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LESSON PLAN

Education Unit Subject Grade Semester Topic Subtopic Time allocation

: Senior High School : Chemistry :X :1 : Hydrocarbon : Boiling Point of Alkane : 45 minutes

I. COMPETENCY STANDARD 4. Understanding the properties of organic compunds based on functional group and macromolecule compound

II. BASIC COMPETENCE 4.2 Classifying hydrocarbon compound based on its structure and the relation with its physical properties

III. INDICATORS 1. 2. Understand the tendency of boiling point in alkane Explain the reasoning behind the tendency of boiling points in alkane

OBJECTIVES After the lesson students should be able to: Cognitive 1. Express the tendency of boiling point in alkane 2. Predict the increasing and decreasing in boiling point of an alkane homolog series 3. Express the reasoning behind the boiling point tendency of alkane 4. Predict the increasing and decreasing of between alkane from straight and branched chain

Psychomotor 1. Extract information from given graphic 2. Express opinion based on observation 3. Contribute in class discussion

Affective 1. Actively listen and pay attention well in learning process 2. Actively giving question and/or answers 3. Respect other students opinion in discussion

IV. LEARNING MATERIALS A. Prerequisite Concepts Uniqueness of carbon atom Hydrocarbon chain Classification of hydrocarbon Physical and chemical properties

B. Main Concepts The simplest of the alkane group is methane (CH4) which consists of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms, as shown in the following picture

Molecular Formula

Molecular Formula

Molecular Formula

Alkanes with longer molecular structure, such as ethane, propane, butane etc form a long, straight chain. Alkane and other carbon compounds usually drawn by a compact structure as shown as follows for the first four alkane series

Methane

Ethane

Propane

Buthane

HOMOLOGOUS SERIES Take a good look of those four alkane above. It is shown that from the left to the right each there is a difference in the number of CH2- group. Ethane has one CH2- group more than methane and so on If in a series of compunds there is a difference in the number of CH2group in order, the series is called a Homologous Series which is a series of compunds whose a CH2- group difference between two consecutive compounds. Compunds in a homologous series have similiar chemical properties. However, their physical properties changes along with the increasing of molecular/molar mass as shown in the following table

If the data is plotted into a graphic, it will be as the following one:

You can see the tendency between melting point and boiling point with the increasing in molecular/molar mass of alkanes. It is shown that there is a relation between molecular/molar mass of alkanes with their physical properties. Why do short chain alkanes exist under ordinary conditions as gases, while the longer chains are liquids or solids? The existence of the liquid and solid states indicates that some attractive force must pull molecules together. An attractive force that operates between molecules is called an intermolecular force. In contrast, forces within molecules, called bonds, hold atoms together in molecules. Intermolecular forces are much weaker than bonding forces. Electrons moving around an atom or nonpolar molecule are not always distributed symmetrically. If the electrons happen to be more on one side at an instant in time, that side will be more negative than normal, and the other side will be more positive. This situation leads to the formation of a temporary dipole (a state whose two different polarity exist in a molecule), or instantaneous dipole, The positive end of the dipole exerts an attractive force on nearby electrons, causing an adjacent atom to develop into another temporary dipole, called an induced dipole. This effect passes on to more atoms, resulting in a kind of electron choreography in which the movements of the electrons in nearby atoms

correlate. The attraction between these temporary dipoles is called a London dispersion force.

Average nonpolar molecule

Temporary dipole in nonpolar molecule

London Dispersion force occurs between all atoms and molecules, and it is the only intermolecular force at work in nonpolar substances. Although London dispersion forces are relatively weak, they are strong enough to cause substances normally found as gases, such as neon and methane, to liquefy at high pressures or low temperatures. With the increasing of molar mass, other physical properties like the state of matter also change. In room temperature, the four first alkane series are gases, the following several compounds are liquids, and higher alkanes are solids, such as asphalt and paraffin Shape is also important in determining the magnitude of the dispersion forces affecting a molecule. More spread-out shapes, which maximize molecular surface area, allow greater contact between molecules and give rise to higher dispersion forces than do more compact shapes, which minimize molecular contact. Pentane, for example, boils at 309.4 K, whereas 2,2-dimethylpropane boils at 282.7 K. Both substances have the same molecular formula,C5H12 but pentane is longer and somewhat spread out, whereas 2,2-dimethylpropane is more spherical and compact

(a) Longer, less compact molecules like pentane feel stronger dispersion forces and have consequently higher boiling points than (b) more compact molecules like 2,2-dimethylpropane

C. Enhancement Concepts Other Intermolecular Forces Besides London Dispersion Forces, there are several other kinds of intermolecular forces, namely ion-dipole forces, dipole-dipole forces and hydrogen bond. Intermolecular forces as a whole are usually called van der Waals forces after the Dutch scientist Johannes van der Waals (18371923). Ion-Dipole forces occurs between ions and polar molecules (whose dipole). One side ofthe molecule has a net excess of electrons and a partial negative charge while the other side has a net deficiency of electrons and a partial positive charge An iondipole force is the result of electrical interactions between an ion and the partial charges on a polar molecule

Dipole-dipole forces occurs between polar molecules. The mechanism is similiar to the previously mentioned ion-dipole forces

Picture (a) shows the attraction between different polarities, where as picture (b) shows the repulsion between the same polarity. The overall between those two forces determine the total force occurs between those molecules. Hydrogen bond is a relatively strong intermolecular forces occurs between hydrogen atom in a molecule with a strong electronegative atom (O,N or F) in the neighboring molecule

Comparisons of Intermolecular Forces (Van der Waals forces)

V.

LEARNING ACTIVITES A. Learning Strategy Learning Model Learning Approach Learning Method : Learning Cycle 5E : Environmental approach : Expository & discussion

B. Steps in Learning Activity Allocation of Time

Activities

Step of Learning Activities Student exchange greeting with the teacher Students attendance is checked

Aperception Opening Student answer the teachers question around the last meeting about hydrocarbon 5 minutes

Motivation Students and teacher conduct a short question-and-answer session about alkanes in daily life Engagement Main Activities Students watch a video/an animation/ graphic about alkanes and their boiling 30 minutes

point and/or physical state Students are asked to watch it carefully Students are asked to express any opinion regarding the video (brainstorming) Students listen as teacher tell them which opinion is relevant and which is not (clues for the next step)

Exploration Students fill the worksheet given

Explanation Students randomly bring up their answer to class discussion by the instruction of the teacher Other students can bring up their own answer if there are any differences Students discuss the answer by the guidance of the teacher

Elaboration Students see the presentation about the correct concept Students answer the question in the presentation based on the result in the previous discussion The steps above are repeated to learn about london dispersion force Students revised their answer in the worksheet

Students ask if there are still any Ending difficulties or misunderstading about the concept Students and teacher exchange greetings as the lesson is closed

5 minute

VI.

Sources and Learning Media : Board, Video, Animation, Presentation : - Sunarya, Y. and Setiabudi, A. (2009). Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Kimia untuk Kelas X Sekolah Menengah Atas/Madrasah Aliyah.Bandung: Pusat Perbukuan Departemen Pendidikan Nasional Johari, J.M.C and Rachmawati, M. (2007).Kimia 1.Jakarta:Penerbit Erlangga Or any other Grade X High School Chemistry Book - McMurry, Fay (2004) Chemistry 4th edition Bauer, et al (2010) Introduction to Chemistry 2nd edition Whitten et al (2007) General Chemistry 7th edition Sunarya, Y. dan Setiabudi, A. (2009). Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Kimia untuk Kelas X Sekolah Menengah Atas/Madrasah Aliyah.Bandung: Pusat Perbukuan Departemen Pendidikan Nasional Johari, J.M.C and Rachmawati, M. (2007).Kimia 1.Jakarta:Penerbit Erlangga Or any other Grade X High School Chemistry Book

Media Sources Student:

Teacher:

VII. Evaluation Form Items : Worksheet : Written Essay Problems

Name

Class

Attendance No.

Worksheet

Boiling Points of Alkane


Material Summary Compunds in a homologous series have similiar chemical properties. However, their physical properties changes along with the increasing of molecular/molar mass as shown in the following table Homologous Series is a series of alkane whose CH2- group difference between two consecutive compounds. The following is the example of the first four compunds in the alkane homologous series

Methane

Ethane

Propane

Buthane

Compound in a homologous series has the same chemical properties, but they physical properties changes along with the increasing of molar mass. For example, boiling point and physical state

If we plot the boiling point and the number of C atoms (which related to their molar mass) in straight alkane we will have this graphic

The reason behind this tendency is an intermolecular force called London Dispersion Force. It occurs in every molecule. Electrons in molecule is not distributed symetrically at all time. Sometimes the electrons tend to gather on only one side of molecule. This situation leads to the formation of a temporary dipole (a state whose two different polarity exist in a molecule), or instantaneous dipole which will affect the neighboring molecule (become an induced dipole) and that will endlessly continue. For that reason, molecule is attracted to each other because of difference of polarities on those dipoles. However, the strength of the force is not so strong. But in nonpolar molecules, this is the only force that keeps molecules togehter.

QUESTIONS
After you read the text above and listen to your teacher in class. Answer these questions correctly with your own words. After your teacher explain further about the answer, you can revise your answer in the revision blanks 1. What in formation can you get in the following graphic?

............................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... Revision ............................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... 2. Describe the tendency of alkanes boiling point related to their molar mass! ............................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... Revision ...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................................

3. Take a good look of some alkanes below

(a)

(b)

(c)

a. Write the name for each compound! b. Rearrange those 3 compounds based on the increasing of boiling point!

............................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... Revision ............................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................................

4. What is the reason of such arrangement you wrote on 2.b? Explain your answer regarding its intermolecular force ............................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... Revision ............................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... 5. Methyl butane (b.p 280C) and n-pentane (b.p 360C) both have the formula C5H12, explain why methyl butane has lower boiling point than n-pentane!

Methyl butane

n-pentane

............................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... Revision ............................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................................

Answer Outline

1. As the number of C atom increasing, the boiling point will increase - Alkane with low C atom is gas, then they are liquid until around 17 C atoms, and solid if the number of C atoms more than 17 or 18 - The relationship between boiling point and number of C atoms is not 100% linear (the line is not straight) 2. Boiling point of alkane in a homologous series will increase along with the increasing of its molar mass 3. a. b. a = n-butane b = n-octane c = n-heptane

from the lowest boiling point: butane-heptane-octane

4. Those 3 compounds is in a same homologous series. Boiling point will increase along with the increasing of London dispersion force. Butane has the smallest molar mass, so its boiling point is the lowest one. By the same rule, heptane will have higher boiling point than butane and octane, whose the highest molar mass will have the highest boiling point 5. Methyl butane is a branched chain alkane where as n-pentane is a straight chain alkane. A branched chain is more compact and spherical (rounded/ball-like) and it will minimize the distance and contact between each molecule. As a result, London dispersion forces is decreased and so its boiling point. On the other hand, straight chain is more spread out so that it will maximize the contact between each molecule. The London dispersion force will be stronger and its boiling point will logically be higher than branched chain (of molecule the same molar mass)

AFFECTIVE EVALUATION FORM Paying attention in learning Yes No Affective Aspect Actively Respect involved in others discussion opinion Yes No Yes No

No.

Name

Score

1. 2. 3. ...

Assesment Scale A = Good B = Average C = Poor D = Bad (61- 90) (31- 60) (1- 30) (0)

Every check () in Yes column is awarded 30 points, where as the () in No column doesnt give any point

PSYCHOMOTORIC EVALUATION FORM

No.

Name

Psychomotor Aspects Extract Observe Contribution Total information animation / in class Score from graphic video discussion

1. 2. 3. ...