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International Compressor Engineering
Conference
School of Mechanical Engineering
1988
A New-Type Sliding Valve for Reciprocating
Compressor
Cheng Yong-jiang
Xi'an Jiaotung University
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Yong-jiang, Cheng, "A New-Type Sliding Valve for Reciprocating Compressor" (1988). International Compressor Engineering
Conference. Paper 636.
http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/icec/636
NEw-TYPE SLIDING VALVE FOR RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR
Cheng Yong-jiang Department Power Machinery
Xi'an Jiaotung University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr.
China.
ABSTli.ACT
The sliding valve has appeared for a long time, but could not be ayailable
to industry populaxly owing to the fact that its transmission is not reliable. Baaed on the mechanical transmission principle of the dieseboil pump, the author employs a crank to drive a cam shaft, which controls the intake and exhaust of gas pushing through a gear chain, thus controlling the sliding valve switch on and off. After hundred year's experience of the mechanical transmission of cam in a dieeel, the time of switching on and off and the continuation of switching on position
are reliable, if we select a certain cam profile.
INTRODUCTION
The Device and ita T:rasmission Method
Fig.1 i3 the cross sec-tion of the device. The internal diameter of the
cylinder 8 Dis 153 .m. The top of the piston 11 is the common valve seat 10 for
the intake and. erl>a.ust valve. On the right of the figure under 10 is the intake sliding valye 9, and on the left above 10 is the exhaust valve 14. They are all
connected with sliding valve lever, which is mounted on a guide-piston 4 like
that of a Bache oil pump. The roller 3 on the pin of the guide-piston is in
contact with the cam 2, and is pressed onto the cam by the spring of oil pump 5·
The cam shaft keeps a certain angle. with the crank of the compressor by a chain roller 1 and its ohain, remaining the same speed with the crank.
Fig.1 shows that the piston is in an expansion process. The base cirole of intake gas caa haa turned around a circle. The cam, which is 5.25 mm
higher than the base circle, will raise the roller 3, and the intake yalye 9
will be shifted 5.25 mm to the left. Therefore it will connect the seven pazallel straight alota on the sliding valve 9 with the same slots on the common Yalve
seat 10, and the gas pas&ee into the cylinder directly. After the cam turns
around a certain intake angle, the piston is close to the B.D.c. The roller
comes into contact with the base circle from the profile of the cam by the
spring force. The intake valve returns to the original switching off poaition.
The lever of intake and exhaust valve is eealed with stuffing bo:r; 7 and 15. For adaptation to the position of intake valve, the top of the piston consists of a
pair of ladderlike semicircles. 13 is the guide block of the exhaust valve.
The straight slot of the device is 4 mm in width, ita both sides haYe a
sealing edge with a width of 1·25 mm, when it is at the off position.
The Reason for SaYing Fower
There is a high utilization factor of the cylindrical round area.
FOr the t:z:adi tional type o:f ring and disk "alve mounted on the pie tOll conr, the utilization factor of the cylindrical round area is up to about at moat, except the assemble Yalve. The new type of sliding valve, however, can reached.
above 90%. For example, the diameter of the cylinder is 153 mm, we put the
circle of the ring-type valve CD!, if valve lift h,.0.25 em, the valve gap section area Aa16""18 emf. The sum of the length of all the slota in the
sliding val .a is 85 em, and the width of the slot is 4 mm. so, taken together, the section area A is cm
2
, which is onetime more than that o:f the ring
val,e. Besides, there are no slots in the sliding valve beyond the cylinder wall vi th the di&llleter :0. However, in the ring valve there is about !-3 .....- V
2
of the
circular slots out of the cylinder wall. We can see that the area of the former
is not only one time larger than that of the the gas flow is alsQ str<i1gbt
and direct. Whereas the gas flow in the ring valve is circulating, and about !.3-!1?.
297
of gas is flowing So the curve of intake gas pressure ie close to
the nominal curve of intake pressure.
2 The elimination ot the resistance loss caused by the unmatched gas thruet and
spring in the ring and disk valves
Even if the two force of the valve is well matched, there is still an effect
on the gas going into the cylinder, owing to the recoil during svi tching on and
longer period taken during switching off. The new type valve is a kind of
mechanical by system. Take the intake valve as an example, the
piston is running in the expansion process, when the pressure in cylinder decreases
just as much as the pressure in the intake pipe (the nominal pressure or iatake
gas), the pressure difference between the inside and outside valve 9 ia at
the same time the is pushed to the halfway position and then to full
switching on position immediately. So the dotted line under the nominal
curve in the indicator (Fig.2) is very close to it, the shaded area betveea thea
is almost zero. The amount of lose caused by circulation and poor matching in
the ring valve is 15.-5% of indicated power, which cannot be compared with that
of the eliding valve.
The resiataace loss of cam transmission system
The transmission loaa similar to the Boche oil pump in this device is ver,r
small, beoauae the cam is fixed in a well-processed plain bearing. The raaistaaoe
caused by the cam going from the b&se circle to the profile is very small, beoa.ae
the weight or the yalve is only 25 N, and the sliding valve ia in an isobaric
field when it is switched on. The cam merely needs to overcome the friction o&-.ed
by as the yalve parallelly shifts. Even the friction factor !.0,1 ie
taken, the friction will be 25 X 0.1=2.5 N, that ia, the real force to be
by the cam is the ,ressure force p of the epring after the valve shifts. The
indloxes of the spring in this device are: d .. 1 • 5 mm, winding diameter Ilo<15 11111
0
number of circles so the rigidity factor is 1-84 N/mm, the precom-
presaion is 10 am, the distance from the profile of the cam to the base circle
is 5.25 mm, the max. spring force of switching on is 28N=2.86Kg. The eu. is
2.86+ 0.25"'3·11 Kg.
The loss of the chain wheel can be neglected because of the chaia •
having a high effecient 0.98.
To aum v.p
0
the ne-type ali ding valve could save power by 15'!6 comparillg w1 th
the tradi tion.al
Why the Amount of Intake Gas is Increased
As mentioned abe•e, the flow area is larger, all the slots are in right
blowing position, the vhole process of the valve switching on is statio, and 1he
slots of the valve seat are in accordance With the slots of the valve, which
makes the gas go into the cylinder vertically and directly, in additioa, the
clearance of the gap ia small, therefore the new-type valve has an inoreasins
amount of intake gas by comparing vi th the first gene:z:a tion, which depends
on the difference to switch on and has a bending flow, even the third.
generation of straight--flow valve. It is sure to increase the intake gae
20tv25')6.
Draw Backs to be Overcome
1. This type of 9&1Te is unadaptable to a variable working conditione, for
example, up vith no load, there is no gas pressure in the CTliader
and the expansion angle is very small, however, the calculated expaneion angle
for this is 32° 45 • (the intake angle is 1 47°1 5'), so the vacu11111 in the
cylinder takes place transiently. If the profile of the cam is made in the slant
transient shape &long the oxia, the intake valve can be opened at expansion
angle 20° (intake angle is 1600). As the displacement of piston is 'ery
vi thin 2oo snd larger vacuum can not take place, so the profile of the caD need
not be consiaerea. By a handle, the cam shaft can be shifted along the
oxis; and according to the pressure created in the cylinder, the cam abaft can
be restored to its original state by gradually controlling the handle.
298
2. There should be a one-way valve between the exhaust pipe and the gas storage
tank.
3. It ia not sui table for those compressors whi«h atop frequently.
CONCLUSION
With the help of ACD, new-type valve will be used widely; owing to its
advantages mentioned above, it is most suitable to be applied to a single-stage
or double-stage air compressor which runs steadily.
APPENDIX
P:resftUl"e
111 " 105
Pa Open angle
Cl<>se angle
Suction Val'l'e p
8
..., .01
32°45' 180°
Discharge Val"e
Pd*3o0
283°30'
360°
Fig. 1 section arrangement of sliding valve
p
~ - - S r x F J ~ - v
Fig.2 Indicator curve dotted Line eliding valve
299

the author employs a crank to drive a cam shaft.1 shows that the piston is in an expans intake gas caa haa turned around a ~hole circle ion proces s. They are all connec ted with slidin g valve lever.3-!1?. ple of the dieseb oil pump. thus contro contro ls the intake and exhaus t of gas lling After hundre d year's experi ence of the mecha the slidin g valve switch on and off.. Fig.m.0. the piston is comes into contac t with the base circle from close to the B.piston is in contac t with the cam 2. and about !. China. The top of the piston 11 is the common valve seat 10 for the intake and. and is presse d onto the cam by the spring of oil pump 5· The cam shaft keeps a certai n angle. The roller 3 on the pin of the guide.ust valve. which is onetim e more than that o:f the ring val.25 em.c.e. and the width the length of all the slota in the of the slot is 4 mm. and the gas pas&ee into the cylind er direct ly. For adapta tion to the positi on of intake valve.1 i3 the cross sec-tio n of the device . ABSTli. if we select a certai n cam profil uation of switch ing on positi on e. erl>a. but could not be ayaila ble to indust ry popula xly owing to the fact that Baaed on the mecha nical transm ission princi its transm ission is not reliab le. so. The lever of intake and exhaus t valve is eealed with stuffi ng bo:r. The intake valve return s to the origin al switch ing off poaiti on. Xi'an. The cam. which pushin g throug h a gear chain. the top of the piston consis ts of a pair of ladder like semic ircles. except the assemb le Yalve. the valve gap sectio n area Aa16""18 emf.jiang Depart ment Power Machin ery Xi'an Jiaotu ng Unive rsity.V of the 2 circul ar slots out of the cylind er wall. FOr the t:z:adi tional type o:f ring and disk "alve mounted on the pie tOll conr. On the right of the figure under 10 is the intake slidin g valye 9. The base cirole of .D. the time of switch ing on and off and the contin are reliab le. the sectio n area A is 34~35 cm2 .. 13 is the guide block of the exhaus t valve. if valve lift h. the gas flow is alsQ str<i1g bt and direct . Whereas the gas flow in the ring valve is circul ating.~ NEw-TYPE SLIDING VALVE FOR RECIPROCATING COMPRE SSOR Cheng Yong.25 mm higher than the base circle . Theref roller 3. INTRODUCTION The Device and ita T:rasm ission Method Fig. Shaanx i Pr.25 mm to the left. above 90%.. we ~ put the circle of the ring-ty pe valve 10. 7 and 15. and the intake yalye 9 ore it will connec t the seven pazall el straig ht alota on the slidin g valve 9 with the same slots on the common Yalve seat 10.. which is 5. The straig ht slot of the device is 4 mm in width. nical transm ission of cam in a dieeel . The intern al diame ter of the cylind er 8 Dis 153 . Beside s. the diame ter of the cylind er is 153 mm. there are no slots in the slidin g valve beyond the cylind er wall vi th the di&llleter :0. The Reason for SaYing Fower There is a high utiliz ation factor of the cylind rical round area. The sum of slidin g val . ita both sides haYe a sealin g edge with a width of 1·25 mm.. For examp le. and on the left above 10 is the exhaus t valve 14.2~11·5 CD!. The new type of slidin g valve. the utiliz ation factor of the cylind rical round area is up to about 5~ at moat. will raise the will be shifte d 5. taken togeth er. 297 . when it is at the off positi on. remain ing the same speed with the crank. can reache d. which is mounted on a guide. We can see that the area of the former is not only one time larger than that of the latte~.. howev er.a is 85 ~ee em. The roller the profil e of the cam by the spring force. After the cam turns around a certai n intake angle. in the ring valve there is about !-3 . with the crank of the compr essor by a chain roller 1 and its ohain. However.ACT The slidin g valve has appear ed for a long time.piston 4 like that of a Bache oil pump.

that ia. the flow area is larger. the pressure differen ce between the inside and outside then to th~ full and the same time the ~alve is pushed to the halfway position the nominal presu~ switchin g on position immedia tely.1=2. the max. the intake valve can be of piston is 'ery s~l angle ~ 20° (intake angle is 1600).0. If the profile of the opened at expansio n transien t shape &long the oxia. The new type as an example. winding 1-84 N/mm. the distance from the profile of the Kg. which depends amount of intake gas by 3~ comparin g vi th the first gene:z:a flow. the chaia traasf•~ The loss of the chain wheel can be neglecte d because of having a high effecien t 0. The raaistaa oe small. cam is made in the slant cylinder takes place transien tly. for 1. however . which cannot of the eliding valve. It is sure to increase 20tv25')6. and 1he g on is blowing position . even the third. the Amount of Intake Gas is Increase d are in right As mentione d abe•e.86+ 0.5 N. unmatche d gas thruet and 2 The eliminat ion ot the resistan ce loss caused by the the ring and disk valves spring in is still an effect Even if the two force of the valve is well matched.al Why ~aln. beoauae the cam is fixed in a well-pro cessed plain is very small.1 ie field when factor by g~vity as the yalve parallel ly shifts.gas pressure ie close to of gas is flowing ecoentric~lly. the and poor matching in is almost zero.98. and the sliding valve ia in an the weight friction o&-. the vhole process of the valve switchin of the valve. all the slots statio. As the displace ment profile of the caD need vi thin 2oo snd larger vacuum can not take place. there svi tching on and during on the gas going into the cylinde r. the real taken. 15'!6 comparil lg w1 th To aum v. The cam merely needs to overcome the !. So the curve of intake the nominal curve of intake pressure .-5% of indicate d power. valve shifts. on the press~ differen ce to switch on and has a bending the intake gae ~ generati on of straight.ressure force p of the epring after the diameter Ilo<15 11111 0 indloxes of the spring in this device are: d. This type of 9&1Te is unadapta ble to a variable working pressure in the CTliader example. the precomis number of effecti~e circles n~s.25"'3·1 1 Kg. oxis. to its original state by graduall y controll ing the handle. the makes the gas go into the cylinder vertical ly and directly has an inoreasi ns clearanc e of the gap ia small. which slots of the valve seat are in accordan ce With the slots . The by the cam is the .p the ne-type ali ding valve could save power by 0 the tradi tion. Draw Backs to be Overcome conditio ne. the calculat so the vacu11111 in the for this de~ise is 32° 45 • (the intake angle is 1 47°1 5'). the mechani cal dri~er by ~ c~m system. spring force of switchin g on is 28N=2. Take the intake valve in cylinder decrease s piston is running in the expansio n process. The eu.r The transmis sion loaa similar to the Boche oil pump in bearing. at gas).2) is very close to it. is is 5. there is no gas ed expaneio n angle and the expansio n angle is very small.1 • 5 mm. so the rigidity factor cam to the base circle presaion is 10 am. w~en sta~~ing up vith no load. The resiataa ce loss of cam transmis sion system this device is ver.86 2.25 mm. therefor e the new-type valve tion. Even the friction force to be o~ercsae the friction will be 25 X 0. owing to the recoil valve is a kind of longer period taken during switchin g off.. beoa. By ope~ating a handle. the cam shaft the cam abaft can and accordin g to the pressure created in the cylinde r.-flow valve. be restored 298 . So the dotted line under shaded area betveea thea curve in the indicato r (Fig. The amount of lose caused by circulat ion be compared with that the ring valve is 15. when the pressure pressure or iatake just as much as the pressure in the intake pipe (the nominal valve 9 ia se~. in additioa .ed it is switched on. so the can be shifted along the not be consiaer ea.ae caused by the cam going from the b&se circle to the profile isobaric or the yalve is only 25 N.

..2.2 Indicator curve dotted Line 299 . CONCLUSION With the help of ACD. owing to its advantages mentioned above. new-type valve will be used widely.. 3. it is most suitable to be applied to a single-sta ge or double-sta ge air compressor which runs steadily.01 Open angle Cl<>se angle 32°45' 283°30' 180° 360° Pd*3o0 Fig. There should be a one-way valve between the exhaust pipe and the gas storage tank. I t ia not sui table for those compressor s whi«h atop frequently . " 105 Pa . 1 section arrangemen t of sliding valve p ~--SrxFJ~- v eliding valve Fig. APPENDIX P:resftUl"e 111 Suction Val'l'e Discharge Val"e p8 .