbook,, among other things, is a .well II . rounuea pnmcr on solar enorgy.

Of main intcrcst to ASE rcadcts will be. the fact that this publication is a dircctory to over 1,500 key social change networks. Networks, like appropriate ttchnology and soft energy paths, is one of those terms that ev-

Sol& Rertlodelitlg: Passive M. c I Heating md Coolh 8 1

Lane Publi+ing Co. ~.(Skc\ t Books) Dept. ASE 1 Menlo Park, CA 44025 ) .$4.95 100 pp. e This.boqk is a winner! As hi&h in qual- I (iO/Altepstive I Sources of I hergy 3Y

_ ,.


. 8

New/Old Industry

!n $ii book,^ tine finds excellent proity as it is low in price! The writing is fessional le\iel doberage of active, wabeautifully qnooth and clear. The se-, ter,t$pe sola; heating iystcms. Most of lection of topics and the specific advice given deflects much wisdom, per- I , the major aspects of collection, storage, atiistributitin, *and performance haps because bf the large number of experts consulted-20! Starting me2 EASY TO READ thodicaliy with discussiorls of=,geals FUN TO DO BOOKS and strategies, including the fametis _ included. On tl-> negative side,, most. strategy insulate, then insolate,:the of the t&r&c% cited amdated 1978 authors then present brie-f but crystal . or bef&; f+v recent developments are clear accounts of the main p&.sive-i% dcscribcd: ThF Iirgc and exciting submodeling and retrofit methods, includjcct, of passive solar heating is scarely ing direct gain systems,. solar sun-, mti1ioncd. (rcJviewed by William spaces, Trombe walls, drum walls, Slrur<diJI) window boxes, ,TAPs, and also the principal DHW passive systems and Srtper l&lared Houses: a . I summertime*~d$sl~~ coo,link methods. B~tilcler Is Rerspective Bruce S~l&.c All main pain@ arc iklust,P-;ltcdby small but superb two ,color&lta\?lings. This is Bay Dcvclopmeht Corp. fo\lowed by il &lding twrdc-lmc;+ o 7858 Bay short Drive, ~~~~~ USE 1, 45 pages i)f,cidt)r ph()t<)~filfihs t)l ptis-p ~~~~iill~,,p~~lis~ 46240 IN ,*$l2,)0 90 pp, sivc $Olilr rcmOtlcli~qq of hoiiscs in a!l parts tl 1 U.S. Ihcfic are big, clear This .book is designeeto tell the layP&e $6 .50 .. . II I ~ , paotograpns, acci~mpanicu ny cxpian- .a ma+ what a iaperinsulated . hqusc is, 83 Illur. Contents: _ e atoFytcxi tir!d cros;%ction diagrams, = how well. it performs;and howYlittlcit l Adding a high pressure steam coil to -leE. variec! solutions. 1 &xcmplifying costs. Emphasis is on a 24$ 5~. Il. ydur stove .found by lcadlng sol.iir d2;slgncr.s. The l~xury~ superinsulated house in. III-. l Safely and operating controls book conc$idcti with sc~cral- howl Convertrng an air compressor lo a @iana$lij which the author dcsifincil. . . a scclions. a good biblitignlfhy, steam engine LO Large photbgraphs and clear drawings l Alternators, generators and deep glossa<y, nnd ucfinciqdcx. A!1 this for a give the r&d& a rlosc~dp vip,w of (IOII- cycling battery banks nicrc .$4.9S! Ruricwpd by rrdder lkl-. = ble stud walls, vapjr harriers, W. li)o * Firing wit! wood and coal . Yiurrr Shurcl~j; a solar advo&$ and small and simple 10 irllcrcsl cxpcrls, Bonus Section: CutAri&;,,thffA *: &hr Jrht . this attmcliyc and well W~~IICII hook iii a that used !o bo .m ,&ef;f;:lace T .D just right lilr cxplnininp, IO .!oh11 ,JJ. a l Low pressure steam lor circulating * The Solai- Eizergy Dir&t&y Public why s~rpl~rillslllrlIic~I~ is ~~II:~~II~ heat . . .Sandra Odd0 & Marfin Mcihillips .SI) much sxciIuml\irt nlr\ong ~rn:lliICcLli;~ l High pressu;e ilearn to rurl a steaF (cd.) builders, arid hoiilc ~~wni*l;~P (r~vic&l, * I eoglne and generator , Grc$ House Publishing, Inc. . i , l Stornig heat and alectnclty by Williiilll Shui~lill) 9 360 Park Ave., South > . -Dept.. ASE *f L $ ; NW York, NY 10010 0 Slirling Ih~h~cs x0+ $50.00 350 pp. *- i liyttitllis,trtr Srir-litrg I:tt~itr~~s _ ~ . , This title is due t: hit the book st1rrc.s _. [;, ,), Wcsl this Ma&h. We havcitt scc;n ii ,copy 4 VIIII &J~SI~III~~ Kcinl!cr~l Co., In%. .sr yet, but understand that DickMullson 1.1s WCS( sqlll 9, n d , * , of the Sorar Lobby. h11s qdlcd it I~IC Nqw %I%; NYIoO20,. . , Whos Who of.111~ so111r crlcrgy $ I8,J.s !44 pp. b y . movement iultl it+tlnslry. A&c!r.tlil)~ .Irltlging (iron1 the response that \BHl to G:rcy.HotIsc: thi Iiircvtory will bcn Mllrlilli rccuivctl ,on \i8FStirling EnI comprchcn~ivc imil up~~to~,~li~l~+ puitlc 11, Milll*ti nrti&le (ASE #57), thcrc is ? lot the rilpitlly cxpnn~l.i$ Iir*)[ 111 tioI111.i*n (II intcrc*sl IIII thc part of ASE readers crgy. Incl4ic!c~l \YilI IX* lricltrsslcinld, 9? on Ihv topic. U&c is ~,~~~ver, not i w privillc, rcflirnnil i~ntl ~o,vqnlt~cnl 01 !hal IIIUCII dnln nVailablc: Here is am 4 gQ?i;iiziiliorls, !?lillnli.ll:lIirl:I.H uliliiintl i 5C INJWI~LIC:which provides a complete . * tics, hci~li~~ilwl, Irnil\iny, ,imd rcscrdcsc$tion of the~Jiquid..piston Stirling , 49 tllum Contents: rilcli, /nslll4ili~ir~,h, nncl sourcs ()Iengine,, how ,itworks, how lo design. . All kinds of wind turbrnes and how iirli)rlii/i~joil prrliliililip Iti lhc sC;lar titthey tiork. one, how to build one and the theory.
l l

Home heating with wlndpowcr Produclqg elcclrtctty w~lhyour backyard built wind machlnrt 1


of operation. The versatility of the en$nc is emphasized, andpossible ap-, h : plications are disc,ussed. K.W. IIciticiInmn : ~ii~rl~~n~lSIIM IIVSS , , , .I.Ih Matlis~n+l Ave., Ikpc. ASE New York, NY loOI J ~ !t:\L!,SO 2.80 pig, . . . , c >, : *
Lirlu)d Pistan !. Stiriiyg I Eng jnes

Both books for $1 0 00 All rn,ond day-postn(]o pnitl

I o~(lo!!i IIIIII~III


Write - Horveyr, 140! 28th Avm., a Grealey, Color~do,BO631

/\~tWllllth~ ?h~IIILI!N Ol b:IWlM

_ (I

should be or sp&ial injerest to. hi& D .i school jnd college, science fair pq,rtic+ant,s atid alteinative energy enthysiasts. , c ( , 2, I Q ; , SjL ,I 1~ I .* ,r

$;~K~I~IIIIV ~:~ro\jlcle~;Access to Informatlon, tools, and hardware that contribSend correspondlltr IIJ III{-llvl~lur~l nnd Gommunlty energy self-sufficiency. VII( @: I~~Spcocttum Edltor, ASEMagazlne, Milaca MN 56353. .
-;-* ,X..._l ,_.~.. , -.^.ll.

. D
J a

, , I

. ( ol15~l~vlltl1lll I

( lll~lt1,l IllilSl Illcc~ll.c~iv(s, Inc*. I 140 IIIII ~I~(~~~~,,I~c.~~~.ASI: I:1 ( ilp#, (A J.!O70 I:Ic~~tnmic~s.,Inc. (CPE) llO\V ~II1IIllIll,c~llll~ib rh1* NO- WAIT en-, ll)?Y hlIVlI Ilr~ ~:IIIII~K~ clcctricnl unit wl11t.11 rcllh IIII~$I~I.JS plus $I .SO post-II~,C ;IIKI II;III~~III~. sn;tps ontb the gnd , ~~I.~~IIIIL~I~ IOot or cighl li)ol fluores-: lour LI*III li&ti,NO WATT limits the curICII~ koing through the light, so that the Yxtusc uses 30% less power. The dc--, sign, provides capacitive/reactive clcmcnt~ in series with the b:d!agt and discharge tube to limit current Row and rcducc wattage dissipation, tihile maintaining a high power factor. Thcrc is no rcductio;i in lumen cfficicncy, qccording to CPE, whose five year warranty states that if the user does not rclizc a 30% clcctrical savings, the cntirc purchase price, including iill postage ancl hanglinl: charges, Till bc rclundcd in full. ( ,I,I~v; illlil~

An cxtruacd aluniinum hood dissipates hcot. Littliies use a 12.&h power supPlY. E

Andermi Pulley Seals; Inc. 920 vest*53rd Street Dept. ASE Minneapolis, MN.S54a9


According to &detpxr P1&y Seals, a * pccnt Princeton. Univqrstiy $tudy r& vcalcd that double titing Windows huvc : iln cncrgy robbing IlitwLpulley holes ,fhr sash weight rope. Thirty live per < * cent of air lost throughcaeh window cscapcs through pulley ,hole,s. Ander son Pulley seals. in white or brown, tiith closed cell adhe$vc gaskets and J . . screws,. pcrmancntly seal these air ~ leaks. The Pulley Seais sell for $ I .50 a . D pair..> *
a 1


GE, Inc. . P.0. Box 430, Dept. ASE 100,87 Industr~tl Drive: Hi\mbtcrg, MI 48 I39

T/w Winrhw P/rrGqrM kit COIII~S cotnplctc with panel cdgc trim with compicssion cdjic seal , spray -adhcsivc Ibr liiminittihg tlbric or graphic to the lo&board, ;1 window decorating idej .g;idc, and dctailcd easy to lolluw insgyctions. No specl,al tools arc needed and the R value will bc about 6.25. Star Technology suggests taking iI picturc, of the view out the window and then srnding it IO one ol those photo h,ouscs which spccinlizk in big ;blow ups. lhc linishcd cnlar@ photo is then glued to the Window Plug with the spray adhesive. That way YOU ncvcrdose your view out the window, even when its plugged.



T&I .Mlv

i-s the Thrr-; Vhlw. This

by CAE, Inc., arc now availably Ihr illuniination of control panels and work spuccs in dim1.y lit ilrc:ls> Thcsc slim gooscncck /,amps ark availablcjn bliJckl?nisb in 6, 12ia~d 18 inch rcngths. Littlites feature a built in dimmer an? a quattz halo& bulb which produces a crisp, white light. ./ ,>< ,_ ,,Z. 1 .--.. .Q I a

ing at a specific



The National Center For f Appioprlate Techology



factory preset ,to tcmpcratures &hi the range of 40 to 90 degrees F. This particular valve can be used to drain a solar panel array when. the outdoor teniperaturc reaches a given preset temperature. It allows *the ai-ray to drain until .such time as it senses warmer tluid:avail:ible. In this typ): of application. it should be isolated frbm the lowest po,int of the an-ay, and at the point that would most probably reach the coolest temperature.

Research Products Corporation PO Box 1467, Dept. ASE Madison, WI 53701 is a co~~~plctcly The Sunccll S+&m, cquippcd air-to-air solar h$ting sys- 1 tcm consisting ,of pre-assembled solar coljectgrs, mountitig atcessories, an, air handling unit, and the ,nccFssary controls: In addition, a heat storage i area, ducts, manifolds, and auxiliary hCillillg iiP2 rcquircd. The collector in- : corporatcs the use of cloublopanud, tcmpcrcd, insulutcd glass to allow high solar pcnctration. The glass is doublescaled and is totally cncloscd in a nigwcathcr-resistant. custom.gcd, molded rubber gasket that deals the glass into the frame. The .a,bsorber is constructed of six lilyCt?i of slit and cxpandcd aluminum, painted with apeCiill coating and fabricalcd with over. 100.000 b:lfllcs in each cell. This un: Llstlill bafllc a~rangcmcnt Causes turbu-., D lencc as the air Ilows through yhe COI- Icctor and pr6dcs thr& times the heat transfer arca 0f.a single plate absorber. according to th> manufac&rcr.

Scaled Air Corporation 3433 Ardcn Rd. ,.vDept.- ASE Hayward. CA 94545



The Sealed Air System 150 uses patented collcceors with absorbers made of a special plastic, guaranteed for five years. The heated water is kept in a large co$tiincr (I50 gallons). ,The Se&d Air method lises the I.50 gallons as ;I basic heat storkig source. and is then plumb&i to your existing hot watcr system. which the manufacturer claims will rarely bcon. CIUC to the extra large stnrago tank with R- I4 insulation.






I Transportation
Burley Design Coopcrativc D 78300 Pacific Highway South. ,Dcpt.

Encrspaii, Inc. 14168 POwily Rd:. Dcpt. ASE

I~ObVily. CA 92064

. ! ,

#or FREE brochure vJith detailed information on the plans, and a FREE NCAT publications catalfig simply write:

NCAT, De t. ASE P.O. Box f 838 Butte;MT 59702


Encrspan has rcccntly introcluccrl ihcir Sll$hl~glJr r digital SOlill module. The solar moclulcs include pump. cmtrols, Ilow nictcr, heat traps, isolution , VillVCS. and drain ViIIVCS in COlllpilCt modules that simply hoIt on any stundard top littccl solar tank. Modules arc available Ihi both mild and hard frcczc cliniatcs, and can bc installed by the noJim in ,just minutes, ilccorcling to Encrspan. The IWXILII~ cnrrics ;I Iivc year limited warranty. .I. :

Cottage, G~vc,

OR 97474

The Burley Liar @q~?c Ttuil~r ;<dc. signed for those seeking a Finn,,healthI$l and incxpcnsivo gltcrnativuto th& automobile. Weighing in at I8 ,pounds, the trailer is well suited Ibr round,tpwn I ,I.,, crranus, IransportIng cn~ltlrc~~ or grnccries, &for the cycle tntbrist carrying L I ; gear which i&y not lit into b&s or, panniers. For ;I complctC c;~Mog, ot Burley B&yclc Protluqts, send oni dollilr 10 1hC ilhO+C {llldI;CSS. L x ,

Alternetive Sources of Energy/60

I , J :

t 0

reader-to-reader .classified ads ,

To place an ad, send us $32.50 for the first 25 words, $1.30 per word thereafter. Words in all CAPS arc $1.45 each. Prepayment is required; name and address must be included in the word count. Zip Code is free. Display ad (l/ 18 page) in Classified Section: $55 per issue. Intcrcstcd in other display advertising? (i Write us for a rate card.. ,
Films About Alternatives
d~cumcnturics about AT, WATEK CONSERVATION, and RESOURCE RECOVERY. Award-winning lilms used all nvcr the counlry. The recnvcry nt ~ncrgy tn,m lmsh is the suhjccl ot our ncwcst rhxse. ENERGY WHERE YOU LEAST EXPECT IT. Thinl Eye Films. I? Arrtlw St.. Culllbridgc,. MA 0213t(. lh17)354-15(Ht. h Foote Rtl., 3754. Ncvuda City, CA 95959. (9 t6)292-




lalcsl wnrldwidc solur i?nov&ons. I+ve specilili?cd iu reporting them monthly since I973. $35.00/yr; ovcrscus, S43.00; sim~plc cnpy. $I .oO. SED, P.O. Box XX-AE. Ocotillo, Calitnrnia 92259.

Wind Power
For sate: Encrlcch 1800 Wind Gcnixxlnr. Asking $3,0(K). Ttml Pclcrson. Ri,ulc II Box 362A. Prairie du Chicn, Wise. 53X2 I. 60&.326-422X. I Used Icud-acid cells ti,r salt. Various s&s.. tdcul lilr your low vollugc power syblem. IOC per pmmd. Kitiun Humngtnn, S:rlvutoriuns, SI. N;lzi;lnz,Wisconsin 54232.




IJussive Truckers incrcusc clticicncy of photo, voltuic wqys while using no motors which rnb power trnm the system. Write Zomcworks. P.O. Box 25805-AS. Albuqucrquc, NM 87125 (505)242-35.52. 1 co puncls Il-lO1OvOLTAIcs - 35 Will1 $375 cu. inclu&z UPS <lclivcry. culcr prices on rcclucsl. Inlinmutivc c;~liilog tk I .oO; Sotul tilcclric SYSCCI~~S.Box 1562. cilvc Cnxk. A% x5331.



Wind Gcncrelnr: SL;lOOO, I2 VDC, includes vollagc rcguleiion und cOnlml panel (tnwcr not included). ,Lisl S3300, SALE S I S(X) FOB Ukiuh CA. Cull Kcal Goods Tnuling C!l. (707)46!;92 14. Jim or Shcilah.

\ *


HKW Synchnmous (nv$rlcr-still in, tucI~,ry coniuincr -$ I X00 Energy Options, Inc. Box SSH Bcvcrly Sh!)rcs, !N 46301. (2lY)H7Y-Y463.


PELTON mrblnc wheels. S ~li;mu+r,~ high htrcng1h urcIh:mc $40 c;IcL(pe:ilc htlil(l dlolc hia rcquircJ). incIu&a inli,rmnlilm h0oklcl ($3.(Xt scp:m~cly). PowcrHousc Puuls Iclt~ms. Unx 1557/Sta~i~u~ A. Sussex N.B. Cnnadn.EOE 110.



AltIC COMING, Stirisatc. silcnl. ;~nd C;I~ be

Evrrythin~ yu ncccl lu huiltl :I c~m~plctc hnlnrclcclric pa11~1XI wall? (Ilus or mintlh). %229.0() clcI~vcr,LLJ. Indcpcndcnt Il,wcr Co. I2340 Tylcl

ing cnghics urc cllicicnt. incxpcnsivc. Inliuxlulilm is uvuiluhlc 10 devclLqxx w.ho wunl IO huiltl u binmass or solar hc:+l Stirling cnginc 111 mukc cIcc&%y nr pump &lcr. %-n~l $2. 1.0 Marlini Engineering. 230.1 Hurris. Kichl:mll. WA Y9352. USA li,r inlirrnialim~ em h(1w 1~1gel sturicd

1 I

Warm up, in winter and Cool off in suinmer with a



i In summer, move cool air up from your basement fo help coo/ your 3, home.

1 .I

In winter, circulefe warr I air up into hard-to-heat rooms.

/deal w/h wood sfove and /q&x


L THFtU-THE-WALL kit includes:

_ b 6 x IO open-close
l l

,register. 8 x 8 fan moun@d




Adjustable speed c&&o/ 0 Electrical outlet box l 5 ft cord with plug

An easy ,do-lf-yourseif
Moder Model FE-1 50-38 F&-250-12



(i$Dwl~m~n,ul~) $64 50 (2%0.$1 mrwle) 566 50 prepaId Wnle.

THRU-TH,E-FLOOFi Dale and As3ociates

2870 B&ells D,rtve E&it, WI 53511


Solar Technology Confeie,nce

f~ (jrdcr ii ~UI3SCHIIWO~N or our FREE CATALOGUE describing 3;l& ]SSUCS,TCChnic;ll I%pcr;s and litcralurc currcnlly avililnbk frm Altcrl;itivc Sources 01 L<ncrgy, s@$y intlicatc your sclcotion below. Scntl this >rdCr form with-your llillW!~;~~drCSS illld prcpuymcnt Of your order. Your .,Jer will hc shippcd primptly upon rcccipt 0l' p~iylllCllt.
Ay Niwc -..-..I~ ~Llllll!\h __.,.. *uy ... -.....-- -

.March 15-l 7, 1983; .FOW Seasons New MexMotor inn in Albuquerque, I


,_ *

: : :

Sponsored by Sandia National Labbratories, the Department of Energy+ the Solar-Energy Research Institute.

____,. I_-. Sl.llC --zil;;-

I I Scllll lllC I, IwcE C'KrAI,o(;UI~ OK..&-


,tlcs~ril)iril: lhck


I~cl~r~ici~l Pirpcrs::

Ixi~h. plli~~nplcl?~ imd lo[lics:sfhr /h*r,~y.

litcmtun. on he Iilllowing~ Wind P~N~~~. P/wfovfdro-

Contact: Carlota KIimas; Solar Systerns Appli$ations D<&ision 9727, Sandia National Laboratories, Al-. buquerquef New Mexico 87185. (505)846-0215. Critical l&ss 83: National Conferehce for Energy Job Security

i IIL~ 1 ILncw 0 I

icr. iliotrul.~.~, Iidw.


A~ricwlrrrrt~. rrrul Cmlin~:


. Iluli~itlu~ll

I $1) 51). yr/o ,\wl-!7 I

X1.5 (Ml-2 y&l? IhUlCI



NIIIIIC --- - .AllfIlL%

TO,; ;
\ i

Sutc _~

Iwitilullo~~ ' $25 ow I yr/h

.._ ._.__--

I y;.rsIX)-2 yrdl? ,hhUCh

. (unnf111 nr~d h&w
1 $25 WI yrl0 iwlcs (hurli~cc nuiil




March 25-27, 1983, Howard @liver: t .. sity, Washington, D. C. Sponsored by-Public Ciizens Critical : M&W Energy Project :* Contact: Public Ciizens Crltical


$JS 2 yrsll? ,\S,Wh IX)


N;IW -

, IJorrigrl (;II~ IIUII

i $3H Irn- I yr/o ,h\.IICLI ~ X(lH (Xl-? VW I IhhllC1.


__ Srulc ~Zip, i_

:, ;

Mass Energy Project, 215 Pennsylvania Ave., S:E., Washington, D.C., 20003, (202) 5464793
1 JI . . ..

<iry __ . .._____.__





EneG 83; First International Trade Fait: and Congress

April 19-23, 1983, Hamburg Exhibition and Ctingress Center Sponsored by The Hamburg Me+e and Congress ,Gmbh, Jungiusstrasse 13, Posrfach 30 23 60 2000 Hamburg 36, Federal. Republic of Germany.

. .

ns, Inc., 545 Madison , N.Y. 10022. ,

bOX hClOW iillll 1~)17Vi1111 ~theielorlj), COll)plctc with your n;II1W ;Id iIddress (//ww i.s 110f~/rtrr;qf*,/;w t,/ri.v .SCJ/V~~CYJ).
: f

I I I / I I

q Aerohle/L?7 Alt)an Fngn~ Power, tnc I4 All&rmve Energy Fqneerlngi 11 Alternnhe Sources ql Energy/ IJK Anwr~mn Solar Energy So&+yl51 R~!sI Fncrqy Syslomsl3j I 1 CnrnmrInlc;~llolls Assoclalesi 33 I i Colrocl 1~11~;~~Fklromcs Inc /If! I ~ I I I I
I llnlc ;llld A:;soc:I;IIl!!~/ 4.1

I , l~~lorn;~l~on;~l Sol;lr I i NCAI/ 1: * L c I I I I


IJrocl~rcls/ 9 , .

: I. I I
I i

NIIC & Day WIIIII Syslmd228 *, Norltierrl Solar Powctr Co I 43 on~~~~~lai;r trilor~i;~l~onali 31 a Ic!r~xlllt:ll rowl?I/ 20
Pl1olot:orlllll. PtIiIIOWilll IllC/ '9 ' tlll~~fll~lllOlI~1I1

: : :
I .:

,American Solar 6 *aI Meeting, 1 ence and Solar ~1

June 1-3, .I983 MI .Minnesota; Minnc 9 Hall-



' ^



Gc~~tl!; II;II~IIII~

Co / 35

I ) TIN: EarIt\ Slort-!/ 22 I I Fncrqy Allc!rrl;hm;/ 28

I Eller(Jy h!!XJfls/ 26

I I 1'1l)1lll/

I ;

I i

!-LIII~;I Sol;~!


I IFnerqy Smnccs/ I(1 I Ellarqy S1xncc:;. tnc / 30 ! Eiicw Carp I 37 I--t;lrvi!y:il 40 I l-ll!lIol1opl! Gc!nLl;II/ 36 I II1~lf-!~~I!Iifl(:lll Ihwcr Co I 31

I I S0h1
I I !ic,l;lr

I~[Y;;I M;II:IIIIIIKI IIOIK IIII: !:!!I IFt!c:lrlc: Sy!il1!111!;/ 28 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Sorvlco:;/ 21: l-lt!cllIl: s,!c:Illllct!;/ 22

( I i




Ave., Dept. ASE, Boulder, CC 80302. (303)429-6017. , .. : -: : , 5ih Annual fnternational En&: : Trade Show/Conference
June 7-9; 1983, The Ohio Center, Co lumbus, Ohio \ 3
Spotlsored by t&/o Hmdiw~r~~ A.cwwi


, : ,

I Wo:;lf!rll Now I;II!J~;I~K.~, I I Wlilrlwlritl Iuwor (21 / :?I I I Wlllrlw[,rk:;/ 5

! .

atiorr an/! Tha Nn -..I



An important .Reminder To Our Readers , ._.

Alternative Sources of Enwgyl60




and when we find it, we make it available .,,

to our readers.



contains unique information .

on every conceivable topic in the fieldof renewable

energy, including:



I , I

This information will be invaluab1.e in assisting readers in. making energy-related d&Sons.

11 is unique information
OCJcr the .SdC?c~&~ ,:arC?fU&.


gcncrully ,, is unar~uilahle dsorr~herr?. WZ, invite you to look


IV YOURE INTERESIED IN ENEI~CY.L if youre u ptmon who iw inlurumiod in oxplbring new idem nnd innovalivo nolulions Co Ihe ricring coot of .anorgy...



ROHN has been designing and manufacturing quality towers for over 30 years. We started Hot-Dip galvanizing our towers in 1954. Today, we employ high technology,.Computer Assisted Design engineering and electronic inspection of raw materials to assure that only high quality towers carry the ROHN name. J

9 _

It must be working. Our customers continue to order ROHN Quality Towers at record setting levels. For more information on RO-HN Quality Towers, con tact your ROHN. representative, or write:
3 ,

> Rohn
rI . 1


6718 West Plank Road P-0, Box 2000 Peoria, Illinois 61656

Our in-house Hot-Dip process -as seen here extends the life and durability of your tower. , ,

, .