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# Noise Factor can be etiher control by quantative or qulitative.

y = f(x) xi yj Noise Un controable Single Multiple response (Measurlble)

In all engineering process or products dealing with noise. Source of noise come from (1) Parts, Materials, Metheod, Machine etc (2) Process fluctuation (3) External (eg. enviroment, temp etc.) All products or process have some variation and this is due to the noise. We cannot control the variation of product or process without statistics. If we control the prodcut or process variation without statistic it may be costly. e Process x Model: y = f(x) + e Observed = predicted + noise e ~ N (0,σ2) noise follow the normal distribution. T = Signal / Noise = (Observede – Expected) / Natrual Variation The technic used in management of noise Randomization: Spreading out possible effects of noise. We cannot get rid of noise. It only spread up within variation. Randomization is defensive protective procedure. To avoid noise, confounding factor, don’t do the systematically order test or run do randomly. Blocking: Eliminate possible effects of noise. Isolate the noise. To reduce Sp2 (Variance of noise) (E.g. pair test) source of noise is known. Blocking is simply collection of data subject to same noise effects. For elimination of effects of external factors (eg. Material, machine, time, space) through “Blocking”. Remove the personal behavior. Confounding: Mixed up effects, mixing up more than one effect Replication: Estimate the noise; treat the noise as another output (multiple response) Noise can be counteracted by: y y

Randomization, spread out the noise, no knowledge of noise is required but noise still exit in random manner. Blocking, eliminate the noise, need the knowledge of noise source. Replication, estimate the noise, treat the noise as another output (ie. Multiple response), do double or multiple experiment runs. Not costly and time consuming, do replication as many as many as possible to get higher degree of freedom. Replicated design allows us to quantify noise. Design of Experiments DOE is now to collect the data to facilitate analysis to get meaningful result. It is process improvement product design. DOE can apply at study of existing process (Screening, Catagorization) and development of new process and products. Applying DOE can control factors, parameters and noise. Concept of DOE is control of variation. DOE used in manufacturing and transactional (not physical System) Difference between manufacturing and trans is amount of noise (Try to sustain the improved process) It’s more difficult in transactional. Noise x Process e ~ N (0,σ2) y

Independent variable x, input / parametere factor. Factors can be quantative (continuous) or qualitative (discrete) P = Subject of Study (e.g., product, process, procedure, policy, etc.) y = f(x) = transfer function/ Mathematical Model (Process) Purposes of Model Evaluation 1. Describe, Relationship between input & Output 2. Prediction 3. Control (Optimization) Principles of DOE Randomization: Randomization is defensive protective procedure. To avoid noise, confounding factor, don’t do the systemetically order. Test or runs do randomly. Blocking: Eliminate possible effects of noise. DOE is blocking mechanism to isolate the effects. Blocking is simply collection of data subject to same noise effects. For elimination of effects of external factors (eg. Material, machine, time, space) through “Blocking”. Removed the personal behavior. Replication: Evaluate quality of the noise and to detect the noise behavior. Calculate how much is the noise variation. Suppose the process is influence only by control factor, the replication results are the same. Actual results are different by noice.

Orthoganality 1. The coefficients are the same as the least square coefficients. (Multiple regression) 2. They are mathematically independent. (i.e., if a term is dropped, all the other terms are not affected.) DOE can allow us to (1) Study the effects and interaction of factors (2) Behavior of noise (Replication) (3) We can drop any of coefficient without effect other and result. Refine the model by using droping items. Allow full model to trim down. (Pareto Analyusis, Normal probability Plot) (4) We can maintain significant factor. (5) We can add higher order terms to study non-linearlity of factors. (Center point Design, 3K factorial Design) (6) Allow us to sequential experiment. (Can stop or added the experiment) (7) Window is quiet narrow, range is - & +, small enough to test linearlity. (8) Fractional factorial Design allows us to handel more factors with small runs. Cost effective manner. Procedure (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Arrange the result to the proper series. Ranking the impact. Set the direction of impact. Drop the in significat terms. To check the non-linearlity of effects, add center point.

Sequential Experiments Sequential experimentation tries to do small no of experiments as far as possible. Objectives (1) Minium number of runs, use fractional factorial but confounding precent. (2) Clear results, full factorial design. (3) Knowledge of noise, Replication. (4) Knowledge of curvature, non-linearlity, centre point. (5) Quick result, Screening and Foldover, allow us to isolate the main effects. Benefit of sequential experiment (1) Chance of entering results. (2) Parital results. (3) Quick result. (4) Time liness of information, eventhough incomplete information. (5) Chance for end at certain number of runs. (6) Chance to drop in significant factors and try to smaller factorial design. (7) Experiment cost can be cut. (8) Check for linearity. (Add centre point)

(9) Chance to do three levels or higher-level design. Example To get quick results we do not make 27 = 128 runs design. 7 factors 25 runs avilable. (A) 27-3 = 16 runs design. (B) 27-4 + 27-4 =16 runs design. The quality of information is not difference. In design (A) we prepare all the 16 runs blindly. We have to do all 16 runs from the beginning and no progress report, not possible to stop before 16 runs complete. Methmetical point of view, two technic are the same. But experimental point of view (B) starts with 8 runs from which we know the main factor of which effects to emphasize, then another 8 runs is just foldover to isolate the main effects and eliminate the noise. We can justify the main effects clearly. Technic (B) has a chace to stop after 8 runs and get some information. We can drop the insignificant effects by using Parato & Normal Probability Plot. To check the linearlity of the effects we can add center points. If non-linearlity is significant we can do the theree level design. The propose sequential desing are (A) 27-4, drop insignificant effects, 23, to identify the behivour of noise, 23 replication, to check non-linearlity, nc Center point. Total 25 runs. (B) 27-4, to get clear main effect, 27-4 Foldover Design, to check non-linearlity, nc Center point. Total 17 runs. (C) 27-4, drop insignificant effects, 22, to check non-linearlity, nc Center point, non-linearlity is significant, add 4 runs and make three level design. Total 17 runs. Advantages and disadvantages of 2k full factorial design. Full factorial design can give the clear results of main effects, second order interaction, third order interaction and so on. But if the factors are go up the expreiment runs goes up quickly. It may be costly. We can follow the replication design and can observe the nature of noise. If experiment run is not costly and not time consuming we can use the 2k factorial designs up to certain k factors. If we need the clear result without confounding we must used 2k factorial design. If we need to identify the many factors we cannot be use. We cannot handle so may runs and it may time consuming. If experimental runs are very costly, we cannot use 2k factorial design.

Two processes comparison procedure

(1) F test, F-test may be carried out to check the assumption of uniform variance for the two populations. (2) F-test is insignificant (a) Use poll variance procedure (b) Test the hypothesis (3) F-test is significant (a) Use the independent t-test with different variance. (b) Test the hypothesis Independent t-test and paired t-test Independent t-test has higher degree of freedom and more poerful is the test. Power is the probability of rejecting a wrong Ho. A lot of population variation, cannot use independent t-test. Paired t-test is more sensitive to noise.