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Simulation: the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time.

• Involves the generation of an artificial history of a system • The observation of that artificial history to draw inferences concerning the operating characteristics of the real system. • The behaviour of a system as it evolves over time is studied by developing a simulation model. 1. Models take the form of a set of assumptions concerning the operation of the system.  Assumptions are expressed in mathematical, logical or symbolic relationships between the entities of the system.  Can be used to investigate a wide variety of what-if questions about the realworld system. • Potential changes to the system can be first simulated in order to predict their impact on system performance.  Used to study systems in the design stage, before such systems can be built.  Models can be simple enough to be solved by mathematical methods, such as differential calculus, probability theory, algebraic methods. The solution usually consists of numerical parameters called measure of performance of the system.  For complex real-world systems, numerical computer based simulations is used to imitate the behaviour of the system over time. • Simulation modelling can be used as: 1. An analysis tool for predicting the effect of changes to the existing system 2. A design tool to predict the performance of new systems under varying sets of circumstances. • Simulation can be used for the ff. purposes 1. Simulation enables the study of, and experimentation with, the internal interactions of a complex system. 2. Informational, organizational, and environmental changes can be simulated and the effect of these alterations on the model’s behaviour can be observed. 3. Improvement suggestions in the system under investigation. 4. Categorizing which variables are important and how variables interact. 5. Simulating different capabilities for a machine lead to requirement determination. 6. Simulation models for training allow learning without the cost and disruption of onthe-job learning. • When simulation is not appropriate 1. Simulation should not be used when the problem can be solved using common sense. 2. Simulation should not be used if the problem can be solved analytically. 3. Simulation should not be used if it is easier to perform direct experiments. 4. Simulation should not be used if the costs exceed the savings. 5. Simulation should not be used if resources or time are not available. 6. Simulation should not be used if there is not enough time or the personnel are not available to verify and validate the model. 7. Simulation should not be used if the system behaviour is too complex or can’t be defined. • Advantages 1. New policies, operating procedures, decision rules, etc. can be explored without disrupting on-going operations of the real system. 2. New hardware designs, physical layouts, other hardware can be tested without committing resources for their acquisition. 3. Hypotheses can be tested for feasibility. 4. Time can be compressed or expanded. 5. Bottleneck analysis can be performed indicating where work-in process, information, materials are being excessively delayed. 6. A simulation study can help in understanding how the system operates rather than how individuals think the system operates.

Simulation is used in some cases where an analytical solution id possible. Semiconductor manufacturing 3. . Continuous: system in which the state variable(s) change continuously over time. arrival passengers at at destination each station. Activity: represents a time period of specified length 4. Attribute: property of an entity 3. learned over time and experience. Exogenous: used to describe activities and events in the environment that affect the system System Entities Attributes Activities Events State variables Banking Customers Checking acct Making Arrival: # of busy balance deposits departure tellers: # of waiting customers Train Passengers Origination Travelling Arrival at # of station. transportation and distribution applications 6. Manufacturing applications 2. Military applications 5. “What-if” questions can be answered. Components 1. Areas of application 1. Simulation results may be difficult to interpret. 5. Endogenous: used to describe activities and events occurring within a system. Model building requires special training. 2.• • 7. Discrete: system in which the state variable(s) change only at a discrete set of points in time. Construction engineering 4. Simulating modelling and analysis can be time consuming and expensive. Disadvantages 1. 3. b. State: collection of variables necessary to describe the system at any time. 4. Logistics. relative to the objectives of the study. which is useful in the design of new systems. a. Entity: object of interest in the system 2. Human systems Systems and System Environment System: a group of objects that are joined together in some regular interaction or interdependence toward the accomplishment of some purpose. Event: instantaneous occurrence that may change the state of the system. 2. Business process simulation 7. # of passengers in transit Categories of Systems 1.