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# 10/22/2010

Phase and Frequency.doc

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Phase and Frequency
Consider the trig functions sin x or cos x . Q: What are the units of x ?? A: The units of x must be radians.

In other words x must be phase θ (i.e., cos θ and sin θ ) This phase value can—and very often is—a function of time. For example, consider the sinusoidal voltage function of time:

v (t ) = cos (ω0t + θ0 ) = cos θ ( t )
In other words, the phase is a function of time θ (t ) = ω 0t + θ0 !

Q: What the !?! I always

thought “phase” was θ0 , not ω0t + θ0 !

A: Time for some definitions!
Jim Stiles The Univ. of Kansas Dept. of EECS

of Kansas Dept. Note the total phase θ (t ) = ω0t + θ0 is a linearly increasing function of time ! θ (t ) ω0t + θ0 θ0 t This phase function results in a “pure” sinusoidal voltage function: v (t ) cos θ (t ) t But.doc 2/5 We call θ (t ) the total.10/22/2010 Phase and Frequency. the total phase need not be an equation of a line. of EECS . It can be a much more general function of time: θ (t ) θ0 t Jim Stiles The Univ. or absolute phase of the sinusoidal signal.

of EECS .K.. it is measured in units of radians/second. so you have made phase A: Wrong ! Frequency too is a little more complicated than you might have imagined.e.doc 3/5 Regardless. right ?? Q: O. As a result. Angular frequency ω is defined as the rate of (total) phase change with respect to time.v (t ) = cosθ ( t ) ): v (t ) cos θ (t ) t really complicated. How do we determine the rate of phase change with respect to time? We take the derivative of θ (t ) with respect to t ! Jim Stiles The Univ. a sinusoidal signal can still be constructed from any general phase function θ (t ) (i. of Kansas Dept.10/22/2010 Phase and Frequency. but at least the signal frequency is still ω0 ..

doc 4/5 I.E. if θ (t ) = ω0t + θ0 .10/22/2010 Phase and Frequency. can we determine the original phase function θ (t ) ? A: Absolutely! We simply must take the anti-derivative—we integrate ω (t ) ! θ (t ) = ∫ ω (t ′ ) dt ′ + θ0 0 t Jim Stiles The Univ. then: ω (t ) = d (ω0t + θ0 ) = ω0 dt Q: See! I told you! The frequency is ω0 after all ! A: Not so fast! The frequency (i. of Kansas Dept. the rate of phase change) is equal to ω0 only if total phase is θ (t ) = ω0t + θ0 . of EECS .. ω (t ) = d θ (t ) dt (radians/sec) For example.e. Otherwise d θ (t ) dt = ω (t ) —the frequency changes with time! Q: If we know the frequency function ω (t ) ..

Jim Stiles The Univ.doc 5/5 So. Thus. of Kansas Dept. of EECS . as well as the frequency function ω (t ) . when describing the behavior of a Phase-Locked Loop) use functions θ (t ) or ω (t ) to describe a voltage of the form v (t ) = cosθ (t ) .10/22/2010 Phase and Frequency..g. we sometimes (e. if we assume that all signals have the form: v (t ) = cosθ (t ) The phase function θ (t ) completely determines v (t ) .