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MICROWAVE TUBES

Q1 Compare the multi-cavity klystron, reflex klystron, magnetron and Traveling wave tube on the basis of their a) Basic construction b) Operation c) Applications Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10 Q11 Q12 Q13 Q14 Q15 Q16 Q17 Q18 Q19 Explain how the oscillations are sustained in cavity magnetron with suitable sketches assuming that the mode oscillations already exist. What are the various UHF limitations of vacuum tubes which limit their use at high frequencies? Describe each of these in detail and suggest remedial measures. Distinguish between velocity modulation and current modulation. What is Hull cut off field? What is phase focusing effect in magnetron? What is a slow wave structure and why is it required? What are reentrant cavities? What is the purpose of strapping in magnetron? What is electron bunching? How does it occur? Why is it also called intensity modulation? Explain the construction and working of a multicavity klystron. Describe the -mode of operation of magnetron. Discuss bunching phenomenon as well. Draw neat diagrams wherever required. Elaborate the concept of velocity modulation, current modulation and bunching with reference to klystron (two cavity) What is Hull-voltage in a magnetron? In what type of application reflex klystron is preferred & why? List two discriminations between conventional tube and microwave tube. What do you understand by self-consistent modes? What is repeller protection & why is it required? What is the need of slow wave structure in TWT?

Q20 Q21 Q22 Q23 Q24 Q25 Q26

Justify the names-control grid, screen grid, suppressor grid. What is transit time? Why it becomes a limiting factor at lug her frequencies? Discuss different types of vacuum tubes in lieu of their strengths and weakness. What can be the possible solutions to the limitations of conventional tubes at high frequencies? Which one is the best? Elaborate the principle of working of Klystron. Why are multicavity klystron and reflex klystron used for entirely different application? A two cavity klystron amplifier has the following parameters: V0=1000V, R0=40Kohm, I0=25mA, Freq=3GHz, Gap-spacing (d) =1mm, cavities-spacing=4cm, Effective shunt impedance, excluding beam loading=30K ohm. a) b) Find the input gap voltage to give maximum voltageV2. Find the voltage gain and efficiency of the amplifier neglecting the beam loading.

Q27 Q28 Q29 Q30 Q31 Q32

Why a microwave is called” Microwave”? What is the frequency range of microwave? What limits the frequency of microwaves? Write down the different bands in microwave range along with corresponding frequencies. Enlist the advantages of microwave frequencies over lower frequency waves. Make a list of important applications and the corresponding characteristics of microwave. In which case the wavelength of the propagating microwave is greater, when it is moving through a medium having dielectric constant=2.0 or when moving through air? Calculate the difference of wavelength.

Q33 Q34 Q35 Q36 Q37 Q38 Q39 Q40 Q41 Q42 Q43

If a microwave having frequency 10GHz is moving out with speed of light, calculate the corresponding wavelength. Write a brief history of development of microwave technology. Study manual of microwave oven. What is frequency pulling in case of magnetrons? List various methods of beam focusing in TWT’S What is Velocity Modulation? Describe the excitation of cavities. What is microwave transition? Ordinary low frequency circuit analysis is not adequate to describe the electrical phenomenon-taking place at microwave frequencies, why? Discuss the problem of transit time effect in tubes at microwave frequencies? Why are semiconductors preferred over vacuum tubes in most applications?

Q44 Q45 Q46 Q47 Q48

Derive an expression for maximum possible theoretical efficiency of a two cavity klystron. Explain the significance of Hull voltage in a magnetron. Explain the principle of working of Travelling wave tube. Find out the expression for efficiency of two cavity Klystron amplifier. Explain with neat diagrams the following in a Magnetron: a) b) Resonant Modes and their separation Mechanism of Oscillation.

Q49 Q50 Q51 Q52 Q53 Q54 Q55 Q56 Q57 Q58 Q59 Q60

What do you understand by current modulation In what type of applications reflex klystron is preferred & why? List at least two discriminations between Klystron & TWT’s. Discuss problem of inter electrode capacitance & lead inductance of wave frequencies. Discuss principle of TWT along with neat sketch? Derive an expression for maximum possible theoretical efficiency of a reflex Klystron. List two advantages of using Microwave frequency over low frequency? Define Transit time effect. What is the basic difference between TWT and Magnetron? Why at microwave frequency we talk of traveling waves with associated powers instead of voltages and currents? What is velocity modulation? How is it different from normal modulation? Explain how velocity modulation is utilized in klystron amplifier. What are slow wave structures? Explain how a helical TWT achieve amplification.

**MICROWAVE SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
**

Q1. Q2. Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10 Q11 Q12 Q13 Q14 Q15 Q16 Q17 Q18 Q19 Q20 Q21 Q22 Q23 Q24 Q25 Q26 Q27 Q28 State square law of diode. Which diode exhibits this law? Although PIN diode doesn’t exhibit negative resistance effect yet it is a very important device at microwave frequencies. Justify. Give the construction, working and applications of PIN diode. Compare the main features of PIN diode and Tunnel diode. What is Gunn effect? Explain this phenomenon using two-valley theory. How IMPATT diode is different from all other active diodes? Explain the operation of IMPATT diode aided by various diagrams. Explain the basic requirements of tunneling phenomenon in Tunnel diode. Describe briefly the quenched and delayed modes of oscillation in Gunn diode. Which mode is more suitable and why? What is tunneling effect? Explain the construction & working of the device, which uses this effect, with the help of sketches. Discuss its V-I characteristics also. Explain several modes of operation of Gunn diode with the keep of sketches. How negative resistance is achieved in IMPATT? What’s Gunn effect? Compare transistors and Transfer Electron Devices (TED’S). How depletion layer is formed in PIN diode at zero bias? Give advantages and disadvantages of IMPATT diode. Write down basic requirements for two-valley theory of Gunn diode. Why FETs are preferred over Bipolar transistors at highest frequencies? Describe the construction and operation of a PIN diode as a switch. Explain the V-I characteristics of a Gunn diode. Explain the use of PIN diode as a modulator. Why FET’s are preferred over bipolar transistors at high frequencies? What is the main advantage of using Gunn diode over IMPATT diode? Discuss applications of PIN diode as a phase shifter. Explain Gunn effect using two-valley theory? Also explain several modes of operation & applications of Gunn diodes. What is Avalanche transit time Devices? List advantages of using Gunn diodes over IMPATT diodes. What is the basic difference between IMPATT and TRAPATT diodes?

Q29 Q30 Q31 Q32 Q33 Q34 Q35 Q36 Q37 Q38 Q39 Q40 Q41 Q42 Q43 Q44 Q45 Q46

Describe how a tunnel diode can be used as an amplifier and as an oscillator with the necessary circuit diagrams? What are the applications of Tunnel diode? Explain the physical description of read diode and the avalanche multiplication process. Discuss the principle of negative resistances in IMPATT diode. Explain power output and efficiency of IMPATT diode. How is TRATATT diode different from IMPATT diode? What are PIN Diodes? Where are they after used? Why? Explain the use of Pin diode as a transmit/receive switch. What are BARITT diodes? What is the principle of operation of BARITT diode? How is negative resistance effect of tunnel diode used in oscillators? What do you understand by mode jumping in a magnetron? Differentiate between a strapped and unstrapped magnetron. Explain frequency pushing and pulling in context of magnetron. Explain domain formation in Gunn effect devices. What are the various frequency modes in which Gunn effect oscillator can be made to oscillate? Explain each mode in detail. Which microwave diode is suitable at low frequencies and why? What happens to the performance of PIN diode above 100 MHz?

**MICROWAVE MEASUREMENTS AND COMPONENTS
**

Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4. Q5. ii) iii) iv) Q6. Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10 Q11 Q12 Q13 Q14 Q15 Q16 Q17 Q18 Q19 Describe briefly the equipment to measure impedance using slotted line. What are non-reciprocal phase shifters? How do they differ from reciprocal phase shifters? What is a directional coupler? Give the construction of 2-hole directional coupler. Give the relationship between reflection coefficient and VSWR. What are the values of reflection coefficient and VSWR in the following cases? Termination is perfectly matched Termination is a short circuit Termination is an open circuit What are ferrites? What is Faradays rotation? Give the construction and working of devices based on this phenomenon. What are the various methods of impedance matching? Why is hybrid Tee also called magic Tee? Why is it named magic tee also? Give construction and working in detail. Why are resonators of irregular shape? Write the principle of attenuator. Differentiate reciprocal & nonreciprocal phase shifter. What is a phase shifter? Explain its construction and principle of operation. Differentiate E-plane Tee & H-plane Tee. Give principle of working of resonator. Differentiate Transmission line from wave-guides. What is Smith chart? What is its application? A (200+j75) Ohm load is to be matched to a 300 ohm line to give SWR=1. Calculate the reactance of the stub and the characteristic impedance of the quarter wave transformer, both connected to the load. Q20 Calculate the length of a short-circuited line required to tune out the susceptance of a load whose Y=(0.004-j0.002) S, placed on an air-dielectric transmission line of characteristic admittance Y=00.0033S,at a frequency of 150 MHz.

Q21

A load ZL=(100-j50) ohm is connected to a line whose Z0=75ohm.Calculate a) b) The point nearest to the load, at which a quarter wave transformer may be inserted to provide correct matching. The ZO of the transmission line to be used for the transformer.

Q22

A series combination having an impedances = (450+j600) ohm at 10 MHz is connected to a 300ohm line. Calculate the position and length of a short-circuited stub designed to match this load to the line.

Q23

A quarter wave transformer is connected directly to a 50ohm load, to match this load to a transmission line who’s Z0=75ohm.What must be the characteristic impedance of the matching transformer?

Q24 Q25

Calculate the length of a piece of 50ohm open-circuited line if its input admittance to be j80x10-3 S. With the aid of a smith chart, calculate the position and length of a short-circuited stub matching a (180+j120) ohm load to a 300ohm transmission line. Assuming that the load impedance remains constant, find the SWR on the mainline when the frequency is (a) increased by 10% (b) doubled.

Q26 Q27 Q28

What is Directional coupler? Give construction of 2-hole directional coupler. The input power in a two hole directional coupler is 1mW. The coupler has a coupling factor of 15 db and a directivity of 30 db. Calculate the power in all the ports. A symmetric directional coupler with infinite directivity and a forward attenuation of 20db is used to monitor the power delivered to a load. Bolometer 1 introduces a VSWR of 2on arm 4and bolometer 2 is matched to arm3. If bolometer1 reads 8mwand bolometer2reads 2mW, find (a) the amount of power dissipated in ZL (B) VSWR on arm2.

Q29 Q30 Q31 Q32 Q33 Q34 Q35 Q36 Q37

List the properties of ferrites that make them useful in construction of isolator’s and circulators. Why TEM waves cannot be propagated in wave-guides? Why rectangular waveguides are preferred over circular waveguides in some applications? What is magic Tee and why E-H plane is named as magic Tee? Calculate the ratio of crossection of circular waveguide to that of a rectangular one if each is to have same cutoff wavelength for its dominant mode. Discuss the behaviour of ferrites in isolators and circulators. Explain the working of H-plane Tee. Explain the parameters of Smith Chart. Explain Double stub matching.

Q38 Q39 Q40 Q41 Q42

Explain the principle of working of probes and loops. A 5 dB waveguide attenuator is specified as having VSWR of 1.4. Assuming that it is reciprocal, calculate the scattering parameters. Define coupling factor& Directivity in case of a directional coupler. Explain the principle of working of a Rectangular waveguide resonator. Explain the principle of working of the following: (a) Microwave Switch (b) Microwave Phase Shifter.

Q43 Q44 Q45 Q46 Q47 Q48 Q49 Q50 Q51 Q52 Q53 Q54 Q55 Q56

Calculate the coupling factor and transmission factor of a 30 dB directional coupler. List various Electronic & mechanical techniques used for measurements at microwave frequencies? Why TEM waves cannot be propagated in wave-guides? List various methods that are used to carry out measurement of Low. Medium & high microwave power. What is the main use of coupling probes & coupling loops in wave-guides? Calculate ratio of cross-section of circular wave-guides to that of rectangular one of each is to have same cut off wavelength for its dominant mode? What is VSWR & reflection Coefficient? Discuss the measurement of low, medium & high VSWR? Define Faraday’s rotation and also tell any device based on faraday’s rotation. What is a Rat-race junction? Explain how impedance can be measured using slotted line method. Discuss methods for measurement of low and high microwave power. Compare practical advantages and disadvantages of circular wave-guides with those of rectangular wave-guides. What are cavity resonators? What applications do they have? Why do they normally have odd shapes? Write notes on the following: a) b) Probes and loops Circulators and Isolators.

Q57 Q58 Q59 Q60

Discuss the quality factor& cavity resonators. Discuss microwave bends, twists and corners. What is matched load? What is an E-Plane Tee?

Q61 Q62 Q63 Q64 Q65 Q66 Q67 Q68 Q69 Q70 Q71

Explain hybrid ring. Why are attenuators needed? Why they are not a trivial part of the test setup? Differentiate b/w fixed and variable attenuators. Discuss insertion loss and attenuation measurement. Show that theoretical efficiency of reflex Klystron is 27.78%. What is a BWO? Explain its performance characteristics. What are the applications of BWO? Explain the function of magic Tee as a duplexer. Explain the function of magic Tee as a mixer. Differentiate between primary and secondary waveguides. Explain the following terms in context of directional couplers: a) b) c) Coupling factor Directivity Isolation

INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEM

Q1. Q2. Q3. Q4. Q5. Q6. Q7. Q8. Q9. Q10 Q11. Q12. Q13. Q14.

How are A, B and PPI radar displays different from each other? Calculate the maximum unambiguous range of low PRF pulse radar with a prf of 500 Hz. Define radar resolution cell. What do you understand by the term dwell time? Define multiple time around echoes. Give the function of duplexer in radar systems. Mention the frequencies used for radar applications. A radar is expected to have a range of 100 Km. What is the maximum allowable PRF for unambiguous reception. For a radar peak transmitted power is 1MW; pulse width is 1 sec and PRF is 1 KHz. Calculate the average transmitted power. Enlist the factors that determine the detection range of the radar. Enlist different applications of radar. Enlist the limitations of PPI displays. Draw the block diagram of pulse radar system and give the function of each block. Derive radar range equation.

**RADAR DETECTION THEORY
**

Q1. For an antenna half power beam width is 3 and scan rate is 30 /sec .Calculate the target illumination period. If R unamb=100 Km. Calculate the number of received pulses every illumination period. Q2. Q3. Q4. Q5. Q6. How are multiple time around echoes distinguished from unambiguous echoes? What do you understand by the term false alarm? Define radar cross section of target. How does integration of radar pulses improve the detection capability of the radar? In a radar receiver Pfa=1.05*10 -10BIF =1 MHz. What will be the average false alarm time tolerable? For the same Pfa, how many dbs above the rms voltage, the threshold voltage should be? Q7. Q8. Q9. Q10. Q11. Q12. Q13. Q14. Q15. Q16. Explain the significance of radar cross section of targets. Mention the operating frequency, power requirements and expected range of an actual radar system. The noise entering the IF amplifier is white Gaussian. If threshold to noise ratio is 14 dB, what will be the probability of false alarm? Why do we prefer higher radar frequencies for meteorological radars? With the help of suitable graph explain the radar cross section of a sphere. Derive the radar range equation in terms of signal to noise ratio. Briefly explain various types of losses taking place in radar systems. Define integration improvement factor. Derive surveillance radar range equation. Consider s band pulse radar with the following parameters: Peak transmitted power=300 kW Pulse width=1msec PRF=600 Hz Antenna radius=6 ft. Transmitted frequency=3000 MHz Transmit loss=6 dB Antenna efficiency=0.95 Calculate the maximum signal power at the range of 50 nautical miles. Q17. Consider a radar with multiple PRF ranging using f1=13.770 KHz and f2=14.580 KHz. Calculate the unambiguous range of each prf. Discuss the need of

multiple PRF. Q18. Consider C band radar transmitting at a frequency of 5 GHz and having an antenna of 6 feet radius. Pt=1 MW, pulse width=1 sec, PRF=200 Hz, equivalent noise temperature=600 K, receiver bandwidth=1MHz, radar cross section of target=100 m2.Calculate the available range of the radar for unity signal to noise ratio. Q19. A 12 GHz radar has the following parameters. Pt=240 KW, power gain of antenna=2400, minimum detectable signal power by receiver=10 -14 watts. Cross sectional area of radar antenna=10 m2.Find the maximum range up to which a target of 3 m2 can be detected. Q20. For the radar system, the following parameters are given: Bandwidth of IF amplifier=1 MHz Tolerable average false alarm time=15 minutes Probability of false alarm=1.11*10 -9 Find the ratio of threshold voltage to R.M.S. value of noise voltage necessary to achieve this false alarm time. Derive the formula used.

CW AND FM RADAR

Q1.

Q2. Q3. Q4. Q5. Q6. Q7.

State Doppler principle of velocity determination. Draw the block diagram of CW radar. Draw the block diagram of FM CW radar. Explain the principle of working of FM CW radar. How will you modify it for using as an altimeter? Why is multiple frequency CW radar employed? Explain its principle of operation. With the help of block diagram explain the operation of FM CW altimeter. Consider FM CW radar in which triangular shaped modulation is used. Draw the waveforms for (a) Transmitted signal. (b) Beat frequency signal When the target is approaching radar.

Q8.

How will you find out sign of radial velocity with the help of CW radar?

MTI RADAR Q1.

Q2. Q3. Q4. Q5. Q6. Q7. Q8. Q9. Q10. Q11. Q13. Q14. Q15. Q16. Q17. Q18. Q19 Q20. Q21. Q23. Q24. Q25. Explain sub clutter visibility. What do you understand by staggered PRF? Explain the operation of MTI radar with the help of block diagram. An MTI radar is operated at 9GHz with a PRF of 3000 pps. Calculate the first two lowest blind speeds for this radar. .Derive the formula used. Why is the range gating necessary in MTI radar? What is non coherent MTI radar? An aircraft is flying at a speed of 250 Km/h. Compute the Doppler frequency for radar operating at a wavelength of 5 cm. Derive an expression for blind speeds of MTI radar. Discuss the effect of large wavelength and large PRF on lowest blind speed of target. What are the advantages of staggered prf? What is blind speed in MTI radar? What is the method of overcoming blind speed problem? Give the function of delay line canceller. Draw and explain the operation of pulse Doppler radar. Differentiate between MTI radar and pulse Doppler radar. Differentiate between coherent and non coherent MTI radar. Explain the operation of MTI radar using range gates and filters. What is the significance of MTI radar? Describe its operation. How are moving targets recognized on a PPI display using MTI radar? Give the applications of MTI radar. Give the applications of Pulse Doppler radar. With the help of suitable block diagram explain the operation of Digital MTI radar. What are the limitations to MTI performance? Explain the term Frequency agility. Show that the product of the maximum unambiguous range and the first blind speed v1 is equal to c /4. What is the highest frequency on which radar can be operated if it is required to have a maximum unambiguous range of 200 NMI and no blind speeds less than 600 Km.

Q26.

Show that a triple delay line canceller is equivalent to a four pulse delay line canceller with weights equal to the coefficients of the binomial expansion with alternating signs.

Q27.

Why does a high PRF pulse Doppler radar require a much larger improvement factor than low PRF MTI radar, assuming comparable performance in detecting moving targets in clutter?

Q28. Q29.

Why cannot the altitude line in a high PRF pulse Doppler radar be eliminated by range gating rather than by filtering? A VHF radar at 220 MHz has a maximum unambiguous range of 180 nmi. (a)What is its first blind speed? (b)Repeat for an L band radar at 1250 MHz

Q30. Q31.

What does a medium PRF pulse Doppler radar do better than a high PRF pulse Doppler radar? What does a high prf radar do better than a medium prf pulse Doppler radar?

TRACKING RADAR

Q1. Q2. Q3. Q5. Q6. Q7. Q8. Q9. Q10. Q11. Q12. Q13. Show different radar antenna patterns for target acquisition. Compare the merits and demerits of the four tracking methods. How is tracking in range achieved? What is the simplest way to degrade the performance of conical scanning tracking radar? How can a target be tracked by using the phase information of a single pulse? What do you understand by low angle tracking? With the help of block diagram explain the operation of amplitude comparison monopulse tracking radar for one angular coordinate. With the help of block diagram explain the operation of amplitude comparison monopulse tracking radar for two coordinates. With the help of block diagram explain the operation of phase comparison monopulse tracking radar. With the help of block diagram explain the operation of conical scan tracking radar. What are the various factors which determine the accuracy of tracking radar? Discuss the following (a)Target acquisition (b)Tracking in Doppler Q14. What two measures might be taken to reduce the effects of the glint error in both angle and range?

**ELECTRONIC COUNTER MEASURES
**

Q1. Q2. Q3. Q4. Q5. Q6. Q7. How does an active electronic counter measure reduce the detection range of radar? How the reduction in bandwidth of a radar antenna can be utilized as a technique of ECCM? Differentiate between ECM and ECCM. What is noise jamming as referred to ECM? Explain the various ECM techniques in detail. Explain the various ECCM techniques in detail. What are the requirements of ECCM? Draw the block diagram of an ECCM system and label the different blocks clearly. Describe its working.

**STUDY OF ACTUAL RADAR SYSTEM
**

Q1. Q2. Enlist the features of an actual radar system. Give a comprehensive description of an actual radar system.

NAVIGATION AIDS

Q1. Q2. Q3. Q4. Q5. Q6. Q7. Q8. Q9. Write a brief technical note on Four course radio range. Write a technical note on LORAN A. What are the possible errors in direction finding in radar systems? State the functions of ground controlled approach. How will you find the direction of arrival of a radio wave by employing a single loop antenna? Explain the concept of Global positioning system for navigation. What is GCA? How is it implemented? Explain the use of loop antenna for radio direction finding. Write a technical note on satellite based navigation system. provided in this system. Give the configuration of localizer antenna also. Q10. Q11. Write a technical note on Four Course radio range. Compare LORAN A and LORAN C.

Q103. What is an instrument landing system? Explain how elevation guidance is

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