SCHOOL OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

LAB REPORT

THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
SUBJECT

CONTROL AND ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS

YEAR 2011

EXPERIMENT 1

STUDY OF CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

Aim

 To study the no load characteristics of three phase induction motor

Objectives

i) To investigate the no load characteristic of a three phase induction motor.

ii) To study the relation between the current and the voltage of three phase induction motor in both star and delta connection. iii) To modify the sense of rotation.

Name plate details

 3 phase induction motor  Rated voltage = 41.5 V.AC  Rated power = 50 W  Rated current = 1.4 A  Rated speed = 1320 RPM
2

Introduction

Induction motor is a rotating electrical machine. Induction motor can be operated by one phase alternating voltage source and by three phase alternating voltage source. The induction motor consists of ‘Stator’ and ‘Rotor’, stationary part and rotational part, respectively. The rotor consists of cylindrical iron that laminated with copper strips. The stator consists of a three phase windings that are placed on the slots of laminated core, these windings apart by 120 degrees. These windings can be connected be configured in a star connection or in delta connection.

3

The no load characteristics of the induction motor is sketched. 4 . The no load current of the maximum rated voltage for the motor is tabulated. The AC supply is turned on and the voltage increased to the maximum voltage rated for the motor which is 41.0). When all readings are tabulated I decreased the AC supply voltage to 0 volts and off the supply.0: Star connection diagram Procedure        Connections were mad as shown in (Figure 1.5 volts. The voltage is decreased gradually by 5 volts and the no loads current is tabulated and repeat by decreasing the voltage and tabulate the no load current and voltage. I been ware to not exceed the limit. The AC supply voltage adjusted to minimum and the maximum rated voltage of the motor is noted.i) Star connection Circuit diagram Figure 1.

35 0.05 0 0 10 20 Voltage (V) 30 40 50 Figure 1.15 0.3 0.4 0.1 Star connection IV characteristics graph 0.4 0.0: Star connection IV table SI No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Star connection Voltage 41.15 0.Experimental results of star connection Table 1.2 0.3 0.25 0.1 0.1: Star connection I versus V graph 5 .2 0.25 0.35 Current (A) 0.45 0.5 35 30 25 20 15 10 Current 0.

The no load characteristics of the induction motor is sketched. The voltage is decreased gradually by 5 volts and the no loads current is tabulated and repeat by decreasing the voltage and tabulate the no load current and voltage.5 volts. The no load current of the maximum rated voltage for the motor is tabulated. The AC supply voltage adjusted to minimum and the maximum rated voltage of the motor is noted. 6 .ii) Delta connection Circuit diagram Figure 1. The AC supply is turned on and the voltage increased to the maximum voltage rated for the motor which is 41.2: Delta connection diagram Procedure        Connections were mad as shown in (Figure 1.2). I been ware to not exceed the limit. When all readings are tabulated the AC supply voltage is decreased to 0 volt and off the supply.

8 0.2 Current (A) 1 0.2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Voltage (V) Figure 1.2: Delta connection I versus V graph 7 .Experimental results of delta connection: Figure 1.7 0.3 .6 0.6 0.5 30 25 20 15 10 5 Current 1.4 0.5 0.4 0.9 0.6 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Star connection Voltage 41.2: Delta connection IV table SI No. Delta connection IV characteristics graph 1.4 1.4 0.

however the line voltage will be greater than this because it is the potential difference between two phase lines. Difference in phase and line current in star and delta connections.Analysis 1.3: Star connection (Figure 1. The current through the load will be the same as the line current. Thus for balanced star connected loads:ELine = √3EPhase And ILine = IPhase 8 . IP = IL Figure 1.3) shows that for a star connected loads the potential difference across any load is the potential difference between the phase line connected to it and the neutral.

√3 IP = IL Figure 1. Thus for delta connected loads:- ELine = EPhase And ILine = √3 IPhase 2. 9 . Reasons for the motor to change the rotation direction.4) shows that for delta connected systems of loads the phase voltage is equal to the difference between two lines. When exchanging two phases the motor rotation direction changes due to the change in flux direction produced by the windings in the motor. The phase current for each load is coming from two lines (because each load is connected to two lines) and will be more than the line current.4: Delta connection (Figure 1.

the number of pole pairs must be the same as or a multiple of the number of phases in the applied voltage. The poles must then be displaced from each other by an angle equal to the phase angle between the individual phases of the applied voltage and the strength of the magnetic field changes. 10 . Just as the current in the field windings rise and fall 120 electrical degrees apart. The premise for motor operation is that if you can create a rotating magnetic field in the stator of the motor.3. and it is probably the most simple and basic of all motor designs. The stator windings are arranged on the stator poles in a way that results in magnetic flux lines that seem to rotate where . Explanation on how rotating magnetic field is produced in the stator of a three phase induction motor. The three phase motor is widely used in industry because of its low maintenance characteristics. as the current flow in the coils of wire around the stator poles change. Due to the nature of three phase power. so does the resulting magnetic field on the pole. creating a rotating magnetic field in the stator of this motor is simple and straight forward. This premise applies to AC motors that employ a squirrel cage rotor. it will induce a voltage in the armature that will have magnetic properties causing it to 'chase' the field in the stator.

grit. Measure insulation resistance. Safety requirement after installation:    Ensure that safety guards are in use. Safety requirement at time of installation:     Check for any damage which may have been incurred in handling. resistance. or thermocouple. Clean and dry the windings as required. 11 .4. Safety is needed at a time of installation. or excessive moisture in shipment or storage before installation. Never attempt to measure the temperature rise of a motor by touch. Safety requirements when dealing with high power rated three phase induction motor. after the installation and at the time of servicing. imbedded detector. Never start a motor which has been wet without having it thoroughly dried. Keep hands and clothing away from moving parts. The motor shaft should turn freely by hand. Temperature rise must be measured by thermometer. Check to be sure that motor has not been exposed to dirt. Repair or replace any loose or broken parts before attempting to use the motor.

Safety requirement at time of maintenance: All power sources to the motor and to the accessory devices should be deenergized and disconnected and all rotating parts should be at standstill. Provide proper safeguards for personnel against possible failure of motormounted brake.  The frame of this machine must be grounded in accordance with the National Electric Code and applicable local codes. Extra caution should be observed around motors that are automatically or have automatic re-setting relays as they may restart unexpectedly.  A suitable enclosure should be provided to prevent access to the motor by other than authorized personnel.   Shaft key must be fully captive or removed before motor is started.  Safeguard or protective devices must not be by-passed or rendered inoperative. 12 . particularly on applications involving overhauling loads.  Suitable protection must be used when working near machinery with high noise levels.

And the rotating direction depends on the flux produced by the windings. 13 .Conclusion All in all. the three phase synchronous induction machine consist of winding either connected in delta configuration or Star configuration but for each configuration the relation between the phase and line in voltage and current varies.

McGraw-Hill. (1911). (1885). The Kingsport Press. 14 . H. Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers. iii.References i. 11th Edition. p 360-75. Wayne Fink. Galileo Ferraris. Beaty. Vol 36. Electromagnetic rotation with an alternating current. Donald G. ii. Electrican. Benjamin Franklin Bailey. (1978). The induction motor.

9 A  Rated speed = 1320 RPM 15 .5 V. Objectives i) To investigate the performance characteristics of three phase Induction motor by applying eddy current load ii) To determine the efficiency of a three phase Induction motor Name plate  3 phase induction motor  Rated voltage = 41.EXPERIMENT 2 LOAD TEST ON THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR Aim The load test on 3-phase induction motor is performed to obtain its various characteristics including efficiency.AC  Rated power = 50 W  Rated current = 1.

0: Motor to Eddy current load connection 16 .5V 50Hz AC supply Eddy current load 3 phase squirrel cage induction Eddy current load motor Figure 2.Circuit Diagram Stator star connected 3-phase winding 3 phase 41.

9 A 1A I2 0.5 A 0.1 V 36.5 1389 1332.1444 0.F1 0.995 0.6 A 0.0: Tabulated experimental results V1 41.2584 0. power and torque of the maximum rated voltage for the motor are tabulated.6 A 0.Procedure      Connections were mad as shown in (Figure 2.74 0.5 A 0.0).8 V 39.6 V 38. The AC supply is turned on and the voltage increased to the maximum voltage rated for the motor which is 41.81 0.998 0. power factor.5 V 34.7 A 0.9 v 35.8 A 0.8 V 35.4 1223.995 0.82 0.5 A 0.2052 0.999 P. Experimental results Table 2.8 A 0.72 0.     When all readings are tabulated the AC and DC supplies are decreased to 0 volt and off the supplies. The load characteristic of the induction motor is sketched.8 V 34.78 0.F2 0.9 A P. The AC supply voltage adjusted to minimum and the maximum rated voltage of the motor is noted. The no load current.999 0. I been ware to not exceed the limit. power and torque are tabulated for the resultant until the load current reaches the maximum rated current.5 V 40. Eddy current load was connected to the induction motor and supplied by a DC supply. The load current.69 0 0.3192 T N 1412. The Eddy current load is increased gradually by increasing the DC supply.4 V V2 41.114 0.8 A 0.2 V 35.3 V 40.995 0. power factor.5 volts.1 1082.1 1191.7 V I1 0.3 17 .

3) (0.5) (0.995 W1 = = = V1 x I1 x Cos1 (41.02 37.55W For V2 = 41.57W Power output = = = T 0 0W Efficiency% = x 100 18 .3. I2 = 0.82 W2 = = = V2 x I2 x Cos2 (41. I1 = 0. For V1 = 41.5.82) 17.5) (0.5 and Cos1 = 0.995) 20. Determine the input power.Analysis 1.55 + 17.02W Power Input = = = W1 + W2 20.5 and Cos2 = 0.5) (0. output power and efficiency. i.

6.52 40W 19 . I1 = 0.8.5) (0.5 and Cos2 = 0.81 W2 = = = V2 x I2 x Cos2 (40.6) (0.24 + 16.81) 16.995 W1 = = = V1 x I1 x Cos1 (40.995) 24.8) (0.52W Power Input = = = W1 + W2 24. slip = = = 0.6) (0. I2 = 0.= = 0% x 100 Synchronous speed (Ns) = = = 1500rpm Thus. For V1 = 40.24W For V2 = 40.06 ii.6 And Cos1 = 0.

Power output = = = T 0.6 and Cos2 = 0.1.7 and Cos1 = 0.6) (0.1) (0.8.02W For V2 = 39.0114 16.8) (0. For V1 = 38.995) 27.78 W2 = = = V2 x I2 x Cos2 (39.995 W1 = = = V1 x I1 x Cos1 (38.58W Efficiency% = = = x 100 40. I1 = 0.7) (0. I2 = 0.68% = x 100 Slip = = 0.3W 20 .78) 18.074 iii.

112 iv.32W Power output = = = T 0.1444 20. I2 = 0.46% x 100 slip = = = 0.9) (0. I1 = 0.74 21 .8) (0.2.998) 28.Power Input = = = W1 + W2 27.8 and Cos1 = 0. For V1 = 35.02 + 18.3 45.998 W1 = = = V1 x I1 x Cos1 (35.8and Cos2 = 0.9.66W For V2 = 36.15W Efficiency% = = = x 100 44.

74) 21.5% x 100 Slip = = = 0.43 50.43W Power Input = = = W1 + W2 28.184 22 .3W Efficiency% = = = x 100 52.8) (0.2) (0.09W Power output = = = T 0.W2 = = = V2 x I2 x Cos2 (36.2052 26.66 + 21.

999 W1 = = = V1 x I1 x Cos1 (35.5% x 100 Slip = vi.41W T 0. I1 = 1 and Cos1 = 0.23W Power output = = = Efficiency% = = = x 100 61.5) (0.v.8) (0.79W For V2 = 35.72 W2 = = = V2 x I2 x Cos2 (35. For V1 = 35.206 For V1 = 34. I1 = 0.5.2548 32.4.62 52.999 23 .9) (0.9 and Cos1 = 0. I2 = 0.8) (0.62W Power Input = = = W1 + W2 31.79 + 20.999) 31. = = 0.8 & Cos2 = 0.72) 20.8.

999) 34.92W Power output = = = T 0. I2 = 0.7) (0.18W Efficiency% = = = x 100 64.37W For V2 = 34.69 W2 = = = V2 x I2 x Cos2 (34.7.W1 = = = V1 x I1 x Cos1 (34.3192 36.37 + 21.55 55.4) (1) (0.69) 21.28 24 .7% x 100 Slip = = = 0.9 and Cos2 = 0.9) (0.55W Power Input = = = W1 + W2 34.

3 31. Based on this loaddependent slip s.41 32.02w 18.79w 20.46% 52.55w 55.58 27. During operation the speed of the rotor drops to the load speed n. which in turn changes the rotor current and also the torque T.68% 44.76 16.43w 50.30w 45. The difference between the synchronous speed and the load speed is called slip s.5% 61. Can the speed of the induction motor be equal to synchronous speed? At idle the rotor almost reaches the synchronous speed of the rotary field.92 36. the rotor current and the torque rise.1: Input power.23 34.55w 17. And that resultant drops in speed.7% 20. output power and efficiency W1 W2 0 Efficiency 14.37w 21.24w 16. the voltage induced in the rotor winding changes.9% 40.32 20.1). As slip s increases.62w 52.09 26.The calculated input power.18 1.52w 40.5% 64. since only a small counter-torque (no-load losses) is present. and there would no longer be any torque. If it were to turn exactly synchronously.66w 21. 25 .57 24. voltage would no longer be induced.15 28. output power and efficiency are tabulated as shown in (Table 1. current would cease to flow. Table 2.02w 37.

Figure 2. The reason for this name is the anchor shape of the rotors used in very early electrical devices. The rotor of three-phase induction motors sometimes is also referred to as an anchor. whereas the rotor takes this role in three-phase induction motors as shown in (Figure 2.3) Construction of squirrel cage rotor and slip ring rotor. The squirrel cage rotor consists of a slotted cylindrical rotor core sheet package with aluminium bars which are joined at the front by rings to form a closed cage.1: Squirrel cage rotor 26 .1). In electrical equipment the anchor's winding would be induced by the magnetic field.

unless it consists of slip rings and it has three carbon brushes connected externally to a 3-phase start connected rheostat as shown in (Figure 2.2: Slip ring rotor 27 .2). Hence. thus making the three rings touching each other. Rotor windings Carbon brushes Slip rings Rheostat Figure 2. thus enabling them to have a higher resistance during starting and thus higher starting torque. Also. the slip rings are automatically short-circuited by means of a metal collar. the brushes are automatically lifted from the slip-rings to avoid frictional losses. When running during normal condition. Thus these slip ring and external slip rings rheostat makes the slip ring induction motors possible to add external resistance to the rotor circuit.The slip ring induction motor rotor has similar construction as the squirrel cage rotor. which is pushed along the shaft. wear and tear. the wound rotor is acting as same as the squirrel cage rotor. under normal running conditions.

3: Slip and Speed versus torque graph 28 . speed and slip characteristics of the induction motor Figure 2.4) Sketching torque.

speed and slip characteristics of the induction motor by using MATLAB software. 29 .4):- Figure 2. MATLAB commands is as shown in (Figure 2.4: MATLAB commands The plotted slip versus torque graph is shown in (Figure 2.5) and the speed versus torque graph is as shown in (Figure 2.5) Sketching torque.6).

Figure 2.5: Slip vs torque graph by using MATLAB Figure 2.6: Speed vs torque graph by using MATLAB 30 .

Conclusion According to the plotted graphs we observe that the slip having a proportional relation with the torque as the torque is increasing the slip is increasing as well. 31 . while the relation between the torque and speed is non-proportional as the speed is increasing the torque is decreasing.

(2008). (1975). William D Stevenson. Edward Hughes. 32 . Longman Group United Kingdom. 8th Edition.India. B.References i.) & Co Ltd . Elements of power system analysis (McGraw-Hill electrical and electronic engineering series). Textbook of Electrical Technology. McGraw-Hill. iii. Chand (S. (2001). 3rd Edition. Theraja.L. Electrical & Electronic Technology. ii.