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CONTENTS

Page

DECLARATION

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

iii

ABSTRACT

iv

CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF ABBREVIATION CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

v

1.1 1.2 1.3 CHAPTER II 2.1 2.2

Project Background Project Objectives Outline of Thesis THEORY OF STATCOM HARMONIC STUDIES Distortion in power networks Sources of harmonics 2.2.1 Harmonic generation 2.2.2 Sources of Harmonics

2.3

Power Electronic interface/device

2

2.3.1 2.3.2 2.4

Line Commutated Converters Pulse-Width Modulated Converters

Harmonic mitigation in PWM technique 2.4.1 Delayed triangular carrier in SPWM 2.4.2 Selective Harmonic Elimination

2.5

Presentation of harmonic data 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 Displays of individual harmonics Displays of groups of harmonics THD

CHAPTER III 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Introduction Switching function Concept Control strategy Modeling program 3.4.1 MATLAB Simulink 3.4.2 Building and Interconnecting subsystems

CHAPTER IV 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

STATCOM Model Introduction Block diagram of model Model Parameter SPWM technique Voltage and current …

3

4.5.1 ? Voltage 4.5.2 ? Voltage 4.5.3 ? Voltage 4.5.4 ? Current CHAPTER V 5.1 5.2 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS Introduction Modelling Categories 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.3 Low Switching Frequency Medium Switching Frequency High Switching Frequency

Simulation results 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 Effect of varying switching frequency on harmonics generated Effect of varying switching frequency on THD Effect of varying switching frequency on ?

CHAPTER V I 6.1 6.2 Conclusion Recommendation

4

ABSTRACT

Recently, electrical utilities and heavy industries face a number of challenges related to reactive power. Heavy industrial application can cause phenomena like voltage unbalance, distortion or flicker on the electric grid. Developments in power electronics and semiconductor technology have lead improvements in power electronic systems. Hence, the most advanced solution to compensate reactive power is the use of a voltage source inverter incorporated as a variable source of reactive power. STATCOM is defined as a selfcommutated switching power converter/inverter supplied from an appropriate electric energy source and operated to produce a set of adjustable multiphase voltage. This thesis will focus on designing the STATCOM based on switching function concept. The modelling of these devices is based on graphic models using the electromagnetic transient simulation program MATLAB Simulink. The functional simulation models of three-phase VSI using switching function concept have been modelled. SPWM technique is used in this project as a control strategy. In the SPWM switching method, the widths of the voltage pulses are varied to control the ac output voltage. The SPWM is a kind of multi-pulse trigger mode in which in one period, the inverter switches are turned on and off several times. The SPWM signal is used to control ON/OFF switching state of the IGBTs will functions in driver model that created to control the switching scheme. Then, the simulation is made from the inverter model in Simulink. At the end of this project, by varying several frequencies, result taken from simulation will be compared with the percentage total harmonic disorder.

5

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background

This project is mainly about to model and simulate Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) using switching function method. In this project, the simulation of threephase VSI with the Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) control algorithm using switching function is developed. Then the model will implemented by using the functional block to evaluate the model performance and also analyse effect of total harmonic distortion presence to the model. The model is implemented using MATLAB Simulink software with the SimPower System Block. The simulations play an important role in design, analysis and evaluate the power electronic converter. MATLAB is an effective tool to analyse a SPWM inverter because it have the following advantages such as faster response, the various simulation tools and function blocks and lack of convergence problem. Three phase voltage source inverter are recently showing growing popularity for heavy industrial applications. The main reasons for this popularity are easy sharing of large voltage between the series devices and the improvement of the harmonic quality at the output. Static VAR Compensator (STATCOM) is defined as a self-commutated switching power converter supplied from an appropriate electric energy source and operated to produce a set of adjustable multiphase voltage, which may be coupled to an AC power system for the purpose of exchanging independently controllable real and reactive power [1]. The controlled reactive compensation in electric power system is usually achieved with the variant STATCOM configuration.

6

Figure 1.1: Block diagram of the static power conversion system [2] Referring to figure 1, the dc and ac variables can be input and output according to the operation mode. Then, the transfer function is obtained to describe the task to be performed by the circuits. In particular, the transfer function can be used to compute a dependent variable in terms of its respective independent circuit variable. For example, in Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), the waveform to be modulated is considered as the independent variable and the resulting modulated waveform is the dependent variable. Using switching function theory, the detailed relationship between the input and output variables can be obtained [2].

1.2 Project Objective The aim of this project: i. ii. To understand the functionality of STATCOM simulation model in power system. To develop an inverter model by using MATLAB Simulink based on switching function concept. iii. iv. To understand and implement SPWM method for the STATCOM system. To analyse the simulation results in terms of harmonics components and also the total harmonic disorder (THD)

7

1.3 Thesis Outline This thesis is prepared to ensure clarity and make it easier to read and it contains of five chapters. Chapter 1 explain the introduction of STATCOM and its advantages against the power system. The overview of project objectives and project scopes also discuss in this chapter. Chapter 2 to emphasize on literature review about the introduction of distortion in power system network, a details explanation about the harmonics. The principle of the STATCOM and switching function concept are the method that had been used in this project. This chapter also presents how the model developed using MATLAB Simulink and also the function of FFT and THD. Chapter 3 describes about the methodology of this project. This chapter also discuss about the circuit construction using MATLAB Simulink and the system works. Chapter 4 shows Chapter 5 illustrates the simulated results obtained and the analysis of the project. Comparisons are made by varying several switching frequency also the percentage of total harmonic disorder using simulation software. Finally, chapter 6 is the conclusion part where contributions of the study are discussed. This final chapter also presents some recommendation about the future development of the project.

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CHAPTER 2 THEORY OF STATCOM HARMONIC STUDIES

2.1 Distortion in Power Network Network distortion and power quality are issues of increasing importance, as the share of sensitive electronic circuits is increasing steadily in modern power systems. Network distortion can be classified into transient events such as voltage sags, swells and spikes. Other events of longer duration are for example mains failures, harmonic voltage distortion and steady-state over-voltages and under-voltages [3]. As the

causes of network distortion are based on the fundamental laws of electricity and physics, they have to be considered to be normal phenomena in any electrical network.

In some cases, these disturbances can lead to a complete shutdown of an entire production line, in particular at high-tech industries like semiconductor plants, with severe economic consequence to the affected industries [4]. If voltage sag exceeds even a few cycles, motors, servo drives, robot and machine tools cannot maintain control of the processes and it may cause a large amount of damage.

A power quality disturbance is an occurrence manifested in a nonstandard voltage, current or frequency deviation that results in a failure or a disoperation of end-use equipment [5]. Table 2.1 presents a most common power quality problem, their effects and the causes.

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**TABLE 2.1 Most common power quality problem in power network [6]
**

Voltage Sag (or dip)

Description: A decrease of the normal voltage level between 10 and 90% of the nominal rms voltage at the power frequency, for duration of 0.5 cycle to 1minute. Causes: Faults on the transmission or distribution network (most of the times on parallel feeders). Faults in consumer’s installation. Connection of heavy loads and start-up of large motors. Description: Total interruption of electrical supply for duration from few milliseconds to one or two seconds. Causes: Mainly due to the opening and automatic reclosure of protection devices to decommission a faulty section of the network. Description: Total interruption of electrical supply for duration greater than 1 to 2 seconds. Causes: Equipment failure in the power system network, storms and objects (tree, cars, etc.) striking lines or poles, fire, human error, bad coordination or failure of protection devices.

1.

2.

Very Short Interruption

Long Interruption 3.

Voltage Spike 4.

Description: Very fast variation of the voltage value for durations from a several microseconds to few milliseconds. These variation may reach thousands of volts, even in low voltage. Causes: Lightning, switching of lines or power factor correction capacitors, disconnection of heavy loads.

Voltage Swell 5.

Description: Momentary increase of the voltage, at the power frequency, outside the normal tolerances, with duration of more than one cycle and typically less than a few seconds. Causes: Start/stop of heavy loads, badly dimensioned power sources, badly regulated transformers (mainly during off-peak hours).

6.

Harmonic Distortion

Description: Voltage or current waveform assume non-sinusoidal shape. The waveform corresponds to the sum of different sine-waves with different magnitude and phase, having frequencies that are multiples of power system frequency, Causes: Electric machines working above the knee of the magnetization curve (magnetic saturation). All non-linear loads, switched mode power supplies, data processing equipment, high efficiency lighting.

7.

Voltage Fluctuation

Description: Oscillation of voltage value, amplitude modulated by a signal with frequency of 30Hz. Causes: Arc furnaces, frequent start/stop of electric motors (for instance elevators), oscillating loads. Description: Superimposing of high frequency signals on the waveform of the power system frequency. Causes: Electromagnetic interferences provoked by Hertzian waves such as microwaves, television diffusion and radiation due to arc furnaces and electronic equipment. Improper grounding may also be cause,

Noise 8.

9.

Voltage Unbalance

Description: A voltage variation in a three-phase system in which the three voltage magnitudes or the phase-angle differences between them are not equal. Causes: Large single-phase loads (induction furnaces, traction loads), incorrect distribution of all single-phase loads by the three phases of the system (this may be due to a fault).

10

The increased concern for power quality has resulted in measuring power quality variations, studying the characteristics of power disturbances and providing solutions to the power quality problems [5]. Some of the concerned issues related to the effects of power disturbances are: i. The utility power supply can have a detrimental effect on the performance of industrial equipment. ii. Harmonics produced by industrial equipment such as rectifiers and adjustable speed drives can have detrimental effects on the reliability of the plant’s electrical system as well as on the utility system.

There are several strategies to reduce the occurrence and the impact of such disturbances, such as [3]: i. Careful design of power systems and installations in order to reduce the risk of short-circuits. ii. iii. Optimisation of the protection systems for fast and selective fault clearing. Installation of special back-up systems such as diesel generators or UPS systems. iv. v. vi. Reduction of human error. Redundancy of equipment and energy sources. Assurance of a certain immunity of user is equipment against disturbances.

2.2.1 Harmonic generation Under some operating conditions, power system devices exhibit non-linear characteristics such as magnetic saturation, resulting in distorted voltage and current waveforms that can interfere with other devices on the power system. The type of load also affects the power quality of the system. This is due to the current draw of each type of load [20]. Linear loads draw current that is sinusoidal in nature so they generally do not distort the waveform (Figure 2.11). Most household appliances are categorized as linear loads. Non-linear loads, however, can draw current that is not perfectly sinusoidal (Figure 2.12). Since the current waveform deviates from a sine wave, voltage waveform distortions are created.

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Figure 2.11 : Ideal Sine Wave [20]

Figure 2.12: Distorted Waveform [20]

As can be observed from the waveform in Figure 2.12, waveform distortions can drastically alter the shape of the sinusoid. However, no matter the level of complexity of the fundamental wave, it is actually just a composite of multiple waveforms called harmonics. Harmonics have frequencies that are integer multiples of the waveform’s fundamental frequency. For example, given a 60Hz fundamental waveform, the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th harmonic components will be at 120Hz, 180Hz, 240Hz and 300Hz respectively. Thus, harmonic distortion is the degree to which a waveform deviates from its pure sinusoidal values as a result of the summation of all these harmonic elements [21]. The ideal sine wave has zero harmonic components. In that case, there is nothing to distort this perfect wave.

12

In general industry and consumers both are responsible for the increasing deterioration of the power system voltage and current waveforms. Figure 2.2 presents a power system with sinusoidal source voltage (Vs) operating with linear and nonlinear loads. The non-linear load current (iL1) contains harmonics and is non-sinusoidal. The resulting harmonics in the source-current (is) produces a non-linear voltage drop (∆v) in the line impedance, which distorts the load voltage (VL). Since load voltage is distorted, even the current at the linear load (iL2) becomes non sinusoidal [11].

The presence of harmonics in power lines result in low power factor, low efficiency, increased power losses in the distribution system and interference problems in communication systems [10], [12]. Sometimes this leads to the failures of electronic equipments, which are very sensitive to voltage and current distortions [11].

Figure 2.2 : Power System with Linear and Non-linear Load [11]

2.2.2 Sources of Harmonics The use of these nonlinear loads is rapidly increasing in industry and also by consumers. These equipments draw non-linear currents from the AC mains as compare to traditional loads such as motors and resistive heating elements. This leads to the distortion of power system voltage and other problems [10]. Nonlinear loads are classified broadly into three types, namely Power-electronic interface/device - rectifiers, inverters, UPS, switch-mode power supply, lighting controls, adjustable speed drive etc [14]. arc-type,

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magnetic saturation - type nonlinearities. Among the modern nonlinear loads, three-phase power electronic devices have a significant contribution in generating harmonics during their switching processes [7].

2.3 Power Electronic interface/device Among today’s power electronic applications are rectifiers, inverters, variable speed drives, UPS systems and in many types of industrial applications. Due to the advanced technologies in power electronics development over the past decade, the application of power electronics has been widely spread to all types of industries [7]. They offer a number of advantages in controlling power flow and in efficiency, but they perform this by chopping, flatting, or shaping sinusoidal voltages and currents. Harmonics are produced in the process. Other power electronic devices which may generate harmonics in the power system include static phase shifters, isolation switches, load transfer switches, and energy storage and instantaneous backup power systems as well as those devices covered under the subjects of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) and Custom Power Systems [8]. The family of custom power devices mainly includes distribution static compensator (D-STATCOM), dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) and solid state breakers applied in solid state transfer switch (SSTS) and solid state fault current limiter (SSFCL) [9] . Converter-based FACTS equipment will act as a source of harmonic current injection to the system and it will interact with harmonic distortions already present within the system. In order to prevent harmonic instability of the system and to appropriately rate the components of the VSC, an improved understanding of these harmonic interactions must be developed.

Three-phase static power topologies can be classified as voltage-source rectifiers (VSR) and inverters (VSIs) and current source rectifiers and inverters as shown in Figure--. The advent of switching devices with turn-off capabilities e.g., insulated gate bipolar

14

transistors (IGBTs), gate-turn-off thyristors (GTOs) has made the voltage source rectifier widely used for ac-to-dc conversion, in applications such as motor drives, power supplies, uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs), and static power compensators (STATCOMs). Voltage source inverter have become standard in most dc-to-ac applications, such as induction and synchronous motor drives, UPS systems, and, in general, ac power supplies. 2.3.1 Line Commutated Converters

The introduction of economic and reliable line commutated converters has caused a significant increase in harmonic-generating loads, and they have dispersed over the entire power system. In most cases, line commutated converters are the cause of harmonic

problems in power distribution systems. These devices are work horse circuits for ac/dc power conversion. The common application of static power converters is in adjustable speed drives for motor control. Another application is in HVDC terminals. The device can be

operated as a six pulse converter, as shown in Figure --, or configured in parallel arrangements for higher pulse operation. Theoretically, a static power converter load draws currents from the source system that consists of positive and negative currents which are equally separated. The pulse number refers to the number of “humps” on the dc output voltage that are produced during every ac cycle [8].

Figure 2.1 : Six-Pulse Line Commutated Converter [8]

In Figure 2.1, each pair of thyristors is triggered (firing angle) and conduct until they are reverse-biased. If a thyristor is triggered at zero firing angle, it acts exactly like a diode. The term line commutated converter refers to the fact that the load actually turns thyristors off, rather than them being turned off by external control circuits. The ideal ac current

15

waveform for a six-pulse converter is on for 120 degrees and off for another 60 degrees. During the on period, the dc load current is assumed constant in the ideal case due to the assumed existence of a large series dc inductor [8]. Assuming no commutation overlap and balanced three-phase operation, it can be shown that the phase a current is

( )

∑

in(

)

(2.1)

where h = 1, 5, 7, 11, 13, ... . We see that the ac harmonic currents generated by a six-pulse converter include all odd harmonics except triplens. Harmonics generated by converters of any pulse number can be expressed by

where n is any integer and p is the pulse number of the converter [8]. 2.3.2 Pulse-Width Modulated Converters

The sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) strategy is widely used in power applications such as dc to ac inverters, switch mode power supply, and industrial machine drive controls [15], since it provides an efficient means of power transfer. The reference signal is compared against a high frequency triangular carrier signal resulting in a pulsewidth modulated 2-level output. Figure 2.3 gives the basic circuitry of SPWM using an analog comparator. The output of the comparator at node A is shown in Figure 2.4 [16]. The low voltage swing at A is then up converted to a higher voltage through the output configuration.

Figure 2.3: Basic SPWM Topology [16]

16

Figure 2.4: Sine- Triangle PWM at A [16] PWM converters use power electronic devices that can be turned off and turned on. Therefore, voltage and current waveforms can be shaped more desirably. The switching components can be thyristors that are forced off by external control circuits, or they can be GTOs or power transistors. The latter devices are usually used because of their fast switching characteristics are needed for effective PWM. In a PWM converter, the switching devices are controlled to switch on and off to produce a series of pulses. These pulses are to be varied in width to produce a pulsed three-phase voltage wave for the load. Due to their low

efficiencies, PWM converters are limited to low power applications in the several hundred kW or horse power (hp) ranges [8].

2.4 Harmonic mitigation in PWM technique The frequency spectrum of the pulse width modulated signal contains one component at the reference signal frequency, and others are shifted to the carrier frequency, which is much higher than the sinusoidal frequency. These high frequency components are eliminated by the low pass L-C filter and the resultant filter output is the reference signal with higher amplitude determined by the power supply voltage. The use of pulse width-modulated (PWM) gating patterns to control the power valves in such topologies is the base to achieve faster dynamic responses and nearly sinusoidal ac waveforms. Several PWM techniques have been reported in the literature, which can be classified as online e.g., sinusoidal PWM and space vector or offline, e.g.: selective harmonic elimination and fundamental magnitude control [19]. 2.4.1 Delayed triangular carrier in SPWM For examining harmonic cancellation of unwanted bands, the configuration of Figure 2.5 is proposed that employs N paths where each triangular carrier is delayed from

17

previous one by t= Tc/ N or phase angle ϕ = 2π/ N radians, where Tc is time period of triangular wave [16].

Figure 2.5: Harmonic Cancellation [16] If Vc(t) denotes the carrier of the first path, the n-path carrier is given by VCN (t) = VC [t – (n-1) Tc / N], n= 1, 2,….. N (2.2)

Figure 2.6 shows the reference sinusoid and a pair of shifted carrier waves, and the corresponding encoded PWM signals y1(t) and y2(t).

Figure 2.6: PWM Coding with Shifted Carriers [16]

18

Assuming the signals to be synchronized, it is seen that each signal y (t) and y2(t) are periodic with period T where T is 1/fo. fo is the frequency of the reference sinusoid. Their Fourier coefficients can be evaluated [17], and the magnitude spectrum of the carriershifted PWM signals closely match at low frequencies as shown in Figure 2.7 and 2.8. However, the phase of the spectrum at fc and its harmonics is shifted by 2π/N [16]. The overall output of the summing circuit is then:

( )

∑

(

1m + h2m

……..)

∑

(

)

(2.3 )

where ⍵o= 2πfo, and hlm, h2m ... are Fourier coefficients of the PWM signal of each consecutive paths. The second sum in (2.3) is a geometric series and the sum is zero for all values of m = K except m = KN, where K = kmf, k is an integer, and mf (modulation ratio) = fc/fo (an integer multiple). This is the basic idea in harmonic cancellation, and the output harmonic component corre ponding to m ≠ KN are eliminated. When m = KN, the sum equals N and the harmonic phasor are oriented in the same direction [18]. Although this method eliminates the harmonic components, the sidebands around each component may remain intact.

Figure 2.7: Amplitude Spectrum: Y (t) (fO= 1 KHz, fc= 4 KHz) [16]

19

Figure 2.8 : Amplitude Spectrum: Y₂(t) (fO= 1 KHz, fc = 4 KHz) [16]

2.4.2 Selective Harmonic Elimination The elimination of low-order harmonics is an important issue in many applications where low-switching-frequency PWM patterns are required. As an alternative, selective harmonic elimination (SHE) techniques were introduced to provide low-order harmonic elimination in VSR/Is .

Figure 2.9: Three-phase power converter topologies of voltage source inverter [19].

The chopping angles for three-phase VSIs as shown in Figure 2.9 are specified between 0– π/2 to eliminate an even number of low-frequency harmonics (e.g., 5th and 7th) and between 0– π/3 to eliminate an odd number of low-frequency harmonics (e.g., 5th, 7th, and 11th), which

20

allow maximum dc voltage utilization. For instance, to eliminate the 5th and 7th harmonics and perform fundamental magnitude control, the Fourier coefficients of this switching function given is used:

[

2∑

(

) co (

)]

(2.4) (2.5)

bn = 0

where three angles (N= 3) are required. Thus N-1 = 2, and the equations to be solved are: co ( co ( co ( ) ) ) co ( co ( co ( ₂) ₂) ₂) co ( co ( co ( ) ) ) (2 2 2 ) (2.6) (2.7) (2.8)

where the angles ⍺ ⍺₂ ⍺ and are defined as shown in Figure 2.10 and m is the modulation index (amplitude of the fundamental phase voltage component for a 1-pu dc-link voltage). The angle ⍺ ⍺₂ and ⍺ are plotted for different values of the line voltage fundamental amplitude component √ ] assuming 1–pu dc-link voltage. The 2 6…. even) harmonics general expressions to eliminate N-1(N-

were derived and are given by the following equations [19]: ∑ ( ) co ( ⍺ ) (2.9 )

∑

( ) co ( ⍺ )

…..

2

( 2.10)

Where ⍺ , ⍺₂….,⍺N should satisfy ⍺ < ⍺₂ < …. < ⍺N < π/2.

21

Figure 2.10: Selective harmonic elimination in voltage-source inverters for 5th and 7th harmonic elimination (N-1 = 2), m = 0:8/ √3. (a) Gating pattern S . (b) Normalized ac voltage Vab. (c) AC voltage spectrum.

2.5 Harmonics The purpose of harmonic studies is to quantify the distortion in voltage and/or current waveforms at various locations in a power system. The need for a harmonic study may be indicated by excessive measured distortion in existing systems or by installation of harmonic producing equipment. These harmonics can cause problems ranging from telephone transmission interference to degradation of conductors and insulating material in motors and transformers. One important step in harmonic studies is to characterize harmonic-generating sources. 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 Displays of individual harmonics Displays of groups of harmonics THD

22

Power sources act as non-linear loads, drawing a distorted waveform that contains harmonics. The first step in controlling the distortions is measuring them accurately. Therefore it is important to gauge the total effect of these harmonics. The summation of all harmonics in a system is known as total harmonic distortion (THD) [20].

Total harmonic distortion, or THD, is the summation of all harmonic components of the voltage or current waveform compared against the fundamental component of the voltage or current wave:

√( ₂

(2.11)

The formula above shows the calculation for THD on a voltage signal. The end result is a percentage comparing the harmonic components to the fundamental component of a signal. The higher the percentage, the more distortion that is present on the mains signal.

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CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction In the project, the simulation of three-phase VSI with the Sinusoidal Pulse Width

Modulation (SPWM) control algorithm using switching functions is implemented from the functional blocks of MATLAB Simulink.

3.2 Switching Function Concept The switching function concept has shown to be a powerful tool in understanding and optimizing the performance of the power electronic circuits. Advantages of switching function concept can be listed as follows [27]:

Powerful tool in understanding and optimizing the performance of the static power converter/inverter. Power conversion circuits are modeled according to their functions, rather than circuit’s topologies. Achieves simplification of the overall power conversion functions. Allows for the development of analytical concepts that are applicable to families of converters.

The concept allows the designer to decompose the synthesis of a power converter system into three major steps: 1. The derivation of the converter transfer function from the task to be performed by the converter. 2. 3. The synthesis of topologies to realize the required transfer function. The determination of the gating strategy required to produce the transfer function with the topology derived in 2.

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More specially, a converter transfer function can be used to compute a dependent variable in terms of its respective independent converter variable. For example, the input current of a voltage source inverter (dependent input) depends on the converter transfer function and the converter output phase currents (independent output) [27].

Figure 2.16: Variable classification for power converters [27]

A summary of converter independent and dependent variables is presented in Figure 2.16. This table conveniently considers the port connected to the source of power (e.g., utility, batteries) as the input converter port, and the port connected to the load as output port. Consequently, with the definition of dependent variables the transfer function of a switch mode converter is defined as

(2.23) 3.3 Control strategy Practical realization of a switch mode converter transfer function is accomplished using control strategy, for example pulse width modulation (PWM). With the applied control strategy, each transfer function consists of the various particular switching functions, such as: TF= [SF1, SF2, SF3, …….] Where: TF – Transfer function SF – Switching function

(2.17)

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Using switching function, detailed relationship between the input and output variables can be obtained [27]. Proper switching function is important to describe the role of the static power converter/inverter.

(a)

(b)

Figure 2.15: (a) Circuit configuration of VSI and (b) Input and output variables of VSI [27] Referring to Figure 2.15, based on transfer function theory, in the voltage source inverter (VSI), the dependent variables are input current (Iin) and output voltages (Vab, Vbc, Vca). Input voltage (Vd) and output current (Ia, Ib, Ic) are the independent variables. The relationship between the input and output variables can be expressed as [27]: [ .[ ] ] . ( 2.18) ( 2.19)

Where TF is the transfer function of VSI. Generally, the transfer function consists of the several switching function as [ ₂ ….] (2.20)

A control strategy to be applied should be selected in order to define the switching functions. For this project, the sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) is used as a control strategy. The switching function SF express the Vao, Vbo and Vco and it is used to calculate the inverter line-to-line voltages (Vab, Vbc, Vca) and phase voltage (Van, Vbn, Vcn). Switching function SF₂ designates the voltage across the switch and load currents

26

(Ia,Ib,Ic) are derived as ratios of voltage and respective impedances using the switching function SF₂. Mathematical representations SF and SF₂ are given by: ∑ ∑ ( ⍵ ) ( ⍵ ) (2.21) (2.22)

3.4 Modeling program MATLAB is a high-level language of technical computing and has several of roles for algorithm development, data visualization, data analysis, and calculation of the figures. MATLAB function to solve technical computing problems faster than with traditional programming languages such as C and so on. In addition, MATLAB also provides a variety of applications, including signal and image processing, communications, control design, test and measurement, financial modelling and analysis, and biological computation. Add-on toolboxes (collections of special-purpose MATLAB functions, available separately) extend the MATLAB environment to solve problems in the areas of application specific classes. 3.4.1 MATLAB Simulink Inside MATLAB software, the SIMULINK is the best tool to do simulation and model-based design. SIMULINK is an environment for multi-domain simulation and model-based design for dynamic and embedded systems. It provides an interactive graphical environment and a customizable set of block libraries that can design, simulate, implement, and test a variety of time-varying systems, including power systems, communications, controls, signal processing, video processing, and image processing. By using SIMULINK, user can quickly create, model and maintain a detailed block diagram of system. SIMULINK includes an extensive library of functions commonly used in modelling a system such as continuous and discrete dynamic block (integration), algorithmic blocks (sum, product, etc) and structural blocks (MUX, switch and bus selector). After building the model, SIMULINK user can simulate its dynamic behaviour and view the result live. SIMULINK also has debugger which

27

is an interactive tool for examining simulation results and locating unexpected behaviour in a SIMULINK model. 3.4.2 Building and Interconnecting subsystems MORE EXPLANATION. The model of this project using subsystem to combined all circuit together. To build the subsystem there are a few step need to follow: Suppose we want to model the SPWM as shown in Figure 2.17

Figure 2.17: SPWM block using MATLAB Simulink

Then group the block into subsystem as follows: a) From the menu, select [Edit][Select All]. b) From the menu again, select [Edit][Create Subsystem]. c) Rename the subsystem to be : SPWM block d) Resize the subsystem and move the inports and outports so they match Figure 2.18

28

Figure: 2.18: Subsystem for SPWM block The subsystem can be “open” by double-clicking the subsystem block. So can continue to edit the circuit when the subsystem open at the separate window.

29

4.0 STATCOM Model based on SF concept 4.1 Introduction The Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) is a shunt device of the Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) family. It is based on power electronics devices to control voltage and improve transient stability.

Figure 2.13: Basic scheme of STATCOM connected to a bus at the transmission system [25].

The STATCOM basically consists of a step-down transformer with a leakage reactance, a three-phase GTO or IGBT, voltage source converter/inverter (VSC/VSI) and a DC capacitor. The STATCOM regulates the voltage magnitude at its terminals by controlling the amount of reactive power injected into or absorbed from the power system. When power system voltage is low, the STATCOM generates reactive power (STATCOM capacitive); when system is high, it absorbs reactive power (STATCOM inductive) [26].

Figure 2.13 shows the basic operation of STATCOM in power transmission system. In steady state operation, the voltage V2 generated by the VSC is in phase with V1 (δ=0), so that only reactive power is flowing (P=0). If V2 is lower than V1, Q is flowing from V1 to V2 (STATCOM is absorbing reactive power). On the reverse, if V2 is higher than V1, Q is flowing from V2 to V1 (STATCOM is generating reactive power). A capacitor connected on the DC side of the VSC acts as a DC voltage

30

source. In steady state the voltage V2 has to be phase shifted slightly behind V1 in order to compensate for transformer and VSC losses and to keep the capacitor charged [25]. If V2 is equal to V1 the reactive power exchange is zero. The amount of reactive power is given by ( 2)

(2.

)

The majority of converters are not run off a constant DC voltage source, but are instead designed using a dc side capacitor. The average steady state dc voltage level is then a function of the modulation index and delay angle of the sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) signal. Furthermore, harmonics will now appear on the dc capacitor voltage, thus it is no longer permissible to assume is constant over the entire period [26]. 4.2 Model Parameter In MATLAB, the proper state equations should be obtained in order to describe the power conversion circuit. With the state equations, the circuit can easily be modelled by using the functional block, which are supported in MATLAB Simulink. In particular, in MATLAB, the various kinds of control algorithms can be easily implemented without using actual analog components. However, obtaining the state equation according to the circuit configuration is a cumbersome and time-consuming job. Whenever there is a minor change in the circuit configuration, new state equations should be obtained for describing the new circuit. Therefore, a simple method to model the power conversion circuits is highly desirable, which is not based on the state equations. Using the switching function concept, the power conversion circuit can be modelled according to their functions, rather than circuit topologies [27]. Based on the switching functions concept, a functional model for the VSI is built by using MATLAB Simulink. The functional model built consists of five functional blocks, called as sub models: SPWM generator, switching function block, inverter block, load current block, and pure switch and diode current generating block.

31

Parameter that has been used for each block model simulation in listed in Table ?: Parameter of Vd (constant) = 300?. Table 3.1: SPWM block Parameter SPWM block Carrier Frequency (Fc) Reference Frequency (Fref) Amplitude Gain Load current block Inductance (L) Resistor 4.3 SPWM Control subsystem Figure 3.2 illustrates the sinusoidal PWM (SPWM) control strategy. In the SPWM method, the widths of the voltage pulses are varied to control the ac output voltage. This is achieved by comparing the carrier signal is with three different control signals. Its outputs became the inputs to the switching function block to generate the two sets of switching function signals (SF1 and SF2). The SPWM is a kind of multi-pulse trigger mode in which in one period, the inverter switches are turned on and off several times. Thus, SPWM requires higher switching rate for multi-pulse per cycle of the line frequency. The advantage of using SPWM switching method is that it can control two parameters independently. These are the magnitude and the phase of the inverter voltage [3]. Value 1000Hz 50Hz 1 3.5 20mH 5

32

Figure 3.2: SPWM generator using Matlab Simulink

4.4 STATCOM outputs subsystems? 4.4.1V?

33

Figure 3.3 : Switching function block using Matlab Simulink The signals applied to the control input port are two-level. Referring to Figure 3.3, a two-level SF ( s 2 ) is used to generate the ac output leg voltage in a VSI. By using the concept of switching functions, and with the assumptions of no losses and no parasitic reactive elements in the converter, the V ?? is given by [27]: ∑ ∑ ∑ in( in ( in ( ) 2 ) 2 ) (3.1) (3.2) (3.3)

The Vao,Vbo ,Vco are used to calculate the inverter line-to-line voltages (Vab,Vbc ,Vca) and phase voltages (Van,Vbn ,Vcn). On the other hand, the switching function designates the voltage across the switch and the load currents (Ia, Ib, Ic) are derived as ratios of voltages and respective impedances using the switching function SF2.

4.4.2 Line-to-line voltage

34

Figure 3.4: Inverter line-to-line and phase voltage generating block using Matlab Simulink

Considering the circuit of an inverter as shown in the Figure 3.4, an equivalent circuit with a switch in each leg can be simpliﬁed as in Figure 3.5.Then, the inverter line-to-line voltage ( Vab, Vbc, Vca) can be derived as [27]:

√

∑

√

( ∑ ( (

)

(3.4) ) (3.5) ) (3.6)

√

∑

Figure 3.5: Part of circuit configuration of VSI 4.4.3 ? Phase Voltage In order to calculate the inverter phase voltage ( Van, Vbn, Vcn), Vno is calculated as: ( The phase voltages are obtained as: (3.8) (3.9) (3.10) 4.4.4 Load Current ) (3.7)

35

Figure 3.6: Load current calculating block using the phase voltage

Referring to Figure 3.6, load current block is used to obtain the load current (Ia,Ib,Ic). Assuming the load consists of R-L load and a balanced one, the load currents are derived as ratios of the phase voltage and respective impedance as [27]: (3.11) ( ( 4.4.5 Switch and Diode Currents 2 ) 2 ) (3.12) (3.13)

36

Figure 3.7: Pure switch and diode currents and inverter input current (Iin) generating block using Matlab Simulink.

Referring to Figure 15, the switch currents (Is1,Is3,Is5) are calculated by the product of the load currents with the corresponding switching function SF2_a,b,c , that is [27], ₂ ₂ ₂ (3.14) (3.15) (3.16)

In order to calculate the current rating of power semiconductor switch, one needs the information for the pure switch current and pure diode current. Actually, the switch current (IS1) can be divided into : (3.17)

37

Where IS1_S is the pure switch current and is the pure diode current of the switch S1. Equations (3.11)–(3.17) are implemented in the load current block and the pure current generator block as shown in Figure 3.1 and the actual implementations are designated as shown in Figure 6 and 7. Also, from the switch currents, the inverter input current (Iin) can be obtained by: ₂ 4.5 Overall STATCOM functional model Figure 3.1 shows the proposed overall functional model for calculating the design parameters of the VSI or called as Parent Model. Its consists of five functional blocks, called as sub models: SPWM generator, switching function block, inverter block, load current block, and pure switch and diode current generating block. dfgfhdfhdhdh ₂ ₂ (3.18)

Figure 3.1: Overall block diagram of the proposed simulation model for VSI using switching function concept (Parent Model)

38

CHAPTER 5 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS 5.1 5.2 Introduction Modeling Categories 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.3 Low Switching Frequency Medium Switching Frequency High Switching Frequency

Simulation results 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 Effect of varying switching frequency on harmonics generated Effect of varying switching frequency on THD Effect of varying switching frequency on ?

39

CHAPTER 6 conclusion & recommendation conclusion recommendation

40

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Adembe/; “POWER

STABILIZATION U S I N G ERROR-DRIVEN SWITCHED PASSIVE POWER FILTER”, Department Brunswick,Aug 2002 [15] N. Mohan, T. M. Undeland, and W. P. Robbins, Power Electronics.3rd ed., WileyVCH, 2003 [16] Hirak Patangia, Dennis Gregory, “A Harmonic Reduction Scheme in SPWM”, College of Information Science & Systems EngineeringUniversity of Arkansas, Little Rock, USA, year 2006 [17] [18] M. H. Rashid, Power Electronics. Prentice Hall, 1988 Bakari Mwinyiwiwa, Boon-Teck Ooi, and Zbigniew Wolanski,"UPFC using multiconverters operated by phase-shifted trianglecarrier SPWM strategy," IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 34, no. 3,May/June 1998. [19] José R. Espinoza, Member, IEEE, Géza Joós, Senior Member, IEEE, Johan I. Guzmán, Luis A. Morán, Senior Member, IEEE, and Rolando P. Burgos, Student Member, IEEE, “Selective Harmonic Elimination and Current/Voltage Control in Current/Voltage-Source Topologies: A Unified Approach”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 48, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2001 of Electrjcal Engineering, University of New

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