Answer 1

INTRODUCTION Organisation: It is an open system which exchanges information and resources with its environment. Every organisation has two types of environment, i.e. internal environment and external environment. The internal environment would include production techniques, management philosophy, human relations etc. On the other hand, external environment denotes those conditions and forces that are outside the organisation but still affects the performance of the organisation, example, politico-legal factors, regulating agencies, labour organisations etc.

INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR Individual behaviour means some concrete action of an individual. The individual’s behaviour is influenced by various factors. Some factors lie within himself and some lie outside him. The environment acts as a “stimulus” and the individual responds to it. Individuals behave differently to different stimuli because of multitude of factors such as education, personality, physical characteristics, cultural background, experiences etc. Individuals behave differently depending upon their motivation, learning, values, perceptions etc. These differences are reflected upon their behaviour. Thus, if both individual and environmental variables are taken into consideration, there can be

Example: In an organisation. These individual differences affect human behaviour in a big way. These differences occur due to various factors. . i. Those are: Personality It refers to the personality traits such as dominance.  Ability Ability is the actual skills and capabilities which an individual possesses and which are essential for the effective performance of the activities. grievance with him and thus. inter-individual differences ANALYSIS The organisation comprises of individuals who differ from each other on the basis of personality traits. this will tend to demotivate other individuals. creating a gap in between them. Example: An employee does not possess the full knowledge and skills towards the job function he is performing. intraindividual differences  Differences in behaviour among individuals given the same set of stimuli. skills and attitude. i.e. then his confidence level would be low and this would get reflected in his work performance. if the supervisor is strict and dominant. If an individual is dominant or aggressive or resistant at the work place. aggression etc.e. the subordinate would not be ease in sharing his suggestions. Differences in behaviour of an individual over time.

to 9a. If any day Worker Y is late and Worker X leaves without handing over the work to him.m. of the next day. This will hamper the co-ordination in the enterprise. to 9p. the level of his performance will decrease. and the work time for Worker Y starts at 9p. Example: There are two workers. worker X and worker Y.m. Some of them are: o Fear of technological unemployment o Fear of reduced work hours and consequently reduced monetary benefits o Fear of demotion and consequently reduced pay o Fear of speed-up and reduced incentive wages Example: A worker feels that due to advancement in technology.  Economic reasons There are various economic factors which give rise to individual differences among employees impacting the human behaviour.m.m. The work time for Worker X starts at 9a. he would be chucked out of his job whereas this will not happen to his friend in that company who is not in the same department. Problem of Adjustment If an individual is not of adjusting nature. the lack of co-ordination between them would make work suffer. . he would not get along well with others in the organisation.

This is will cause deviation in the work performance of the workers. Example: An employee perceives his subordinate to unskilled for his job profile. This would again lead to strained relations in the organisation. h will neither pay attention to his boss orders and nor to his subordinates suggestions. Emotional factors Emotional factors do tend to affect the behaviour of an individual. suggestions etc. They are: o Fear of unknown: The uncertainty of future affects the human behaviour in a big way. o Ego defensiveness: Ego deflation is also a major factor that affects the human behaviour. Example: An employee has a big ego.  Motivation It refers to all the forces operating within a person to cause him to engage in certain kind of behaviour rather than others. .  Perception It is the viewpoint of an individual towards a person or a situation. seriously. The employee basically is faces two types of fears. He would never take his decisions. neither from within nor from others. Example: The workers are not motivated to work hard.

The various environmental factors that affect the human behaviour are:  Labour Unions These are the large groups of members of the organisation that are formed to safeguard the interest of the workers.  Socio-cultural factors The social environment includes relationship with family members. Example: the worker is not satisfied with the new taxation scheme that has come in the recent budget. co-workers etc. The socio cultural factors affect other factors to determine the behaviour of an individual. This would put him in a dilemma whether to support the union or his employer. .  Political. This will demotivate him to perform better. friends. Example: If a worker comes to work after having a fight with his wife. his anger would reflect upon his factors These factors are those which are political in nature and based upon rules and regulations. Example: A worker is influenced by the labour union to raise his voice for salary hike wherein he is already satisfied by his pay.

. The human behaviour is affected by individual differences occurring between the employees.CONCLUSION From the above analysis. the factors should be well taken care of so that the harmony prevails in the organisation. we can conclude that an individual operates within internal and external environment and respond differently to various situations. Thus.

SCENARIO A manufacturing company is making automotive parts with 200 workers working on 5 different assembly lines with 40 workers on each assembly line.e.Answer 2 INTRODUCTION. they are working just for the sake of earning a living. Rather. layoffs etc. bringing conformity to work group standards. i. motivating them etc. SITUATION ANALYSIS Looking at the conduct of the workers. it is very prominent that they are not at all motivated to work for achievement of organisational goals. but the workers are fully unionised and thus resist all the attempts by management to discipline them. . The management in order to discipline them has taken various measures like fines and punishments for late coming. During the course of time. The workers have to report at 9 a. their productivity level is also not up to the mark. In such a case. should not focus too much on the monetary compensation.m. While they are on the job. Workers are given their daily targets in terms of how much quantity they have to produce. management has noticed that the workers are not reporting on time and leave early for home which is a concern for the management as this is affecting the productivity of the company as a whole. the manager should not focus on enhancing the workers’ productivity through profit maximisation. instead the management should emphasis more on satisfying higher level needs of the workers. in the morning and can leave only after 6 p.m.

leadership. In order to increase the productivity of the workers. they are to be motivated to work hard that helps in achieving organisational as well as individual goals. recognition. These include fringe benefits. retirement benefits etc. praise. Various ways through which the workers can be motivated are:  Positive motivation: The workers would be influenced to perform better through the possibility of rewards. participative management and quality circles. suggestion system etc. workers’ participation in management.  Financial incentives: These are those incentives which are associated with money. They are generally used to motivate workers. MOTIVATION Motivation is the way that moves the person to action and continues him in the course of action initiated. bonuses.  Non-financial incentives: These are those motivators that are not associated with monetary rewards.RECOMMENDATIONS The various steps that would be taken as the HR Manager of the manufacturing company to increase the productivity of the workers working on the assembly line would be based on four parametersmotivation. Example. Example. It intensifies his desire and willingness to use his energy for achievement of organisational objectives. status etc. . such as higher wages linked to performance of an individual  Intrinsic motivation: This provides satisfaction to the workers during the performance of a work activity.

2. Fig.e.  Job enlargement: In order to reduce boredom in workers. Job enrichment: To increase the satisfaction level of the workers. Mc Gregor Theory .1. i. Fig 1. Motivation Various theories of motivation that can be applied to improve the working situation of the company are:  McGregor Participation Model According to this theory. two pair of assumptions was made about human beings.e. 1. job enrichment needs to be done. First set of assumptions are contained in Theory X and second set of assumptions in Theory Y. the tasks should be enlarged to make it broader based. i. the workers on the assembly line can be asked to perform the other clerical tasks as well. increasing the content of the job leading to responsibility up gradation and scope enhancement.

Example: the workers should be encouraged to take new initiatives to work so as to fulfil their self-actualisation needs. The emphasis should be laid on satisfaction of higher needs of workers and not on the use of authority as an instrument of command and control. the manger would lay equal emphasis on both the factors as to achieve higher performance not only wages are to be improved but also improve the working conditions. employee dissatisfaction is influenced by hygiene factors and employee satisfaction is influenced by motivation factors.In the above mentioned case. Example: the performance and the efforts of the workers are to be recognized and opportunities for personal growth should be given to them.  Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Model According to this theory. Hezberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory In this situation. Fig 1.3. . the manager should follow the Theory Y which assumes that the goals of the organisation and individuals are not always incongruent.

two distinct styles of leadership can be followed: Production-centred/ Job-centred and Employee-centred. Fig. Fig. 1. 1.LEADERSHIP Leadership is the process of influencing a group and inducing the subordinates to work with confidence and zeal. Effective leadership is important for inspiring the workers for accomplishment of given objectives. In this style of leadership. Leadership The various theories of leadership that can be applied in this situation are:  Michigan Studies According to this study. In order to reduce absenteeism and increase productivity of workers.5. the management should follow “participative or democratic style of leadership”.4. The managerial authority is decentralised to lower levels. Michigan Studies . the instructions are given to workers after consulting them.

The rules and regulations are to be followed in the strictest sense. The employer concentrates on human relations. there could be some personal reasons for an employee leaving early for home. there are two dimensions of leader behaviour. the manager should follow the Employee-centred Leadership which is relation oriented. . the level of understanding between the management and workers should be high but not at the cost of well-defined organisational structure. procedure and goals. comfort. Fig 1. work relationships.e. focussing upon needs.6.  Ohio State Leadership Studies According to this theory. Ohio State Leadership Theory In this situation.  Initiating structure/Construction: It attempts to organize work. their status. respect and friendship.  Consideration: It is concerned with well-being of employees. Example: the management should show concern for employees. welfare and advancement of the workers under this theory. The management should be sympathetic to it. the manager should select that style which is high on consideration and high on initiating structure. i.In this case.e. mutual trust. i.

Example: the workers should be provided with good and hygienic working condition facilities but at the same time it should not be too comforting that would distract the workers. 1. Fig.e.9 Managerial Style (Team). Blake and Mouton’s Grid In this situation. concern for people and concern for production are demonstrated in in the form of a grid. the management should adopt The 9. various combinations of two variables. i. It aims at integrating the workers with the dimensions of work under conditions of high concern for growth. .7. where in there is maximum concern for both people and production.  Blake and Mouton’s Grid According to this grid. Example: the workers should be given adequate breaks in between the working hours to reduce fatigue in them but then the breaks should neither be of long durations and nor too frequent that would break the flow of work.

QUALITY CIRCLES It is a small group of employees of 8 to 10 doing similar or related work who meet regularly to identify. analyse and solve productquality problems and to improve general operations.9. 1. improving quality and also increasing workers’ job satisfaction. Quality Circles . 1. Fig. Participative Management Example: the decisions that are taken by the management should be taken after consulting the workers. Fig. It helps in increasing productivity.PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT Participative management is involvement of employees in making significant decisions.8. There must be an atmosphere of trust and employee participation must be based on informed choice.

monotony etc.morale. the management to build the interest of the workers in performing better should take various corrective and preventive actions that have been discussed above. fatigue. The management should aim at synchronising individual objectives with the organisational objectives and target at achieving both of them simultaneously. CONCLUSION The workers’ productivity is low due to various behavioural factors such as low. small groups of 10 workers each should be made who would meet on a regular basis to review the performance of individuals and take decisions to correct the deviations. . Thus. no motivation to work hard.Example: as there are 200 workers with 40 on each assembly line.

Mullins.businessdictionary. April 12. et al.P. Management and Organisational Behaviour. Chhabra.2011  <http://www. Essentials of Organisational Behaviour. Pearson Education Limited. Singh. T.newagepublishers.2005. Pg:93-96  Laurie J.N. Organisational Theory and Behaviour.Pearson Education>.pdf>. UK. UK.2011  <http://www. Pg: 18-20 onal-behavior. April 95. 2010.2011 Books as references  B.BIBLIOGRAPHY Web sources  <http://www. Robbins. Pg: 727  Stephen P. March 28.html>.