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Particle Kinematics: One Dimensional Motion, Graphical Methods & Relative Motion

1. . A point P moves along a straight line such that its acceleration is given by a = 5i + 2s + 1 m/s2, where s is the distance moved in meters. When s = 0 its speed is zero. Find its speed when s = 5 m. Answer: 21.83 m/s A particle moves along a straight line such that after a time t seconds, its velocity v is v = (15 - 8t) m/s. What is the displacement of the particle after 5 seconds, measured from the point where t equals zero? Find also the total distance travelled in the 5 seconds. Answer: 53.12 m A city bus has a maximum speed of 100 km/h. It can accelerate from rest at a constant rate of 1.6 m/s'', and can brake with a constant deceleration of 2.0 m/s ' without discomfort to the passengers. How long does the bus take to cover a distance of 200 m, starting from and finishing at rest? Answer: 21.22 s

v [m/s]

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4.

t[s] 30 48

A car travels along a straight road with the speed shown by the speed-time (v-t) graph. Determine the total distance the car travels until it stops when t = 48 s. Also plot the distancetime (s-t) and rate-of-change-of-speed graph (a-t). Answer: 144 m

5. Two planes, A and B, are flying at the same altitude. If their velocities are VA = 600 km/h and VB = 500 kmlh such that the angle between their straight-line courses is = 75, determine the velocity of plane B with respect to plane A. Answer: 874."82km/h, 41.49

A particle is moving in a motion which can be considered as simple harmonic. Its velocity when passing through a point 200 mm from the midposition is 2 m/s, whereas its maximum velocity is 3 m/s. For the above particle, determine the amplitude of the oscillations, the number of oscillations per minute and its maximum acceleration. Answer: 0.268 m, 106.9 osc/min, 33.56 m/s2

W\c.

1.

Particle Kinematics: Two Dimensional Motion (Rectangular, Path & Polar Coordinates)

The nozzle of a garden hose is held at a height 1.4 m above the ground. The water jest is discharged with a velocity of 7.5 mls. What is the radius reached by the water stream if the nozzle is held upward at 25 to the horizontal? Answer: 6.46 m A point is following a curved path and at a particular instant the radius of curvature of the path is 15 m. The speed of the point is 8 mls and its component of acceleration tangential to the path is 2.5 m/s''. Determine the magnitude of the total acceleration. Answer: 4.95 mI S2

y

2.

3.

A point P is following a circular path of radius 10 m at a constant speed of 15 mls. When the point reaches the position shown in figure, what are horizontal and vertical components of its acceleration? Answer: -11.25 m/s", 19.49 m/s"

4.

150

The car travels from point A to C decelerating uniformly. The speed of the car at the bottom A is 100 kmIh and at the top C - 50 kmIh. The distance from A to C is 200 m, as indicated in the figure. If the total acceleration at A is 3 mls2 and if the radius of curvature of the road at C is 150 m, calculate the radius of curvature at A, the acceleration at the inflection point B, and the total acceleration C. Answer: 293 m, 1.45 rn/s'', 1.94 mls2

5. A rocket maintains a horizontal attitude during the powered - _ _ _ 5 m/s2 phase of its flight at high altitude. The thrust imparts a ~-------FC ~J horizontal component of acceleration of 5 m/s", 'and the Horizontal ; .~_ V = 15(103) kmlh downward acceleration component is the acceleration due to - - ...... gravity at that altitude, which is g = 9 m/s', At the instant , represented, the velocity of the mass center of the rocket , along the 15 direction of its trajectory is 15'103 kmlh. For this p~sition determine the radius of curvature of the flight trajectory, the rate at which the speed v is. increasing, the angular rate jJ of the radial line from the mass centre to the centre of curvature, and the vector expression for the total acceleration of the rocket. Answer: 2.35'106 m, 7.16 m/s", 1.77'10-3 rad/s, 7.40en+7.16etmls2

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Rotation of the radially slotted arm is governed by = 0.1 t + 0.02 t3, where is in radians and t in seconds. Simultaneously, the power screw in the arm engages the slider B and controls its distance from 0 according to r = 0.1 + 0.02 where r is in meters and t in seconds. Calculate the magnitudes of the velocity and acceleration of the slider for the instant when t = 2 s. Answer: 0.1 mls, 0.1 m/s2

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Particle Kinematics: (Rectangular, Path & Polar Coordinates)

1 For tests on an electric motor, the elements of the motor are accelerated uniformly from rest to a speed of 1500 rev/min, held at this speed for 8 s, and then decelerated uniformly to rest. Ifthe test is to last for 1000 revolutions, what is the total time duration t of the test? Answer: 72 s

a [m/s ]

2

2

5

t [s]

The sport car is originally travelling at speed of 10 m/s when it is subjected to the acceleration shown in the graph. Determine the car's maximum speed and the time tJ taken when it stops. Answer: 60 m/s, 41.92 s

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The lawn sprinkler shown in figure has two horizontal radial arms each 100 mm long that rotate about a vertical axis. Water flows out along the arms at a constant radial velocity of 0.8 m/s and the arms rotate at a constant angular velocity of 250 rev/min. What is the acceleration of an element of water: (a) - just before it leaves the end of the arm, (b) - just after it leaves the end of the arm. Answer: 80.33 m/s2 A tracking radar lies in the vertical plane of the path of a rocket that is coasting in unpowered flight above the atmosphere. For the instant when () = 40, the tracking data give r = 6'104 m, r = 1000 m/s, and e = 0.80 deg/s. The acceleration of the rocket is due only to gravitational attraction and for its particular altitude is 9.0 m/s2 vertically down. For these conditions determine the velocity v of the rocket and the values of i: and ii . Answer: 1304.55 m/s, 4.81 m/s'', -3.69'10-4 rad/s2

5 The water skier A cuts across the wake of the towboat B, which has a velocity of 50 kmlh. At the instant when () = 40, the actual .. path of the skier makes an angle /3=60 with the towrope. For this position prove that the manoeuvre is really increasing the speed of the skier (comparatively to the speed of the boat) by determining the velocity v A of the skier. Find also the angular velocity of the skier around the boat. Answer: 76.61 kmIh, 1.19 rad/s 6 In the mechanism shown in figure, the following . dimensions are given: AB = BC = 1 m. For the position shown, determine the velocity of C relative to B and the absolute velocity of C. Answer: VCIB = 3.21i+3.83j m/s, Vc = 0.38i+6.66J m/s

1.

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A box A of 15 kg is being transported by a conveyor belt, which moves at 3 mls. The static coefficient of friction between the conveyor and the box is f-l = 0.15. Determine the shortest time the conveyor can stop without the box being shifted. Answer: 2.04 s

3m/s

2.

Mass m, is attached to the freely hanging mass m., by a cord. The cord passes over a light frictionless pulley. Assuming that m, > m, and that there is no resistance to motion calculate the acceleration and tension in the cord. Answer:

a =

3.

A cannon fires 7.5 kg shell vertically upward. The shell has an initial velocity of 40 mls. Determine the maximum height to which it travels if (a) atmospheric resistance is neglected, (b) the atmospheric resistance is measured as R = O.02v2 N, v is the speed at any instant, measured in mls. Answer: 81.55 m, 67.58 m 4. A small inspection car that is being used to inspect ski lifts cables has a mass of 150 kg.' It runs on ski lift cable, which makes an angle of 35 to the horizontal. The car is controlled by the attached horizontal cable under a tension of P = 2 kN. Determine the acceleration of the car and the total force exerted by the supporting cable on the wheels. Answer: 5.30 m/s'', 2.35 kN

5. The 200-kg skip is being pulled up the 25 ramp by the ISO-kg concrete block A which is released from rest in the position shown. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the skip and the ramp is 0.45. Determine the velocity of the block A as it hits the ground. Answer: 5.73 mls 6. A particle of mass 0.3 kg moves freely in gravitational field of intensity 2.3 N/kg. At time t=O the velocity of the particle has components vx=500 m/s, vy=300 mls and the force R C components R, = 2t N, R, = 0.3 t2 N) is applied to the particle. The gravitational force acts in the C-y) direction. Determine its velocity when t=3.0 s. Answer: 610.07 m/s

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