Que 1) What are the core elements of data centre?

What are the typival challenges that are related to the storage management challenges? The core elements of the data center are racks and racks of servers, and the physical infrastructure to power and cool and keep them connected to the network in a secure manner, and general security of the facilities to ensure that access is restricted to those that have a need. And as with everything, storage management faces the challenge to ensure that capacity is present as needed for ongoing growth, including racks for additional storage, the power for the additional storage, and the A/C as needed to keep the additional power demand cool. And the ability to pay for the storage and possibly charge-back the departments/teams demanding additional storage. Oh and also to keep in mind that meeting a storage demand is not just about raw storage capacity, but about IOPS and throughput, and ensuring that storage is spread out across enough spindles to handle the peak transient I/O demands. Often this requires more physical storage than can be justified by raw capacity. In other words, you need 1TB storage, and you could buy 2 1TB disks and mirror them, but get about 150 IOPS with this arrangement. If you need to handle 1500 IOPS, you may need to distribute the workload across 10 disks which is more than is needed to achieve the 1TB storage objective. These are some of the challenges faced by enterprises who want to handle its storage resources optimally:

The biggest challenge is to manage the explosion of data growth. An enterprise needs to not only have adequate hardware, but a correct management strategy to handle volumes. Storage interoperability issues keep cropping up because not all vendors' products interoperate even though they claim to do so. The products are sometimes proprietary in nature. Enterprises may have legacy systems and multiple OSs which are difficult to integrate. And new storage standards like iSCSI, Infiniband, and Bluefin are already in various stages of maturity even though earlier standards like Fiber Channel have not been adopted very widely.

ILM includes every phase of a "record" from its beginning to its end. In this sense ILM has been part of the overall approach of EMP Enterprise content management. There may be unpredictable demands due to events like unpredictable growth. it applies to any and all informational assets. and catastrophic events. Que 2) Define Information Lifecycle management? Information Lifecycle Management (sometimes abbreviated ILM) is the practice of applying certain policies to the effective management of information throughout its useful life. IT heads are doubly cautious about spending money. medical/health and educational records. Most enterprises have restricted IT budgets which naturally impacts storage hardware and software procurement decisions. However. This practice has been used by Records and Information Management (RIM) Professionals for over three decades and had its basis in the management of information in paper or other physical forms (microfilm. Examples of these are birth. photographs. Qualified technical personnel for storage systems are not easy to come by. And while it is generally applied to information that rises to the classic definition of a record (Records management). is an emerging area where ILM has become relevant. and not forcibly tied to direct commercial or enterprise contexts. During its existence. Video Lifecycle Management (VLM) is a video aware subset of ILM. Managing storage remotely and with the least amount of human intervention. . death. negatives. e-Science. holiday rush. in a more general perspective the term "business" must be taken in a broad sense. Much recorded information serves to document an event or a critical point in history.     Managing a distributed architecture is difficult but vital since the same information needs to be accessed by different users who run different applications. information can become a record by being identified as documenting a business transaction or as satisfying a business need. not all do. While most records are thought of as having a relationship to enterprise business. for example. This adds a cash component to the overheads. audio or video recordings and other assets).

Less frequently accessed records may be considered for relocation to an 'inactive records facility' until they have met their assigned retention period. forms. retrieval and transfers. While the connotation of 'filing' presumes the placing of information in a prescribed container and leaving it there. Exceptions occur with non-recurring issues outside the normal day to day operations. there is much more involved. or other sources. Use takes place after information is distributed internally. This includes both internal and external distribution. or serve other purposes. This could include their creation by a member of an organization at varying levels or receipt of information from an external source. These are:      Creation and Receipt Distribution Use Maintenance Disposition Creation and Receipt deals with records from their point of origination. drawings. computer input/output. without a storage network in . and can generate business decisions.Functionality:For the purposes of business records. there are five phases identified as being part of the lifecycle continuum along with one exception. as information that leaves an organization becomes a record of a transaction with others. Maintenance is the management of information. Distribution is the process of managing the information once it has been created or received. Disposition is the practice of handling information that is less frequently accessed or has met its assigned retention periods. reports. Que 3) Short Notes  DAS:Direct-attached storage (DAS) refers to a digital storage system directly attached to a server or workstation. document further actions. This can include processes such as filing. It includes correspondence.

switch. such as disk arrays. NAS not only operates as a file server.between.  NAS:Network-attached storage (NAS) is file-level computer data storage connected to a computer network providing data access to heterogeneous clients. or configuration of those elements. block level data storage. A typical DAS system is made of a data storage device (for example enclosures holding a number of hard disk drives) connected directly to a computer through a host bus adapter (HBA). or router). Network-attached storage removes the responsibility of file serving from other servers on the network. They typically provide access to files using network file sharing protocols such as NFS. tape libraries.  SAN:A storage area network (SAN) is a dedicated network that provides access to consolidated. It is a retronym. A SAN does not provide file abstraction. NAS is often made as a computer appliance – a specialized computer built from the ground up for storing and serving files – rather than simply a general purpose computer being used for the role NAS systems are networked appliances which contain one or more hard drives. or AFP. Between those two points there is no network device (like hub. redundant storage containers or RAID arrays. SANs are primarily used to make storage devices. A SAN typically has its own network of storage devices that are generally not accessible through the local area network by other devices. often arranged into logical. . The cost and complexity of SANs dropped in the early 2000s to levels allowing wider adoption across both enterprise and small to medium sized business environments. accessible to servers so that the devices appear like locally attached devices to the operating system. and this is the main characteristic of DAS. but is specialized for this task either by its hardware. and optical jukeboxes. SMB/CIFS. software. mainly used to differentiate nonnetworked storage from SAN and NAS. file systems built on top of SANs do provide file-level access. However. only block-level operations. and are known as SAN file systems or shared disk file systems.

. catastrophic data loss is almost twice as likely compared to single drives without RAID).Que 4) What is RAID explain various types of RAID? RAID (an acronym for redundant array of independent disks. notably several nested levels and many non-standard levels (mostly proprietary). which is a configuration parameter of the array. There were five RAID levels originally conceived. It provides improved performance and additional storage but no fault tolerance.[6]  RAID 0 (block-level striping without parity or mirroring) has no (or zero) redundancy.[5] which is accessed by the operating system as one single drive. so any error is uncorrectable. and the likelihood of failure increases with more drives in the array (at a minimum. Hence simple stripe sets are normally referred to as RAID 0. Each scheme provides a different balance between two key goals: increase data reliability and increase input/output performance. The number of blocks is dictated by the stripe size. . This allows smaller sections of the entire chunk of data to be read off the drive in parallel. RAID 0. depending on what level of redundancy and performance (via parallel communication) is required. increasing bandwidth. Data is distributed across the drives in one of several ways called "RAID levels". RAID 0 does not implement error checking. RAID 1). RAID levels and their associated data formats are standardised by SNIA in the Common RAID Disk Drive Format (DDF) standard. RAID is now used as an umbrella term for computer data storage schemes that can divide and replicate data among multiple physical drives. Any drive failure destroys the array. The different schemes or architectures are named by the word RAID followed by a number (e. originally redundant array of inexpensive disks) is a storage technology that combines multiple disk drive components into a logical unit. Types:A number of standard schemes have evolved which are referred to as levels. the data is broken into fragments called blocks. A single drive failure destroys the entire array because when data is written to a RAID 0 volume.g. but many more variations have evolved. The physical drives are said to be in a RAID. The blocks are written to their respective drives simultaneously on the same sector. Following is a brief textual summary of the most commonly used RAID levels.

effectively masking the limitation.[citation needed] The array continues to operate as long as at least one drive is functioning. there can be increased read performance. In RAID 3 (byte-level striping with dedicated parity). Each drive operates independently. dedicated parity drive for each block of non-parity data. Hamming-codeparity is calculated across corresponding bits and stored on at least one parity drive. and only a minimal write performance reduction. files may be distributed between multiple drives. Parity is calculated across corresponding bytes and stored on a dedicated parity drive. implementing RAID 1 with a separate controller for each drive in order to perform simultaneous reads (and writes) is sometimes called multiplexing (or duplexing when there are only 2 drives). but greater risk of data loss.More drives in the array means higher bandwidth. While more constituent drives may be employed.  In RAID 1 (mirroring without parity or striping). all disk spindle rotation is synchronized. However. the overall write performance may depend a great deal on the performance of this parity drive. allowing I/O requests to be performed in parallel. at least 2 drives are required to constitute such an array. but confines all parity data to a single drive. and data is striped such that each sequential bit is on a different drive. the use of a dedicated parity drive could create a performance bottleneck. it might be possible to use such a limited level 1 RAID itself as a constituent of a level 1 RAID. RAID 4 (block-level striping with dedicated parity) is identical to RAID 5 (see below). all disk spindle rotation is synchronized. many implementations deal with a maximum of only 2. because the parity data must be written to a single. and data is striped so each sequential byte is on a different drive. In this setup. data is written identically to multiple drives. In RAID 2 (bit-level striping with dedicated Hamming-code parity). thereby producing a "mirrored set".    . of course. With appropriate operating system support.

NAS file systems and protocols The most popular NAS protocols are  NFS (Sun Network File System) which was developed for UNIX but also supports other systems . A storage administrator accesses the appliance and manages the disk resources from a remote console. based on the ideas that NAS is a commodity item like a toaster or washing machine. there is the potentially disastrous RAID 5 write hole. a single drive failure results in reduced performance of the entire array until the failed drive has been replaced and the associated data rebuilt. RAID 6 (block-level striping with double distributed parity) provides fault tolerance of two drive failures. the longer the rebuild takes. Double parity gives additional time to rebuild the array without the data being at risk if a single additional drive fails before the rebuild is complete. Upon drive failure. However. mouse or monitor. Disks and in some cases tape drives are attached to the NAS head for capacity. any subsequent reads can be calculated from the distributed parity such that the drive failure is masked from the end user. the larger the drive. A NAS head is usually a discrete hardware device that is independent of the storage devices and contains an imbedded operating system that does not need a keyboard. Single-parity RAID levels are as vulnerable to data loss as a RAID 0 array until the failed drive is replaced and its data rebuilt. Additionally. especially for high-availability systems. the array is not destroyed by a single drive failure. The clients always connect to the NAS head. as it is the NAS head is addressable on the network.  Que 5) State the components of NAS & benefits of NAS? The hardware that performs the NAS control functions is called a NAS head or NAS gateway. the array continues to operate with up to two failed drives. This makes larger RAID groups more practical. This becomes increasingly important as large-capacity drives lengthen the time needed to recover from the failure of a single drive. RAID 5 (block-level striping with distributed parity) distributes parity along with the data and requires all drives but one to be present to operate. NAS Heads are also sometimes called NAS appliances.

or use a freeware program like SAMBA.  . or from one of the mounted hard drives. to the use of ZFS.[9]These are designed to be easy to set up on commodity PC hardware. the network load for backups and the tape requirements are reduced. and FTP daemons which are freely available for those operating systems. NFS daemon. Gluster. including FreeNAS. They run Samba (an SMB daemon). tiering services. NexentaStor. Live CD. fewer backup agent licenses are required. mirroring. and end-to-end check summing due. CryptoNAS. Because your file archive requirements can be met by backing up the DPM server rather than all the individual file servers. OpenMediaVault a nd the Ubuntu-based TurnKey File Server. management utilities. such as snapshots. NexentaStor requires more memory than consumer-oriented open source NAS solutions and also contains most of the features of enterprise class NAS solutions. which covers the majority of computers today. Openfiler. bootable USB flash drive (Live USB). They can run from a virtual machine. however. The NAS vendors can either implement these protocols with their own software. NASLite. Regardless of the topology that you use in your network. in part. built on the Nexenta Core Platform. Open source NAS-oriented distributions of Linux and FreeBSD are available. and are typically configured using a web browser. DPM provides two advantages:  Because short-term backup of data files is accomplished by the DPM server.  CIFS (Common Internet File System) which was developed Windows operating systems HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) which supports web browsers and is commonly used for administrator interfaces NAS devices support true file sharing between NFS and CIFS. Que 6) What are backup Topologies? Backup topologies can vary from local storage devices attached to individual servers to storage area network (SAN) solutions. is similar in that it is built on open source foundations.

the backup process does not interfere with the ongoing operations that require the file server resources. and other content. Que 7) What is EMP ? Explain? Enterprise Management Platform (EMP) is a formalized means of organizing and storing an organization's documents. methods. The software development kit will also be available for download on the Microsoft Storage Partner Extranet . and tools used throughout the lifecycle of the content. you can request the Volume Shadow Copy Services Writer Software Development Kit (VSS SDK) 1.0 for DPM by sending an e-mail message to dpspart@microsoft.mdf) Replicas Backing up the replicas from the DPM server rather than backing up files from individual file servers offers two key benefits. Second. it simplifies the process of creating and maintaining archives because the data for multiple file servers can be archived from a single point: the DPM server. you can address both archive and disaster recovery requirements by archiving the DPM server. It also includes the conversion of data between various digital and traditional forms. First. you must back up the following components to tape:       System state Program files Databases The DPM database (DPMDB.For sample code that shows how to back up and recover a DPM server and how to recover a file server. The latest definition encompasses areas that have traditionally been addressed by records management and document management systems. The term encompasses strategies. you are effectively archiving your file server data because replicas of file server data are stored on the DPM server. . You need to identify all the components that must be backed up to meet both your data archive and disaster recovery requirements. With DPM. including paper and microfilm. When you archive the DPM server.mdf) The Report database (ReportServer. To enable a full restore of the DPM server. that relate to the organization's processes. by using the replicas as the source for the backup.com.

and reduced costs. work-flow management. security. records management. as the bank employees had to contact the warehouse to have someone locate the right box. digital asset management (DAM). Ulrich Kampffmeyer distilled EMP to three key ideas that distinguish such solutions from Web content management: Enterprise content management as integrative middleware EMP is used to overcome the restrictions of former vertical applications and island architectures. In his article in ComputerWoche. Web content management (WCM). capture and scanning. The content and structure of today's outward-directed web portal will be the platform for tomorrow's internal information system. they are able to immediately mail it to the customer—usually while the customer is still on the phone.EMP is an umbrella term covering document management. For example. collaboration. process routing. better control. EMP is primarily aimed at managing the life-cycle of information from initial publication or creation all the way through archival and eventually disposal. file and check. EMP is just one possible catch-all term for a wide range of technologies and vendors. make a copy and then mail it to the bank who would eventually mail it to the customer. many banks have converted to storing copies of old checks within EMP systems versus the older method of keeping physical checks in massive paper warehouses. Enterprise content management is not a closed-system solution or a distinct product category. Characteristics of EMP:Content management includes EMP. Under the old system a customer request for a copy of a check might take weeks. web content management. EMP applications are delivered in three ways: on-premise software (installed on the organization’s own network). content syndication. along with Document Related Technologies or Document Lifecycle Management. Therefore. the bank employee simply searches the system for the customer’s account number and the number of the requested check. Software as a Service (SaaS) (web access to information that is stored on the software manufacturer’s system). version control. The benefits to an organization include improved efficiency. search . With an EMP system in place. or a hybrid solution composed of both on-premise and SaaS components. pull the check. When the image of the check appears on screen. and retention. . EMP aims to make the management of corporate information easier through simplifying storage. The user is basically unaware of using an EMP solution. EMP offers the requisite infrastructure for the new world of web-based IT. and media asset management.

thus avoiding redundant. enterprise content management is one of the necessary basic components of the overarching e-business application area. All applications deliver their content to a single repository. Que 8) Describe the architecture of Cloud Computing? Cloud computing is a marketing term for technologies that provide computation. Expensive redundancies and associated problems with information consistency are eliminated. delivering. expensive and difficult to maintain parallel functions. The functionality is provided as a service that can be used from all kinds of applications. software.which is establishing itself as a kind of third platform alongside conventional host and client/server systems. wherein end-users consume power without needing to . Enterprise content management as a uniform repository for all types of information EMP is used as a content warehouse (both data warehouse and document warehouse) that combines company information in a repository with a uniform structure. EMP thus is a collection of infrastructure components that fit into a multi-layer model and include all document related technologies (DRT) for handling. and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services. Enterprise content management is working properly when it is effectively "invisible" to users. The advantage of a service concept is that for any given functionality only one general service is available. Therefore. A parallel to this concept can be drawn with the electricity grid. EMP technologies are infrastructures that support specialized applications as subordinate services. Enterprise content management components as independent services EMP is used to manage information without regard to the source or the required use. As such. EMP also sets out to manage all the information of a WCM and covers archiving needs as a universal repository. Therefore. which in turn provides needed information to all applications. content integration and ILM (Information Lifecycle Management) will play an important role in the implementation and use of EMP. EAI (enterprise application integration) and SOA (service-oriented architecture) will play an important role in the implementation and use of EMP. standards for interfaces connecting different services will play an important role in the implementation of EMP. Therefore. data access. and managing structured data and unstructured information jointly.

Commercial offerings may be required to meet service-level agreements (SLAs). With the advent of the top government official mandating cloud adoption. entire business applications have been coded using web-based technologies such as AJAX. Architecture:- . Cloud computing describes a new supplement. while the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location. At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of infrastructure convergence (or Converged Infrastructure) and shared services. but specific terms are less often negotiated by smaller companies. and delivery model for IT services based on Internet protocols. and networking) to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand. which are accessed from web browsers and desktop and mobile apps. It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet. and enables IT to more rapidly adjust IT resources (such as servers. This may take the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if the programs were installed locally on their own computers. Cloud computing providers deliver applications via the internet. This type of data center environment allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster. Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services delivered through shared data-centers and appearing as a single point of access for consumers' computing needs. in other cases. In some cases. consumption. legacy applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screensharing technology.understand the component devices or infrastructure required to provide the service. storage. while the computing resources are consolidated at a remote data center location. and it typically involves provisioning of dynamically scalable and oftenvirtualised resources. The tremendous impact of cloud computing on business has prompted the federal United States government to look to the cloud as a means to reorganize their IT infrastructure and decrease their spending budgets. many agencies already have at least one or more cloud systems online. with easier manageability and less maintenance.

and governance in conceiving. web. It is a multidisciplinary method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as systems. standardisation. it is more efficient to make use of a .Cloud architecture. and quality engineering. Cloud engineering is the application of engineering disciplines to cloud computing. platform. typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over a loose coupling mechanism such as a messaging queue. it’s either the second coming of enterprise computing or a potential security threat to all we hold near and dear. performance. Recent surveys show that IT people are all over the spectrum when it comes to cloud computing. software. developing. Que 9) What are the applications and Services of Cloud Computing ? Applictions:Here’s a lot of gnashing and grinding of teeth over cloud computing these days. The first is backup and recovery.information. The Intercloud The Intercloud is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds" and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based. operating and maintaining cloud computing systems. the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing. It brings a systematic approach to the high level concerns of commercialisation. Clearly. some pretty obvious things start to emerge in terms of determining the immediate value of cloud computing. Depending on whom you talk to. if we take a giant step back from all the hyperbole. Yet. security. risk.

Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) is a form of cloud computing. a query service based on a new model for doing sophisticated searches and calculations. as one of its partners. User of the WolframAlpha system are able to leverage the Xignite data alongside other data to query the WolframAlpha system about any calculation they can think of. On a practical level. WolframAlpha counts a company calledXignite. Whether it’s a payroll or customer relationship management (CRM) system. An interesting example of how one of these services might work is WolframAlpha. there are hundreds of applications that are too fundamental to the business to run on a cloud. there are a number of legal and regulatory issues that may not make cloud computing practical in some cases. Services:Obviously. a provider of financial information via standard Web services protocols. And finally. building an equivalent to the WolframAlpha system would be cost prohibitive for most organizations and you can image how any number of compute-intensive application services might spring up on top of any number of public cloud platforms. Cloud computing is not an all-or-nothing proposition. the next big thing in cloud computing will be more specialized application services. but like all things in life the risks need to be weighed against the potential benefits. Arguably. there are far too many existing applications that can’t be cost-effectively rewritten to run on a public cloud. None of this means that on-premise applications and infrastructure are going away. the internal IT organization does not have the expertise required to run a particular application or that application may not be strategic enough to justify committing limited IT resources to managing it. On a strategic level. What we are slowly . Yet. Investing in a ton of duplicate infrastructure makes no sense.cloud computing service to provide backup and recovery. there are times when delivering those applications as a service makes sense. A lot of times. The second area is also pretty obvious. A lot of IT organization can’t afford to invest in supercomputer-class infrastructure. There’s no doubt there are potential security issues when it comes to cloud computing. the business could benefit from access to some pretty compute-intensive analytic applications.

migrating toward is a blended computing model that will combine the best elements of public cloud services with on-premise applications that will run on internal IT systems that use the same architectures as public cloud services. And once that happens. Cost is claimed to be reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. as opposed to the control of a centralized IT service (for example) Agility improves with users' ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources. etc.[15] This is purported to lower barriers to entry. Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. Pricing on a utility computing basis is finegrained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house). PC. users can connect from anywhere. mobile phone). As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet. Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs. we’ll enter a new era of IT flexibility that should for the first time really allow IT organizations to dynamically respond to the rapidly changing needs of the business.g.[16] Device and location independence[17] enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e. electricity..) . versus always trying to get the business to conform to the way IT works.[16] Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for:  Centralisation of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate. as infrastructure is typically provided by a thirdparty and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. Que 10)explain the characteristics of cloud computing? Charectrerstics:Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics:       Empowerment of end-users of computing resources by putting the provisioning of those resources in their own control.

[16] Security could improve due to centralisation of data.     Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels)  Utilisation and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilised. Roughly speaking. Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier.[23] However. which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery. [22] Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems. etc. the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems that are being shared by unrelated users.[18] Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used. not its storage location.[19] Scalability and Elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained. in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. is a mechanism for storing information that can be retrieved based on its content. self-service basis near real-time. It is typically used for high-speed storage and retrieval of fixed content.[20][21] Performance is monitored. without users having to engineer for peak loads. and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface. increased securityfocused resources. because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer.  Que 11) What is Content Address Storage (CAS)? Content-addressable storage. also referred to as associative storage or abbreviated CAS. Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security.. contentaddressable storage is the permanent-storage analogue to contentaddressable memory. In addition. such as documents stored for compliance with government regulations. but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data. and the lack of security for stored kernels. user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible. .

In these cases. CAS is designed to make the searching for a given document content very quick. For data that changes frequently. Que12) What are the benefits of CAS? Benefits: CAS storage works most efficiently on data that does not change often. The metaphor of a CAS / FCS is not that of memory and memory locations. By definition. With CAS / FCS technology a client is able to retrieve the same data using the same claim check over and over. and provides an assurance that the retrieved document is identical to the one originally stored. The CAS / FCS technology is intended to store data that does not change (fixed) in time. and the client systems would be forced to continually update information regarding where a given document exists. If the hash function is weak. the CAS device would need to continually recompute the address of data as it was changed. In these corporations a large volume of documents will be stored for as much as a decade. It is of particular interest to large organizations that must comply with document-retention laws. their content addresses would differ.) In addition. this method could be subject to collisions in an adversarial environment (different documents returning the same hash). The difference is that typically CAS exposes a digest generated by a cryptographic hash function (such as MD5 or SHA-1) from the document it refers to. CAS is not as efficient as locationbased addressing. The proper metaphor is that of a coat check. such as Sarbanes-Oxley. two identical documents have the same content address. with a coat check. . The difference is that. with no changes and infrequent access. since data is stored into a CAS system by what it contains.Content Addressable Storage (CAS) and Fixed Content Storage (FCS) are different acronyms for the same type of technology. The main advantages of CAS / FCS technology is that the location of the actual data and the number of copies is unknown to the user. there is never a situation where more than one copy of an identical document exists in storage. once the item has been retrieved it cannot be retrieved again. and so point to the same storage location. (If the documents were different.