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Ad

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TERRY WALKER MEMBEFrAIME

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WELEX, A DIV. OF f-lAILILWRTON SERVICES

Abstract
The tcchtrnlogy of Ihr oil intiusiry IIufuy i.v .M4ch that tnore rigid requirements are placed upon cement isolation in wellv. ltr uriditi(m, recent advancesin wcllevaltiaiiutr ottd cotnple(ian technology pertnit compaction.r to he made in zones tha[ wotdrf have been considered uneconomical u jew years ago. Wilh longer payoals, it is even more inzpt)rt[int 10 inrure rhe hcsI possible completion.Many cont. pletimn are made in jorntatirmf tha[ depend upan natural jractures, vugs, or indt~ccd jracrares jor co)ntnercial protfaclinn ro!cs. Muxinu{ tnproduction under these crmdi(itmv rcqnircs cemeni iroiation hcfrrre complctirm uttempts It) prevent damage rewlting jrom .sql{eezing cemcni, e.vpccial. [y aj[er any wel! Irealment. Acolt.r!ic ce)ttetlt hondloggingi.r[)nc oj the !oolsin WCI1. cwnpletion technology that can he u~ed to insure the besl p(n.sil~le cwtlpleli~m hy imwring i.ro[uliun c)j ull ztmr.) before a completion atteinpt is made. it ,shoW.rthe degree t}j ivolutiun. i]nder tnany conditions rhe C(I.SI (he log i.~(IJ .AIIIUI1n ctunparisnn wilh .sqtteezing, repcrjf)raling, rei ]racluring, ticcreaieti procl14ctirm. or even Io.w of a well. Field exatnple.s illi4s!rale u numbw oj case.v where clm.~idcrahle extra completion cxpett.w crt-me bccausc the in],)rma]itn~ jrwn the bond lag was nof uwd. Bmic h(md I(IR intwprctrrtion isincludetlin the Appendix.

a production test shows channeling from another zone, cement squeezing and reperforating will not greatly reduce productivity. However, there are many other situa. tions in which the economics are such that complete knowledge of the degree of cemefit isolation should be obtained before perforating. Acoustic Cement Bond Log Application

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Introduction Many conditions have placed more rigid requirements upon the effectiveness of cement isolation behind casing. Deeper drilling, with the accompanying higher pressure and temperature, has resulted in higher pressure differentials on the cemented interval. This has required more bonded interval for effective isolation. The increased application of high-volume, high-rate well treatments requires Ihe cemented interval to withstand high pressure differentials. Secondary recovery of all types also requires complete isolation behind easing, both from the standpoint of cost of injected fluids and efficiency of operation, Often, a production testis the most economical evaluation of cement isolation. When there are no other permeable ‘-zones nca-r the completion interval; the odds ar&_that isola. tion is sufficient. In formations of high permeability, when . . ..~. --“
(-klgirial manuscript rece!ved in SocleLy of Petrnleti Enjrtgegm oflice Feb. 29, 1967. Ravlsd manuscript rm?ived July & 1968. Paper (SPE 1761 ) was presented at SPE fkIDOSkW on Mecbanlcal Endn-rJnu .AiDects of Skllllng and Production held in Fort ,Worth. Tex., March 6-7, 1907. @ fkwyrkht 1968, American lnatltut@ of Mining, Metrdlui-”” ?Jc.al and Petroleum En@=m I ne.

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“~here are many variables that control the effectiveness of the cement in a well — depth, temperature, hole size, additives, contamination. type of cement, type of cement flow, etc. Even with the best available cementing program, channels or some other type of unbondcd section cun exist in critical intervals. Because of these uncertainties, the usage of the acoustic cement bond log has increased greatly in the past few year’s. ‘J-he acoustic vmve in a cased borehole consists of all arrivals along any coupled path between transmitter and receiver. A recording of this entire ricoustic wave, propcrl y ,interprctetf and used (see Appendix), can supply the information needed to design the most economic completion procedure. one possible presentation is the intensity-time recording where dark and light streaks repr~ent the positive and negative half cycles of the acoustic wave. Amplitude is shown by the darkness or lighusess of the streaks. The position of the streaks from .Ieft to right denotes increasing arrival time. Fig. 1 is an intensity-time recording presentation on a bond log rm in 4-in. liner. Only 5 ft of good acoustic bond is indicated above the interval to be perforated, The reservoir pressure at the time of completion had decreased to approximately 5,500 from 9,000 psi originally. Because of high pressure differentials. it was recommended that the liner be squeezed above. However, this was not done, and the well came in producing gas at the rate of 4 to 5 M Mcf/ D. After several months of production, the well sud denly died. During cleanout operations, sand, shale and cement were recovered from the well. Before the work over was completed, the liner collapsed, and the .vell had to be plugged. Above the main “pay sand there were thin sand stringers at original reservoir pressure that were the probable cause of the liner collapse. In this case, a squeeze -- – before @e’rforating-for production and ev&”-another -bond log run would have be&t economical. Figs. 2 and 3 show this same acoustic intensity-time pre. .sents-tion on a bond ‘log run k a well..that was intended as a tripk co”rnplqtion. The log-shows “pipe arrivals ;over -“-the-~ entire wition with” ‘some forrnat~on arrivals; all- of . whibh indicate’channeling’ of the cement-acoustic bond on

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- -. . . -. ‘,:. ._ “

.MK%?O=SEiShK$W?AM LOW -. . . .. -..-.. ... . . .-.- ‘Amplitude . ~~ . 7 — — --+— ...-.-.— . . _ . . . . .. _ 2 ~ 1 r . . 2 { z ‘.— .. —. . 0 w% Q s .— J 1 1 L. / _ _ . . . .-. I q J--- _ “_ _ _ _ _ _ _ . f .. .

. T. .- .— .. . . !{. . ---‘ ““ ”” ‘“ ‘ ““ ““ ”’ . . b. ..— I -*— ---4 -I .$ : -. ... . . . . ‘A LIC”LHH 396U . ---. I 1 ~.“Will.. . . . . i . . . . . i.-” MICRO-SE N5MCGIiAM — 4 Z&x3 1200 N-) .... -.- WiMA APIGomma My Units ( I . -.-..~.-.— --- . . . ~t... ---. .-. .time-l)resen a . .----e . 4.— . .. ... . k“ *E -—. . “1 Zone 1 4 ._ .. I .. . ““”” “”~r.-+ i-t +— . 4 :. . T ---------- . . -. ‘. . . . .- 815 ‘.: —-------..rtic intensltv. —- ----- —.4. ?—APOtl. . $ ~ t 4. . z T .... . -. .--.— . --. —.BOND .---------.“ + f 4 1----.-- . tation for triple completion .-... ..—.“-$ AhWTIJiE -- : ‘“ 1 PIPE B(ND FORMATION .. . .. .. I ) ...~.-. .. 1-+ T.

FORMATION-BOND !---------...—. ~ . .——.. “ I i L. TECKKKILOGY $O”UilHAL OF P%TEOLEUX . 00 ‘ . . ‘. . . . :- . { — Zone .—-... .~_ —. . .. “814”” “= E .. .. ]1 1 I - ... .-. .‘~~ti”-1200 . . . . . .-.. 1 J .. ..”------- Plii BC)Nb NICRO-SE U5I1OGRAM . . ..-- ...’--- .. -. ..l~. J . . . -----— . I . .- .+)-~ ..— . . .- --- .. . .. t -t-Tj-j— me 2. .. ... .i -. —-.-. :. -. 3 ++ . - .. ....— --.. .+- 1] .

‘-3=E3=EEEEE -—i! . . . .. . -.. .. -. --- . . Ei 8 .Z m +.~io-. showing well bonded interval. W3SEFEEEH . . . . . . :IEi!%EFw i..-. .- . . .—.. HE....-. r — % 1! .. ! . :$ .. -. . .. -’. I -. . k-d- ..y izoo “‘- F&MAT’KN BOND ----””””-”-””------” ‘-”-’” I .. intensi..y-titne presentation . -. . 4-Acoustic . z.. .. ilmti-sliHwiil?hl”.-.. . . : API Gamma %w th)ts Sg~ $“ ‘.. 5 I PIPE EKMD . . . . . :-.

. . Each zone produced oil as expected. the well was perforated.–-. For comparison purposes.-. X%+$Eflect oj pressure eycllng to 3. . . .one side and none on the other. . etc) might channel behind the pipe makes it difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of various well treatments. In addition to th~ cost of the workover. . each zone was individually acidized. -..-. . GOR and pressures were all the same-all the oil was coming from one zone.. . fracturing... . the cement squeeze of the completion zones would affect the existing natural fractures to the extent of decreased productivity after reperforation and retreatment.. . .. - . . ..000 psi on the a.. There is no complete isolation indicated anywhere on the log.. The possibility that treating fluid (acid.. a well-bonded interva! in this same section in another well in the field is sf?own in Fig. . M lCRCI-SEISMCI(iMAkl BIEFCX?’E PRESSURING LOW PIPE AMPLITUDE AFTER FWESS!JFWG X300PS[ 8 RELEASING to \--... and the well was completed. .:. squeez-. but it was soon found that the oil gravity.. In spite of this.. . . Over this section there are no pipe arrivals. but strong formation arrivals throughout are evidence of the complete acoustic coupling of the cement to the pipe and formation. . “” .. .. .-’”. ..-. . In addition to yielding a smaller effective fracturing treatment..or&~c cement bo~. 4.. .

. .. ..-......“... . . . J ... f: ! :’ .$..’ ““. .o: . . . -— . .> . —— % . --------*Y. .. f-‘z — II -. * ../l **. ... . ... .+ - ZEta:%-iiil I 3 ---i---t- — .J-. ..: “: ... —.. “. : ..: :!.. ‘j\ i! “. ..: .’] j .. .-. -. . . . L-t-. r.-. ~ . — -----T . .1. .“. o.#.. — .-. ..:. “.: : 1 ‘ .-.. 1. .*..—-. : ?“.-—.“ .“ . + -. .- . . .. .. ‘.— .. s .*.. . E— . . ... % :.:: u“ . e .—..-.—W ---4. . . ... c ~~ +-I --. .. .--——. .{___ . .. .:l.-.1. I . .. .-— ! RUN % -“-’ ----—.. -.. ..- ...’ --89 j4e@4 .. ~y .. .’ Yater ~ : . -._... .+“ . +.. *. i%.z* I . . ...“.:. j . . #_ . “: r.-.. :E- “..—.: ~.T.: ...-. .. . +.:..-. .-+ ..: ‘ . * . -. —.

..009 in. 1-------. and the zone of interest at 6. “. The practice of block squeezing is evidence that cement must be put in the right spoIs. Nc. .- .w itl pipe umplimrfe wifh .430 to 6. The log run after the 3. possible to circulate fluid between two perforations within the shale. However.aq~. repeated squeezes and reperforations have failed to eliminate water production when the oil column is such that the well should produce water free for a considerable period. Decentrohzed Plrse -. ... If the breakdown is in the right place.On. . ..520 ft.000 psi on the acoustic cement bond. 7—Acokzic” ‘“’ I . Thus. Fig. In some cases of oil-water contacts within the sand. again. strong pipe signals are now present in the shales.:_..RM) . “JouE~hL OF PET!1OLSU3S pr+ei!a[ion:.-. Good Bond No Bond 10 10 I%pe Formotlon PREPARATION w’~:~ffp I I . “-on . .. .sof near . 5 illustrates the effect of pressure cycling to 3.e sld~. . . The exact path of the cement cannot be predicted in squeeze cementing.— . Any cementfilled vug. The zone of interest was perforated and fractured with 2.! . fo.”.~ot Bond~rl .. The log run before pressuring indicates onfy very small amplitude pipe arrivals in some of the shale. the zone of interest is effectively isolated from any other permeable zone above or below the section of the well shown. This... INTENSITY -TIME I 1 RECORDING s --l # o! -1 % 22.. some expansion occurred. 0. A pressure of 3. 8—Drcrea. til I $4 7. /i?t2Q . . Free F’lp8 .FO.’. Although it might be.000 psi was released indicates that where the pipe was bonded to competent.. This reduced the acoustic coupling of cement to pipe and formation.. ---. the zpne Of interest ) no changes occurred. It is not going to flow long distances through a small channel unless the breakdown is at the end of the channel..“ .470 ft. .500 psi and the production was normal — there were no extraneous ffuids. version 10 acoustic .“’: . TEcUIYOLOCY .(A$!~LJTfJDE -TIME . many wells are squeezed and reperforated repeatedly before isolation is accomplished.ing can &mage already critical permeability.-. —. ---. INCHES 3 CEMENT Fig. . is a problem of the path of the cement.~. b Good Bond to Pipe ond Formrrtlon INTENSITY-TIME FORM n 1 I I I 1 ( I !. T . . .crvncnt shcwth... . the r shales” where the caliper indicated hole washout. o I 2 SHEATH THICKNESS. natural fracture or induced fracture can only reduce productivity. . Fig.. However. m. .’. . . II ~ “--d. with excellent acoustic bond in the lime streaks at 6.” simal in sh~lfowkased test holes w.IICICUW iu rhickne.. the squeeze is effective.rma!ion (the !he str~ks . . &l I c1 ~ $1 --”ii c “. intensity-lime .000 psi in this size and weight pipe is sufficient to expand unsupported pipe by 0.400 and 6. . The formation must break down somewhere to permit the cement to be put away.

ducing perforations then were squeezed and reperforated.. . . -----. . <-. .. . .. The-upper: cement squeeze did not go in the right place . the oil sand after perforation produced oil and water... . .. each well.- .. . to find the MICRO-SEISMOGRAM OPEN HOLE LOGS CASE 0 HOLE PIPE AMPLITLHX . pay wells a major oil producer. . . ‘. ....000 per recompletion. 6.. . The bond log run after the squeezes showed that the lower squeeze went down and the upper one went up.. . . . The oil sand was not isolated from the water. Use of the bond log reduced the number of squeezes to one for every 10 recompletion.. . However. 10-Micro-Sebtttogratn comparison.lntensily.’” Fig. . . . The first bond log showed insufficient isolation from the water sand above. . .—. .. . .. —... - .could !e. as cementing programs weri changeJ.. :W. .— . . The intended zone of completion was the lower sand that contains oil.. . cementing techniques . During this work.. . tipen and c~ed hole. In one area of multi... and the water was shut off. . “pletcly.evalu?t~d corn-. The pro. .......time bond logs run before and after two cement squeezes are shown in Fig. saved $5. . using bond logs. were improv~ because. - ... . The well was then squeezed at the points indicated — just above the oil sand and in the middle of the water sand. . . --’ .. The usual practice had been to block before perforating for production on recompletion because of the large percentage of incomplete isolations on primary cementing. ..

. If the pipe is free and not held firmly by cement. . .withth~ cementing echnique -* . W. . (June. . ing evaluated to optimize techniques? 4150 The answers to these questions should determine whe. “ . the signal is as-shown in Fig. . What are the chances of a completely effective pri mary cement job? Are the zones in most of the wells in the area effectively isolated . .wnted at SPE 37th Annual Falf Mec[ing. March 23-24. t + . forniation..> /.. 7b with no pipe vibration. Walker. what hap.’ .. 6-9. Walker.. . ”but the.. ‘. ..from the. . 1964) 157-160. Pickett.. 7. J?f~ II-X-Y ... . Terry and Anderson. . 1$’63) 659-667.. i j-”-.. ther one or even two bond logs should be run before perforating for production. . What happens to productivity if you have to squeeze? —.: “Acoustic Character Logs and Their Application in Formation Evaluation”. As shown.. The series of pictures in Fig. . . . tions: 1. . Geor$e.bonded to th... presentation... Tex. 1962. . and another well treatment? 5. . and to the fofiatiort. it will vibrate and carry a large signal to the receiver (Fig.: “What It Takes to Make A Good WC]] Completion”. cased test wells with variouri deliberately L@t-ig sgrnenting conditions. In further testing. ”Te~ry:” “Progress Report on Acoustic Amplitude Logging for Formation Evaluation”. Los Angeles.. because mud in between results in poor coupling of the cement and formation (Fig.’ ~. Blcakley. 7c). Tech.> q --. B. and if so.. . pet. it was found that the thickness and compressive strength of the cement sheath had an effect on the amplitude of the pipe vibration. . .ih ..-.. . References 1. 7d shows a channel (caused by the casing resting against the side of the hole) that did not permit the cement to completely surround the pipe. fractures that could be filled by cement when squeezing to shut off extmneous fluids? Is a fracturing treatment necessary for commercial production.. . and Feaster. Corldutiions Whether to run bond logs is an economic question that can be answered by considering a number of other ques. (June 11. 1. Terry: “Use of the Mlcro&ismogram and the Acoustic Cement Bond Log to Evaluate Cementing Techniques”. . R. paper SPE 45 I pre. Terry: “Case Histories of Bond Logging”. . 1964. 1962).. and Evans. Additionally. .. Wenthk cement is. New Orleans. Tech.. ‘1 f APPENDIX In bond logging. .. ..: “A Study of Cement.’.“ b650 .. Walker..: “~ield Observations on the Use of the Cement Bond Log and Its Application to the Evaluation: “of‘“Cementin~ ‘Problems”. Fort Worth. G. . Oil md Gas J.. :’— . 7-10. W. . Carter. . 6. L... G.W<. Flournoy. . . G. . reperforating. . . :. . 4. . .. . (May 7. M. “- . .“ --~~ I“ ..but not ~to the formation.— . .!. J. . . Pet.-.Sou. . 3. . .Time 3. (Feb. H. a crystal transmitter puts out a vibration pulse that is picked up by the receiver.. ‘pa”&r SPE’ 632’ “presented at SPE 38th Annual Fall Meeting. Fig. : . both pipe signal and formation signal are present — the pipe is free on one side and the formation is partially coupled on the other side.?” . Twenty Four Hours ‘After Cementing ‘ . . used? 2. . . .. 1963.-’ .“ ...mted more thoroughly by eliminating the uncertainty of the path of the fracturing fluid. = :A t.. Are cementing and other completion procedures be. 7). — -. What are the costs of squeezing.- 1 ““ 829 SOIJE~AL OF F’”ET3KW13U’kl TECliKriOGY . pens if a squeeze is necessary? 4. 7a through d are the actual photographed signals at the receiver in a series of shallow. R. . .received signal” is characteristic-of ‘the ~ formation be@nd the pipe.. How critical is zone isolation? How far is it to other permeable zones? Is there a fluid contact in the section? Amplitude . .. Harcourt.-— -Uvvvv-v Is permeability in the critical range? Are there vugs and v-v. =. Oil and Gas J. pipe. .. 5.. .%ignrd is rc+ceived. paper SPE 798 presented at SPE Symposium on Mechanical Engineering Aspects of Drilling and Production. .. .. Oct. . The sheath.Pipe Bonding”. < — — — .beat technique... — — . . 1 4200 . Tex& ~11. . thick. .~~./.? ..bonded to the’pipe. ~’ ‘.When the .2 e-.. Oct. 1962). . . . 2..3 . fracturing treatments were optimized since each treatment could be evah. .ti”rnent is f@ly . . very little.”. .

. This well was drilled with salt mud. . . crt g. &cause of the . hole. :. .. Presentation of Acoustic Signal In the early days of bond logging. . Fig. the log comist~ of one or more amplitude curves that were the amplitudes of a portion of the acoustic arrivals. and all negative half cycles that have been cut off wifl be recorded as light streaks. The Acoustic Ma-My-’l’irne Recmlh’g Au acoustic wave train in a borehole is complex._ :.. . . BEFORE SQUEEZE AFTER SQUEEZE PIPE AM?%lWNE ‘ !$ 0 . The top picture is the same. The lower picture of Fig.with the film.. The intensity -tjme presentation is such a record. T4ext above is the intenskytime recording. . “AUGUST.. . T“ . .200 microsec) and amplitude increasing positively above and negatively below zero amplitude. cannot be used directly because a thin sheath bonded to both pipe and formation would produce a vibrational amplitude that appears to reflect an irdlnhely thick sheath. tude will appear gray.. 1960 . All positive half cycles appear and will be recorded as dark “streaks. .. The position of the bars from left to right displays the time of arrival.. These data. rather thatt only a small portion of it.thes6 amplitudes led to some degree of ambiguity in the interpretation of” the log. howswer. Tbett methods were developed to record the full information from the acoustic wave train. and it exhibits amplitudes and arrival times of wide variation. is recorded. A continuous record of these variations will allow identification of the travel path of all portions of the signal. The pipe was cemented with 185 sacks of special oilwell cement. The variations in darknem and lightness of the bars display the relative amplitude of the half cycles.. :~.. To make these data practical and usable. Fig. a suitable system of routine recordiitg is necessary. and 4M-in. either of the first arrival or of those during a fixed time interval.248 ft in a 7%-in. ness data are shown in Fig. The full wave train of the acoustic signal+ with ail changes’ of time and amplitude.:’ ‘. . containing 42 . velocities. I&Increase in cement bond by squeezing. wide variation in formation. 10 is a comparison of logs run before and after setting and cementing the production casing. .. 9 illustrates the conversion of the acoustic signal...~g. 9 is a scope picture of a 4-ft single receiver signal with time increasing to the right (200 to 1. ing.. Zero ampli. but . 9Yz-lb casing was set to 3. equals 100 ft depth’ scale. and tool movement coordh’sated on’ a 5 in. “-. The next picture above is the prepara. tion of the acoustic signal for the intensity-tjme record. 8 and were obtained with water surrounding the cement.

... Since each of the 20 pulses per second from the transmitter gives one wave train at the receiver...’. -i TECZ$ROLOtiY . ‘.g” “” Another method of presenting the acoustic information is the amplitude-time form. Therefore.. In the lower section of the log the formation signal is reflected by the later low amplitude arrivals. JOURXiL ..... -*_&l.BEF’CX3E WWMOW?AM LO(3S SQUEEZE Pm AMFJLJTIJLE SQUEEZE AFTER . . in the depth scale in which 5 in. . of cellophane flakes per sack of cement.< . 7b). .: oj channel by cement sweezbw:.. .: ...:. The formation amplitude curve is also a fixed gate curve.. 10.. ----‘ E@.... and no pipe signal is seen in Run 2. .. . . mation arrivals that generally arrive later than the pipe signal.. sacks of salt with M lb. Once the selection has been made. . . . . .- . In this example the high amplitude pipe signal in the upper s~tion clearly shows on the recorded signal and on the pipe amplitude curve.’. “. This usually is two to four per 10 ft of hole.. Acoustic Amplitude-Time ‘-Reeo. .. In the open and cased hole the formation arrival times correlate qtiite well.d. . :-. provision is made to select the number to be recorded. “OF PETS30LEiSS .-i . ma’”. A firmly coupled path for signal to and from the formation is present. 13---Elitninatkm 9:’ .. This later MKRO. but is open longer to sample the for. some of the recorded wave trains have been left out for clarity. 11. This curve is a fixed gate amplitude sample. there must be a good cement bond to both the “pipe and the formation in all of the section shown in Fig. . “... .”. -. . equals 100 ft. The eased hole run was made 48 hours after the pipe was cemented. -. the pictures are recorded automatically on 70 mm film at the desired interval. but there is a strong formation arrival (Fig.-. .:+F . . curely held by the cement. Where there is no pipe signal. In the illustration of this type of presentation in Fig.--. it can be said that the pipe is transparent to the acoustic signal as it is se.

Many of the mud-treating chemicals act as retarders. Most cements build up sufficient strength to dampen completely the pipe signal in 8 to 18 hours. depending upon the exact composition and additives. or a combination of both. both the pipe and formation. The. casing. formed using 140 sacks of special oilwell cement ard 215 sacks of regular cement containing 0.060 to 5.from the squeeze at 5. was . 23-lb.lb..(Fig. well above. casing was set. these strength measurements in the laboratory are not always applicable to downhole conditions.090 ft particularly. Tex.5. OD tool (deliberately without centralizers) in 5%-in. and areas of good bond are shown from that point to total depth. for.300 psi was measured. The top of the cement moved to 5..075 ft — indicated by strong formation signal and no pipe signal. The wavy’. is usually variable in arrival time.016. another log was run 46 hours later. The interval 5.520 ft.this ~ue?ze . of. .067 to 9. but when the tool is off center.time recording and on the pipe amplitude curve. ““ “first tiement squtized in the-interval-9.015 .?. but that a channel down one side of the hole also . the well was cement squeezed at 5. Therefore.8 low amplitude is characteristic formation..a.to 9. the section shown. which was indicated in Fig. Whenever both pipe and formation signal are present. However.and thg. 13g. The well in Fig. . At this point all 360° of acoustic arrivals are in phase. Laboratory tests on samples of the cement gave the following data: . casing in a 9%-in. Durjng. .essur~ of . shan_ngl is _fur~er substantiated by the fact that the top of the cement travel . . Therefore.75 percent friction-reducing agent.161 ft with 500 sacks of regular cement. Subsequent to the second squeeze..... since the entire section now shows good acoustic bond to pipe and formation. some arrivals are out of phase and create the wavy appearance. a strong forma..of .exists . 13 is another example of “before and after cement squeeze” of a well in Colorado County.a. and 75 sacks of retarded cement was pumped in at 5. Six days prior to logging. pDssjbility . . the squeeze cement must have traveled through a previously existing channel. The production string was cemented with 580 sacks of special oilwell cement containing 0. breakdow’t. the continuity is such that the path of the arrival can be identi. it is gen. . 14 is a log run with a 21/s-in. 15 shows a comparison of amplitude-time bond logs run 11 and 24 hours after cementing. Above the point of squeeze there is some occasional pipe signal with fairly strong formation signals. The.215 ft.o00 psi..054 ft.rnatiori. The log shows good pipe and formation bond from 8.060 to 5.054 ft.060 ft as shown on Run 2.950 to 9.. interpretation of the Gulf Coast softer of’ the I-mgs The interpretation of the logs can be ilhsstrated best by examples showing changes between log runs. retarded. Fig. cemafizaliors.7. is at .“ *. Another problcm in bond logging is how long to wait after cementing before running the log.068 ft with . tied — whether it is signal from casing. The log run 9 hours after squeeze shows the extent of cement travel behind the pipe. which verifies “the interriretation that no formation bond existed before squeeze. Cement “ .T- sure of 5.. erally recommended to wait 24 hours after cementing.200 psi..Thg. formation signal is also present.75 percent of cement f#fction-reducing agent. The well. hole was set to 9. This distortion is attributed to the discontinuity of metal at the collars.ft. . and was per.018 ft.tsavel down betweqr -the qernent .. 12 was drilled with an 8V4 in bit.rn<pr.a “different charagter. From 5. Since all of the arrivals of the acoustic signal are presented. Pres: . This verifies the interpretation that a channel existed before squeeze.-. mitiaterf “m th6 ‘interval .054. For modified or highly retarded cements. .7d).. the time is hrcreased to 36 hours. tion signal is now being received. which would indicate a minor amount of channeling above 5.520 ft. In the zone 5. ft had to. 23.78 sacks. indicating that the acous$& -see tic coupling has greatly increased and is now firm. Maximum amplitude occurs when the tool is in the center of the hole. produ-cing a good bond to .. Fig. .formation signal. 13 because of strong pipe signal with tyf-:cal collar distortions as shown at 9. 12 as the log “before squeeze”.%ppearanie is’ very: evident in ‘the early” portion of the signal because of apparent arrival time changes. with onfy the ‘“W” pattern distortions at collars. .% 14-lrtconsistent . just above the top of the cement. cement_ at a~maximu. The pipe signkd resirlta in straight vertical lines because of the fsxed velocity of the acoustic travel through pipe.100 ft shows good pipe bond but no formation bond since only very low amplitude formation arrivals are present. formation.390 ft.: ~ F. The second cement squeeze then was initiated at a depth of 5. The distortion will appear for a vertical distance equal to the spacing between the transmitter and receiver (4 ft in this case).. The actual top of cement travel on Run 1 (made 52 hours after cementing) is 7. and 7:in.060 to 5. The amplitude changes considerably as the tool moves from one side to the other. A. It could be concluded from Run 1 that the bonding is incomplete over” the interval shown in Fig. - . and the gel reduces the strength. where the pipe 2CX7 was bonded and the formation was not. . second squeeze was..056 ft a typical collar distortion can be observed on both the intensity. After the primary cement job the ftrst log (not illustrated) was run and indicated the top of the cement to be 5.. in addition to having . acoustic tool must be centralized while recording a bond log. .. it is high]y probable that the pipe and formation are partially bonded. However. Seveninch. .

. . ----- \ .—. -b -.:.. .-a. .100 1. . Since all these factors cannot be completely controlled.. .. \ ‘.’ ..Well .. . . : -—~— {“ . -.. .> .- . .. Some unknown variable downhole delayed the strength buildup from that indicated in lab tests. Fig. . ..380 5. . — & . sketch of “‘ Twenti I~our. .. .Z ---. —- . . IXomparison L . ....==..~..-a --.. .” ‘..-. ... the reverse sh”ould have been true — less-indication of early bonding on the lead cement.->. .Time _F=rma!.bn ——-—. . ----- :“” .Lead cement Tail cement Compressive Strength (psi) 12 hours 24 hours 1. . .Time -. — of amplitude-time .-*. . . >“ ‘% :.’ ‘1 \ . -% ~r I 6800 . -----. According to lab tests. –--—===——— . *‘> e.~ 6700 — I I b750 —— 9 — —--~ — —— — —— -— — .. .. --~ ‘- — q -- s ‘..Hours ‘Afte’i’Cern~ntirig- ““ Pipe ) A mplitdc A m~l.—— ~. bond logs run 11 and 24 hours after cementing. .. .. ‘.. 1 I — —. . ----. a safety factor—24 to 36 hours--must be used. below 6. .-:.. ..65Ll The top of the tail cement is at 6.------ I I Formation ——— ——— Amplitude Am@tude ——— - ..— .675 ft and no changes occurred above this depth on the logs run after 11 and 24 hours..) > ‘t I < .“ #t . However. .675 ft there was considerable change.500 1.~ . . . indicating that the tail cement did not have sufilcient compressive strength to completely dampen the pipe . .– — t-+---”-+ “’l . Eleven’ ll~urs After’ Cern&nting ‘‘ “’ simal in 11 hours. *** Editor’s Note: A picture and biographical Terry Wulker uppear on Page 861. South TexrIs. ----- .&dc——- I Amplitude .. .