EPD 332 Tooling Design Group 5

Jig & Fixture Design
Group Leader : Ong Chern Chung Group Members: 1. Ho Chi Leng 2. Tan Kai Yin 104962 104949 104968

3. Mohd Tasnim Bin Hassan @ Yahya 104958

School of Mechanical Engineering Date of Submission: 11th March 2012

Lecturer: Dr.Mohd.Salman Abu Mansor

Purpose of Tool Design
1. Tool Design Tool design is the process of designing and developing the tools, methods, techniques necessary to improve manufacturing efficiency and productivity. 2. Tool Design Objectives

Maintaining Quality Lower Manufacturing Costs Increased Production

Main Objective of Tool Design

To accomplish the main objective, the tool designer must achieve the following objectives:  Provide simple, easy-to-operate tools for maximum efficiency  Reduce manufacturing expenses by producing parts at the lowest possible cost  Design tools that consistently produce parts of high quality  Increase the production rate with existing machine tools  Design the tool to make it foolproof and to prevent improper use  Select materials that will give adequate tool life  Provide protection in the design of the tools for maximum safety of the operator 3. Tool Design in Manufacturing

Product Designers

Machining Technicians

Process Planning Engineers Concurrent Engineering Teams

Production Management

Tool Designers

Quality Control Designers

 Prototype are usually manufactured using: i) Conventional Computer Numerical Control (CNC) ii) Stereolithography iii)Layered Object Manufacture ( LOM)  Whether analyzing the prototype and the part drawing. a single physical part provided prior to formal production.  The team meets regularly to provide any necessary updates or changes in the production plan. but are corrected early in the concurrent process Saves time and money Speeding up the process of getting product to market earlier Company will have a distinct economic advantage in global market 4. electronic transfer of materials and teleconferencing to communicate with each other. Parts Drawing  The parts drawing that the tool designers receives are transmitted electronically and may include a solid model.  The solid model allows the designer to view the three dimensional part geometry. is a valuable tool for understanding more complex part geometries. This is to eliminate or minimize the last-minute costly changes. the designer must consider the following factors that directly influence the design chioces: i) Overall size and shape of the part ii) Type and condition of the material used for the part iii) Type of machining operation to be performed iv) Degree of accuracy v) Number of pieces to be made vi) Locating and clamping surfaces .Concurrent engineering is a process that allows the design team to be invloved in a compressive plan for product design and prodution. The team members usually use e-mail. 5. Planning the Design  Product design changes are continuosly reviewed to determine tooling changes that might be necessary. designers.  Team members may consist of customers.  The prototype. Advantages :       Result in fewer design errors Team members contribute based on their area of expertise Problems are not discovered on the production floor. and builders in different locations that may take them halfway around the world.

or metal laminates are successively glued together and cut to shape with a knife or laser cutter. plastic.Stereolithography Stereolithography (SLA). optical fabrication. photosolidification. (Cubic Technologies is now the successor organization of Helisys) In it. also known as 3D printing. prototypes. . Layered Object Manufacture ( LOM) Laminated object manufacturing (LOM) is a rapid prototyping system developed by Helisys Inc. and production parts. patterns. solid free-form fabrication and solid imaging. layers of adhesive-coated paper. is an additive manufacturing technology used for producing models.

. The production plan include the following:  Type and size of the machine tool specified for eaach operation  Type and size of cutters specified for each operation  Sequence of operations  Previous machining operations performed on the part 7. should be used to check each operation? The tool designer need to answer the questions above and others related to the specific task to develops the alternative solutions. Should multiplespindle or singlespindle machines be used? Should the tool be single-purpose or multi-purpose? Will the savings justify the cost of the tool? What type of gauge. From this alternative solutions. dependable and cost effective design is chosen.6. Production Plan The production plan is an itemized list of the manufacturing operations and the sequence of the operations chosen by the process planning engineer. the tool designer is informed of the amount of time and money that is available to spend on the design. the most efficient. if any. One of the important step in tool design is determining the alternative solutions to ensure that the best method is chosen. Alternatives Besides given the part drawing and the production plan.

Tool room supervision Tool inspection . and tool inspection.8. Challenges To The Tool Designer  In addition to technical design duties. toolroom supervision. the tool designer need to understand also about obtaining materials.

and dependable manner 12.9.  The skilled toolmakers can often see solutions that may not be obvious to the designer. Inspection  Inspection is normally conducted in two phases: First: The tool itself is inspected for compliance with the tool drawing. Procurement o Tool designer normally relies on vendors or salespeople to supply materials and parts that meet the design specifications. Design  The tool designer is responsible for developing the drawings and sketches of the tool design ideas. . 10. where their product is involved  Whether the vendor can supply special parts or components when necessary  Which vendor can meet the designer’s needs in the most timely. o A few factors to be consider when selecting a vendor:  Choose company that offers the most service to its customers  Services such as design assistance and problem solving. 11. the tool designer should make periodic checks during production to ensure that the specified tolerances are maintained. efficient.  Good working relationship between designer and the tool maker make the task at hand easier and by using the available expertise make more sense than trying to do the job alone. Second: Several test parts are produced with the tool and are carefully checked to ensure that they conform to the specifications shown on the part print.  After the tool has been turned over to the production department. Supervision  The extent of a tool designer’s supervision is normally determined by the size of the company.  One resource a tool designer may often use to help resolve design problems is the group of skilled people in the tool room. hence it is always a good idea to build a good working relationship with your toolmakers.

13. tools. Requirements To Become A Tool Designer To perform the functions of a tool designer. an individual must have the following skills: Ability to make mechanical drawings and sketches An understanding of modern manufacturing methods. and techniques A creative mechanical ability An understanding of basic toolmaking methods A knowledge of technical mathematics through practical trigonometry CAD drafting skills File management Electronic communication skills Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing .

chamfer. support. The correct relationship and alignment between the cutter. counterbore. ream. or is placed on a part to be machined. Classes of jigs Jigs may be divided into two general classes: i. If. it is usually necessary to fasten the jig to the table securely. Jigs and fixtures are production-workholding devices used to manufacture duplicate parts accurately. supports. Jigs and fixtures are used to locate and hold the work that is to be machined. The basic jig is almost the same for either the same for either machining operation. or other tool. holes above 0. Boring jigs. a jig or fixture is designed and built to hold. ii. small jigs are not fastened to the drill press table. tap.25 inch in diameter are to be drilled. Boring jigs are used to bore holes that either are too large to drill or must be made an odd size. Jigs A jig is a special device that holds.Jigs and Fixtures Jig is a guiding device and fixture is a holding device. reverse spotface. and locate every part to ensure that each is drilled or machined within the specified limits. As a rule. It is a production tool made so that it not only located and hold the workpiece but also guides the cutting tool as the operation is performed. countersink. however. Drill jigs are used to drill. The only difference is in the size of the bushings used. Drill jigs. . To do this. or reverse counter sink. and the workpiece must be maintained. Jigs are usually fitted with hardened steel bushings for guiding drills or other cutting tools.

Template jigs They are normally used for accuracy rather than speed. The names used to identify these jigs refer to how the tool is built.Types of jigs 1. . jigs are used for parts that must be machined on more than one side.Open type. Drill jigs They may be divided into two general types: . or box. This type of jig fits over. Templates are the leasr expensive and simplest type of jig to use. on. Open jigs are for simple operations where work is done on only one side of the part. Closed. the whole jig plate is normally hardened . or into the work and is not usually clamped.Closed type. When bushings are not used. 2. They may or may not have bushings.

depending on the number of parts to be made. . The only difference is that plate jigs have built-in clamps to hold the work. Plate jigs are sometimes made with legs to raise the jig off the table for large work. These jigs can also be made with or without bushings.3. Plate jigs. This style called a table jig. They are similar to templates.

The use of bushings is determined by the number of parts to be made. 5. . This type of jig is ideal for thin or soft parts that could bend or warp in another style of jig. Sandwich jigs. They are a form of plate jig with a back plate. which is used for machining angles other than 90 degrees. Pulleys. A variation is the modified angle-plate jig. and gears are some of the parts that use this type of jig.4. They are used to hold parts that are machined at right angles to their mounting locatotrs. collars. Angle-plate jigs.

where jig feet are used. Channel jigs. Box jigs.6. 8. In some cases. They are small box jigs with a hinged leaf to allow for easier loading and unloading. Leaf jigs. 7. the work can be machined on 3 sides. They are the simplest form of box jig. . usually totally surround the part. The main differences between leaf jig and box jig are size and part location. The work is held between two sides and machined from the third side. Leaf jigs are normally smaller than box jigs and are sometimes made so that they do not completely surround the part. They can be called as tumble jigs also. This style of jig allow the part to be completely machined on every surface without the need to reposition the work in the jig.

Larger indexing jigs are called rotary jigs.9. . To do this. the jig uses either the part itself or a reference plate and a plunger. Indexing jigs. They are used to accurately space holes or other machined area around a part.

Since the tool is already made and only needs to be modified. heavy parts that must be machined with several separate plate-type jigs. The leveractivated plate makes this tool very fast to load and unload. a great deal of time is saved bt using this jig. They are a form of rotary jig for very large or odd-shped parts. . Pump jigs.10. Trunnion jigs. The part is first put in to a box-type carrier and then loaded on the trunnion. They are commercially made jigs that must be adapted by the user. This jig is well suited for large. 11.

It could also work on single-spindle models. . This jig is commonly used on multiple-spindle machines. They are made in any of the forms already discussed. Multistation jigs.12. While one part is drilled. The final station is used for unloading the finished parts and loading fresh parts. The main feature of this jig is how it locates the work. another can be reamed and a third counterbored.

the fixtures also provide for setting the cutting tool for the actual machining operation. In addition to the function of holding the work piece. Generally a fixture is supposed to be securely fastened to the machine tool table. and others. rotary . 5. linear b. support and hold the part during the machining operation. Small 2. 3. Though the milling fixtures are the most widely used in view of the complex requirements for the milling operation. milling. there have two basic motion: a. a. Round b. A fixture is a means through which a part is securely fastened to the machine tool table to accurately locate. 2. Fixtures are widely used in large batch production to ensure the easy setup and achieving the desired accuracy.Fixtures 1. Irregular c. Machine considerations 1. It can be used in a variety of machine tools such as lathe. grinding. 4. Large d. Another important considerations are types of motions. There are some considerations about physical characteristics of work piece.

Type of fixtures 1) Plate fixtures  From a plate by adding locators and clamps  Reference surface parallel to the mounting surface 2) Angle plate fixtures  Modified of plate fixture  Reference surface is perpendicular to the mounting surface 3) Vise – jaw fixtures  Vise – jaw fixtures are the expensive type of fixture to make  Their use is limited only by the sizes of the vises available .

4) Multistation fixtures  Primarily used for high speed. high volume production run. where thye machining cycle must be continuous  This form allows the loading and unloading operation to be performed while the machining operation is in progress  It also known as a duplex fixtures in a simplest form 5) Profiling fixtures  Used for to guide tools for machining contours that the machine cannot normally follow  These contours can be external or internal .

the workpieces revolves and the cutting tool is stationary  Since lathe fixtures are designed to rotate. high rotational speeds require the fixture to be well balanced .Classification of fixtures Fixtures are normally classified by the type of machine on which they are used. While perfect balance is not the normally required for low speed turning operations. they should be as lightweight as possible  Lathe fixtures must be balancaed. There are some classifications of fixtures. 1) Milling fixtures  The most common type of fixture in general used today  The simplest type of milling fixture is a milling vise mounted on the machine table  The entire workpiece must be located within the area of support of the fixture 2) Lathe fixtures  In turning operations.

should have some provision for setting the position of the cutting tool relative of the part  In cases where a boring fixture is to be used in a very large machine. such as a boring mill or vertical turret lathe it is also good practice to include areas on the fixture to insure proper alignment with the machine .3) Surface grinding fixtures  It s used a magnetic chuck to hold the workpiece  Provide adequate room or slots to permit the escape of coolant and to allow easy removal of built-up grinding sludge 4) Boring fixtures  Boring fixtures like milling fixtures.

. and a fixture is a holding device. • A jig is a guiding device. • To sum up. jigs and fixtures help to save labor and even less skilled workforce can effectively work complex machines through their assistance.Conclusion • A fixture is a work-holding or support device used in the manufacturing industry.