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Hasham, Fariha CGS1060c Period 1 9/12/12

I. Looking at Computers: Understanding the Parts A. Understanding Your Computer 1. Computers Are Data Processing Devices a) Computer- data processing device that performs four major functions: i) Gathers data, or allows users to input data ii) Processes the data into information iii) Outputs data and information iii) Stores data and information b) Data- representative of a fact. figure, or idea: can be a number, word, picture, or sound recording c) Information- data that has been organized or presented in a meaningful fashion d) Computers are excellent at processing (manipulating or organizing data into information). 2. Bits and Bytes: The Language of Computers a) Binary Language- language of numbers that computers understand; consist of two digits 1 and 0. b) Each 0 and 1 is a binary digit or bit; everything is a unique combination of 8 bits or one byte. c) Bits and bytes are what the computer uses to represent data and information that it inputs and outputs. d) Kilobyte (KB)- 1,000 bytes e) Megabyte (MB)- 1 million bytes f) Gigabyte (GB)- 1 billion bytes g) Many business computers can store a petabyte of data and Google is 20 petabytes h) Computers use a combination of hardware and software to process data into information. i) Hardware- any part of the computer you can physically touch j) Software- set of computer programs that enables the hardware to perform different tasks i) Application software- set of programs you use on a computer to help you carry out tasks such as writing a research paper. ii) System software- set of programs that enable your computer’s hardware devices and application software to work together.  Most common type is the operating system (OS)- the program that controls the way in which your computer system functions  Manages the monitor and printer  Provides a means in which the user can interact with the computer 3. Your Computer’s Hardware a) Notebook computer- laptop, portable computer that is powered by batteries and has keyboards, monitors, and other devices integrated into a single compact case. b) Desktop computer- intended for use at a single location; separate case that houses the main components of the computer plus peripheral devices (components such as a monitor or keyboard, that is connected to the computer) c) All-in-one computer- Apple iMac, Dell XPS One, Gateway One houses the computers processor and memory along with the monitor d) Mainframe- supports hundreds of users simultaneously; use in insurance companies and colleges; execute many different computer programs at the same time e) Supercomputer- performs complex calculations extremely rapidly; used when complex models requiring intensive mathematical calculations are needed (weather forecasting or atomic energy research)

f) Difference: supercomputer does few programs quickly while mainframe handles many programs at the same time but at a slower pace. g) Embedded computer- computer chip that resides inside another device (car or thermostat); self-contained computer devices that have their own programing and don’t receive input from you or interact with other systems B. Input Devices a) Input device- enables you to enter data and instructions into the computer b) Keyboard- used to enter typed data and commands\ c) Mouse- used to enter user responses d) Microphones (input sounds), cameras (non-digital text and images) e) Stylus- translate a user’s handwriting into digital input 1. Keyboards a) Most computers come with a standard QWERTY keyboard (invented to slow typists down and prevent typewriter keys from jamming b) Dvorak keyboard- puts the most commonly used letters in the English language on “home keys” that reduces the distance your fingers have to travel, increasing typing speed. c) Many notebook keyboards do not have separate numeric keypads, some letters function as number keys d) Other types of keyboards include: flexible keyboards that you can roll up, the virtual laser keyboard which is the size of a cell phone. The data is transmitted through Bluetooth- a wireless transmission standard that facilitates the connection of electronic computing devices such as cell phones, smart phones, and computers to peripheral devices such as keyboards and headsets. e) DX1 and Ergodex are popular with gamers because you can position he keys to execute individual keystrokes or macros (series of tasks). f) Numeric keypad- enter numbers quickly g) Function keys- shortcuts to perform specific tasks h) Control Key/Alt Key- used in combination with other keys to perform tasks i) Windows key- specific to windows OS, opens start menu j) Arrow keys- move the cursor one space at a time, up, down, left, or right k) Toggle key- function changes between one of two options each time you press it (Insert, Num Lock, Caps Lock) l) Wireless keyboards- send data to computer using radio frequency; radio transmitter in the keyboard send out radio wave signals that are received either by a receiving device that’s plugged in or contained in the unit. 2. Mice and Other Pointing Devices a) Optical mouse- uses an internal sensor or laser to detect the mouse’s movement; sends a signal to the computer telling it where to move on screen; few moving parts lessening the chances of dirt and do not require a mouse pad b) Trackball mouse- rollerball sits on side of mouse so mouse is stationary; better for the wrist c) Touchpad- found on notebooks, small, touch sensitive area to base of keyboard d) TrackPoint device- small, joystick like nub that allows you to move the cursor with the tip of your finger e) Wireless mice also use RF f) Mogo Mouse- fits into side of notebook and uses Bluetooth g) Mice also have magnifiers, customizable buttons, web search, and file storage h) Joysticks, game pads, and steering wheels are all input devices 3. Touchscreens a) Touchscreen- display screen that responds to commands initiated by a touch with a finger or a stylus b) Tablet PC- similar to a notebook but has a touch sensitive screen that swivels and folds flat c) Nintendo DS uses a stylus and HP all in one desktops with touchscreens

d) Tablets were developed because many people find it easy to write than type, but they are expensive e) EPOS digital pen- works in conjunction with a flash drive that captures your writing and transmits it 4. Image Input a) Digital camera, camcorders, and cell phones b) Webcam- small camera that sits on top of a monitor or is built into a notebook c) Videoconferencing technology- allows a person sitting at a computer to transmit video and audio across the internet 5. Sound Input a) Inputting sound into your computer requires equipping it with a microphone device that captures sound waves and transfers them to a digital format on your computer b) Desktop mics have an attached base that allows them to sit on a flat surface c) Unidirectional microphones pick up sound from only one direction d) Omnidirectional microphones pick up sounds from all directions at once e) Clip on microphones (lavaliere) are useful when you need to keep your hands free f) Close-talk microphones- attached to a headset; facilitate using speech recognition, allow to speak and listen at the same time g) Visually impaired users: keyboards with larger keys, voice recognition h) Motor control issues: special trackballs, head-mounted pointing devices C. Output Devices a) Output device- enables you to send processed data out of your computer in the form of text, sounds, or video b) Monitor- displays text, graphics, and videos as soft copies c) Printer- creates hard copies of text and graphics d) Speakers or earphones- output for sound 1. Monitors a) Cathode ray tube (CRT)- big and boxy picture tube device b) Liquid crystal display (LCD)- flat-panel monitor is lighter and more energy efficient c) CRT’s are becoming legacy technology (techniques, parts, and methods that are no longer popular) d) LCD’s are smaller, brighter and cause less eye strain, use less energy and emit less ER, and weigh less to be used in mobile devices e) Monitor screens are made up of millions of tiny dots each of which is called a pixel f) Each pixel is comprised of three subpixels of red, blue, and green g) Resolution- sharpness or clearness of the image; controlled by the number of pixels on the screen; high end monitor has (1,600 vertical columns with 1,200 pixels in each column) h) Other factors:  Viewing angle- tells how far you can move to the side of the monitor before the quality degrades. (17 in. or more= 150 degrees)  Contrast ratio- difference in light intensity between the brightest white and darkest black (400:1 and 600:1)  Brightness- candelas per square meter (cd/m2) or nits; greatest amount of light showing when the monitor is displaying pure white (250cd/m2 or greater)  Response time- time it takes for a pixel to change color (less than 15 milliseconds) i) Larger the panel, larger the pixels it can display; for Blu-ray a monitor of 1920x1080 is needed j) Wide-screen monitors are helpful if you work with multiple windows but a 4:3 (4units wide, 3 units tall) is standard k) A built-in multiformat card reader is convenient to display photos directly to a computer or download pictures quickly l) Projector-a device that can project images from your computer onto a wall or viewing screen

m) Entertainment projectors- such as the wonderwall, include speakers and multimedia connectors 2. Printers a) Impact printer- has tiny hammer like keys that strike the paper through an inked ribbon, making marks; dot matrix printer b) Nonimpact printer- sprays ink or uses laser beams to transfer marks onto the paper (inkjet and laser printers); less expensive, quieter, and faster, offer better quality c) Inkjet printer- affordable and high quality; spray tiny dots of ink onto paper. Some use two cartridges, others use four (black, magenta, cyan, and yellow) d) Laser printer- faster printing speed and higher quality; uses laser beams and static electricity to deliver toner onto the correct areas of the page, heat is used to fuse the toner to the page e) Wireless printing- Wi-Fi printers sends data more quickly than Bluetooth f) All-in-one printer- combines functions of a printer, scanner, copier, and fax into one machine g) Plotter- produce oversize pictures that require drawing of precise and continuous lines (maps); use a computer controlled pen that provides a greater level of precision than others h) Thermal printer- melt wax based ink onto ordinary paper (thermal wax transfer printing) or burn dots onto coated paper (direct thermal printing); used for receipts i) Things to look for in printers:  Speed: pages per minute or ppm, 8-38 ppm for both laser and inkjet  Resolution: image clarity; dots per inch or number of dots in one inch line (300 dpi is good)  Color output- color printers have four ink cartridges  Memory: buy one with at least 16MB of memory  Use and cost: cost per page is higher with an inkjet or color laser printer  Cost of consumables: printer cartridges and paper 3. Sound Output a) Speaker- output device for sound; more sophisticated include subwoofers (special speaker that produce only low bass sounds) b) Surround-sound speaker- makes the user feel surrounded by sound D. Processing and Memory on the Motherboard a) Motherboard- main circuit board that contains the central electronic components of the computer, including its processor (brain), memory, and circuit boards. b) System unit- houses motherboard, power source, and storage devices c) Consists the set of chips that powers the system, including CPU; houses the chips that provide the short term memory for the computer and a set of slots for expansion d) Expansion card (adapter card)- provides additional functionality e) Sound card- provides a connection for the speakers and microphone f) Video card- provides a connection for the monitor g) Modem card- provides the computer with a connection to the internet via a traditional phone line h) Network interface card (NIC)- enables your computer to connect with other computers or to a cable modem to facilitate a high speed connection 1. Memory a) Random access memory (RAM)- place where the programs and data the computer is currently using are stored primary storage; faster to read from than the hard drive (nanoseconds); on the motherboard it’s a series of memory cards plugged into slots b) RAM is temporary or volatile storage (erased when you power off); to save it permanently it goes on the hard drive. c) RAM= short-term memory; hard drive= long-term memory d) Read-only memory (ROM) - holds all the instructions the computer needs to start up; permanent data or nonvolatile.

2. Processing a) CPU- brains of the computer because it controls all of the functions performed by the computer’s other components and processes all the commands issued to it by software instructions; 6 billion tasks a second without error b) Processor speed measured in hertz (machine cycles per second); machine cycle- CPU getting data from RAM and translating it so the computer understands. Older machines ran at megahertz (millions of machine cycles per second) currently gigahertz (billions of machine cycles per second) c) CPU performance influenced by number of cores- processing paths E. Storing Data and Information a) Drive bay- permanent storage devices located in your desktop or notebook in this space  Internal drive bays- cannot be seen or accessed from outside; internal hard drives- holds all permanently stored programs and data  External drive bays- can be seen and accessed from the outside (CD and DVD drives); not in notebook computers, done through a USB 1. Hard Drives a) Hard drive- primary device for permanent storage of software and documents; nonvolatile storage- holds permanently b) External hard drive- enclosed in a hard case to be portable; used to back up data 2. Optical Storage a) Optical drive- can read and write to CD’s; CD’s are for audio, DVD’s hold 25 times the data, double layer DVD’s have 8.5GB of storage, Blu-ray discs hold 50 GB of data 3. Flash Storage a) Flash drives- store portable data b) Flash memory card- let you transfer digital data between your computer and devices; smaller than a stamp F. Connecting Peripherals to the Computer a) Port- place through which a peripheral device attaches to the computer so that data can be exchanged between it and the operating system 1. High Speed and Data Transfer Ports a) Universal serial bus (USB) port- most common port because it transfers data quickly, USB 2.0 ports transfer at 480 megabits per second b) Serial port- send data one bit at a time; used to connect modems (transmit data over telecommunication lines) c) Parallel port- send data between devices in groups of bits at speeds of 500 Kbps d) Firewire 400 and Firewire 800 are the fastest ports available; 400 has six pins and 800 has nine pins 2. Connectivity and Multimedia Ports a) Connectivity port- can give you access to networks and the Internet or enables your computer to function as a fax machine b) Ethernet port- transfer data at 1,000 Mbps. Connects your computer to a DSL or cable modem or on a network c) Modem port- uses a traditional phone signal to connect over a phone line to the Internet d) Video graphics array (VGA) port- port to which CRT monitors connect; newer LCD monitors connect to a digital video interface (DVI) and S-video (super video) ports e) HDMI cable- all-digital connector that carries HD video and uncompressed digital audio on one cable; no need to convert the signal so quality is better 3. Adding Ports: Expansion Cards and Hubs a) Installing expansion cards in your system unit provide additional ports b) Expansion hub- a device that connects to one port to provide 4 or 8 new ports

G. Power Controls a) Power supply- housed inside the system unit, transforms the wall voltage to the voltages required by computer chips b) Cold boot-powering on your computer from a completely turned off state c) Sleep mode- all of the documents, applications, and data you were using remain in RAM where they are when you restart d) Hibernate- stores your data in memory and saves it to your computer’s hard drive e) Warm boot- restarting the system while it’s powered on H. Setting It All Up a) Ergonomics- how you set up your computer and other equipment to minimize your risk of injury or discomfort b) Position your monitor correctly: at least 25 inches from your eyes, 15 to 20 degrees below line of sight c) Purchase an adjustable chair: feet touch the floor, support your lumbar region, sit without exerting pressure on your knees d) Assume a proper position while typing: repetitive strain injury (RSI)- painful condition caused by repetitive or awkward movements, wrists should be flat with respect to the keyboard, forearms parallel to the floor, wrists should not be resting on the keyboard while typing e) Take breaks from computer tasks: stretch periodically, reduce eyestrain f) Ensure lighting is adequate: eliminate sources of direct glare or reflected glare