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by Sumeyra Sakallı ¨

PROBLEM 1 (20 points): Prove or disprove: If F : M → N is a smooth map, c ∈ N , and F −1 (c) is an embedded submanifold of M whose codimension is equal to the dimension of N , then c is a regular value of F . Solution: Consider the smooth map F : R2 → R such that F (x, y) = x3 − y 3 . Then F −1 (0) is the line x = y which is an embedded submanifold of R2 . But, 0 is not a regular value of F , since (0, 0) ∈ F −1 (0) and rank of F∗ which can be represented by the matrix [3x2 − 3y 2 ] is equal to 0 at the point (0, 0) ∈ R2 . Hence F∗ is not surjective implying that (0, 0) is critical point and that 0 is not a regular value. PROBLEM 2 (20 points): a) Prove that a submersion π : M → N is an open map. b) Let P be a smooth compact manifold. Show that there is no submersion F : P → Rk for any k > 0. Solution: a) Let q ∈ π(W ) and p ∈ π −1 (q). Since π has constant rank n = dim N , there exist smooth coordinates (x1 , ..., xm ) centered at p and (y1 , ..., yn ) centered at q in which π has coordinate representation: π(x1 , ..., xm ) = (x1 , ..., xn ). Now, for ε > 0, consider an open neighborhood Cε = {x : |xi | < ε, i = 1, ..., m} of p. Then π(Cε ) = {y : |yi | < ε, i = 1, ..., n} is also open and contains q. This implies that π is open map. b) Suppose that F : P → Rk is submersion for some k > 0. Since F is open map by a), F (P ) is open in Rk . Furthermore, as a continuous image of compact space P , F (P ) is compact in Rk . Therefore we get that F (P ) is both open and closed in Rk . However, Rk is connected and F (P ) = ∅ so we must have F (P ) = Rk . This gives a contradiction as F (P ) is compact, but Rk is not. Hence we conclude that there is no such submersion. PROBLEM 3 (20 points): Let M be a nonempty smooth manifold of dimension n ≥ 1. Show that the space of all smooth vector ﬁelds on M is inﬁnite-dimensional. Solution: Take m distinct points p1 , ..., pm in M . Then there exist m mutually disjoint open sets U1 , . . . , Um in M such that pi ∈ Ui . Now, for each pi , take a nonzero vector Xi ∈ Tpi M . This vector can be extended to a smooth vector ﬁeld Xi on M whose support is contained in Ui using a smooth bump function ψi on M such that ψi (pi ) = 1 and supp ψi ⊂ Ui . We claim that the smooth vector ﬁelds {X1 , . . . , Xm } are linearly independent on M . Assume that

n

X=

i=1

ci X i = 0

for some real numbers c1 , ..., cm . Then Xpj = n ci Xi |pj = cj Xj = 0 and hence cj = 0 for any 1 ≤ j ≤ m. Since m i=1 was arbitrary this proves that the space of all smooth vector ﬁelds on M is inﬁnite-dimensional.

1

2

PROBLEM 4 (20 points): Prove that S 3 is parallelizable. Solution: To show that S 3 is parallelizable, we will ﬁnd a smooth global frame for T S 3 . Consider the following smooth vector ﬁelds on R4 : X = x2 ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ − x1 + x4 − x3 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x4 ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ − x4 − x1 + x2 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x4 ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ + x3 − x2 − x1 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x4

4

Y = x3

Z = x4

Let φ : R4 → R be the function deﬁned by φ(x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) = i=1 x2 . Then φ−1 (1) = S 3 , and thus φ is a global deﬁning i map for S 3 . Therefore, for any p ∈ S 3 , Tp S 3 = ker φ∗ , where φ∗ is represented by the matrix [2x1 2x2 2x3 2x4 ]. One can easily verify that Xi ∈ ker φ∗ , which implies that X, Y and Z are tangent to the unit sphere S 3 in R4 . Moreover, since we have < Xp , Yp >=< Xp , Zp >=< Yp , Zp >= 0 with respect to the standard Euclidean metric induced from R4 , the vectors {Xp , Yp , Zp } are linearly independent on Tp S 3 for each p ∈ S 3 . Problem 5 (20 points): Let F : M → N be a diffeomorphism. Show that F ∗ : T ∗ N → T ∗ M is a smooth bundle map. Solution: Let q ∈ N , and let F −1 (q) = p. For a smooth covector ﬁeld w on N , F ∗ w is a smooth covector ﬁeld on M which is deﬁned as (F ∗ w)p = F ∗ (wq ). Hence πM (F ∗ (ωq )) = p = F −1 (πN (ωq )), which implies that the diagram below commutes, i.e., F ∗ covers the diffeomorphism F −1 .

F∗ T ∗N T ∗M

πN F −1 N M

πM

F IGURE 1.

∗ ∗ Moreover, the restriction of F ∗ to each ﬁber is linear. Indeed, F ∗ : Tq N → Tp M is dual to the pushforward map F∗ : ∗ ∗ ∗ Tp M → Tq N . Finally we need to show that F : T N → T M is a smooth map between smooth manifolds. Suppose that T ∗ M has smooth local coordinates (xi , ξi ) and T ∗ N has smooth local coordinates (yj , ηj ). Then the coordinate representation of F ∗ from Rn × Rn → Rn × Rn can be given as follows: (ψ −1 ◦ F −1 ◦ ϕ , (F∗ )T ), where ϕ = (xi ) and ψ = (yj ). This proves that F ∗ is smooth since ψ −1 ◦ F −1 ◦ ϕ : Rn → Rn is the coordinate representation of the smooth map F −1 and (F∗ )T : Rn → Rn is linear and hence smooth.

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