You are on page 1of 10



Copyright 2012, Brazilian Petroleum, Gas and Biofuels Institute - IBP
This Technical Paper was prepared for presentation at the Rio Oi & Gas Expo and Conference 2012, held between September, 1720, 2012, in Rio de Janeiro. This Technical Paper was selected for presentation by the Technical Committee of the event accor ding to the information contained in the final paper submitted by the author(s). The organizers are not supposed to translate or correct the submitted papers. The material as it is presented, does not necessarily represent Brazilian Petroleum, Gas and Biofuels Institute’ opinion, or that of its Members or Representatives. Authors consent to the publication of this Technical Paper in the Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 Proceedings.

Petrophysical Formation Evaluation using Logging While Drilling (LWD) measurements is a new requisite when drilling in carbonates reservoirs offshore Brazil. These reservoirs are difficult to characterize due to an unusual mixture of the minerals constituting the matrix and affecting rock texture. As wells are getting deeper and more expensive, an early identification of the drilled targets potential is necessary for valuable decisions. Brazil operators have been especially demanding towards service providers, pushing for development of suitable services able to positively identify and quantify not only the presence of hydrocarbons but also their flowing capability. In addition to the standard gamma ray / resistivity / porosity and density measurements, three new measurements have proven to be critical to evaluate complex carbonate formations: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Spectroscopy and Capture Cross-Section (sigma). Under appropriate logging conditions, NMR data provides lithology independent porosity, bound and free fluids fractions, reservoir texture and permeability. Capture Spectroscopy allows assessment of mineral composition in terms of calcite, dolomite, quartz and clay fractions, and in addition highlights presence of other heavier minerals. Finally, sigma allows performing a volumetric formation evaluation without requiring custom optimization of the classical exponents used in all forms of resistivity saturation equations. All these new measurements are inherently statistical and if provided by wireline after drilling the well they may result in significant usage of rig time. When acquired simultaneously while drilling they have three very clear advantages: 1) no extra rig time, 2) improved statistics due to long formation exposure (drilling these carbonates is a slow process and rate of penetration (ROP) rarely exceeds 10 m/hr), 3) less invasion effect and better hole condition. This paper describes the development of two LWD tools performing the above-mentioned measurements and provides example of their use in both Real Time and memory mode. The evolution of the services over the past years leading to present day performance is also demonstrated. Multi-mineral petrophysical analysis is used for advanced interpretation and quality control. Response of different tool physics is reconstructed in order to verify data consistency and guarantee reliability of the results obtained. Comprehensive answers were obtained and tested against independent measurements.

1. Introduction
The main petrophysical evaluation in low angle pilot wells is normally performed using traditional wireline (WL) measurements. In high angle wells, due to conveyance difficulties either LWD or combinations of WL and LWD logs are used. When replacing WL with LWD acquisition it has been fundamental to qualify the data provided while

______________________________ 1 Master, Electronics Engineer - SCHLUMBERGER 2 Ph.D., Applied Mathematics and Physics - SCHLUMBERGER

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 drilling in order to guarantee consistency and compatibility of the analysis performed. It is also advisable to be able to use the same methodology within the same field independently of the data origin (WL or LWD), without having to adapt the interpretation technique to the data source. The traditional approach used for petrophysical analysis is based on combining neutron, bulk density and gamma ray measurements to estimate porosity, fluid properties, rock apparent density, shale volume and mineralogy. Addition of deep and shallow reading resistivities helps differentiating water and hydrocarbon respectively in virgin and invaded zones. These measurements are the foundation of the petrophysics. However, with so few inputs and such a large number of unknowns, formation evaluation and characterization in complex lithologies would be more of an art, based on intuition and experience without guaranteeing a unique solution. This approach and relative risks are not acceptable in high cost environment like the deep-water exploration blocks. The first problem is to compute porosity. In Brazil post and pre-salt carbonates, the matrix composition is not constant due to depositional environment and diagenesis. Matrix density plays an important role in the porosity computation and has to be evaluated. Very often, the photoelectric factor, theoretically usable to estimate the dolomite/calcite split, cannot help because of presence of barite in the mud. Even small percentages of barite have a detrimental effect. Carbonate rocks also have additional challenges related to porosity distribution, which is normally much more irregular than in sandstone rocks. Total porosity may not be sufficient to predict rock producibility. Pore size distribution pattern, or the relative distribution of micro-meso-macro porosity fractions, has an equally or ever larger impact on permeability than the overall amount of porosity. Finally, large water saturation does not necessarily imply water production. Small pores could store a significant volume of water that will not flow because of capillary forces. Identifying the amount of excess water, or the difference between total water and bound water is critical to predict which formation fluid will flow. To reduce evaluation risks in carbonates formations it has become standard to acquire both spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Spectroscopy consists of measuring a multi-channel capture energy spectrum, reconstructed as a linear combination of elementary responses. An adaptive mathematical regression algorithm computes the yields corresponding to Silicon, Calcium, Iron, Sulfur, Magnesium, Gadolinium, Titanium, Potassium, Barium and Aluminum needed to reproduce the measured spectrum. After achieving a good match, the analyst has an independent reference to evaluate rock composition, and hence rock matrix. The full methodology has been published by M.Herron in 1996. NMR response is function of the fluids in the pore space, and is affected by the surface/volume ratios of the pores. Nuclear magnetic resonance implies complex physics but in first approximation, we can safely state that small pores correspond to fast decays and large pores to longer decays. In carbonates it is especially useful to discriminate producing zones from tight zones that may have similar porosities. Pore size distribution, which is closely related to NMR T2 distribution, is the key for doing so and the challenge is to have a reliable and repeatable measurement for a quantitative analysis. Advanced measurements are justified to properly evaluate complex carbonates formations, and in important wells it is also essential to have them as soon as possible after drilling to facilitate educated decisions related to well placement and reservoir analysis. Collocation of the measurements also provides better accuracy and precision of the interpretation, eliminating or reducing the time-dependent invasion effects. LWD new technology now includes a multi-function LWD collar implementing a capture spectroscopy measurement and a second collar provides NMR data able to capture textural differences, vital for characterizing the most prolific zones and resolving formation evaluation and geosteering challenges. All the advanced measurements are streamed in real-time from the downhole tools to surface and then from the rig to remote decision-making monitoring centers. The available real-time NMR properties allow evaluation of net-to-gross and reservoir quality, images are used to compute dips and adjust borehole inclination, and with neutron-density and spectroscopy accurate porosity can be determined. Quantitative interpretation methodologies based less on intuition and more on objective data allowed to improve the accuracy of petrophysical evaluation.

2. Geology implications
The Quissamã Formation (Macaé Group) reservoir, from which the log examples are taken, consists of carbonate rocks deposited during the Albian (Upper Cretaceous) age. It is part of the Campos Basin, located in the Rio de Janeiro continental shelf, southeastern offshore Brazil. The reservoir interval is partially dolomitized in its lower half 2

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 with shoaling upward cycles from matrix to grain-supported rocks. In its upper part the reservoir is mainly composed of beds of grain-supported limestone with secondary siliciclastic richer intervals. The average porosity is 15 p.u., occasionally reaching 25 p.u.. Cores and electric/ultrasonic image logs allow identification of closed fractures and oilbearing open fractures. Calcilutites and marls of the Outeiro Member overlay this zone.

3. Evolution of LWD Measurements
3.1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging technology has evolved remarkably over the past two decades. A LWD NMR tool originally introduced in 2000 has been been redesigned to provide more reliable measurements with substantially higher precision and accuracy to meet increasing industry demand for high quality NMR answers while drilling. The primary measurement has been upgraded from effective porosity to total porosity while also concentrating on real time delivery. In order to enable a NMR T2 measurement while drilling, the measurement has to be insensitive to rugosity, tool rotation and variable eccentralization. These requirements are satisfied using a very low gradient antenna, operating at 240 – 260 kHz. The resonant zone is 4 inches long, approximately 0.5 inches thick and has a diameter of 14 inches from the center of the tool. The axial resolution of processed answers ranges between 1 ft and 3ft depending on rate of penetration (ROP) and environmental noise levels, which is comparable with analogous wireline logs. Acquisition sequences combine highly averaged partially polarized bursts with vastly polarized long echo trains, having echo acquisition times exceeding one second.. A minimum echo spacing of 600 us is used for burst measurements. All acquired data are inverted simultaneously delivering a single T2 distribution and T1/T2 ratio value. These measurement sequences and processing provide sensitivity to T2 values from 0.5 to 5000 ms. Intrinsic signal-to-noise (SNR) has also been improved by about 30% through a redesign of the entire NMR antenna and radiofrequency circuitry. The delivery of T2 distributions in real time constitutes another key enhancement for the new LWD NMR tool is. T2 distributions are computed downhole with an efficient non-linear inversion method and are then compressed and encoded in Dpoints containing amplitude and shape information. The surface acquisition system decodes this information and reconstitutes T2 distributions, which are available for further use. In real time it is possible to perform full interpretation of NMR data, including the adjustment of clay and bound fluid cutoffs and evaluation of textural information embedded in the T2 distribution. Raw echo data is also recorded and can be processed post-acquisition for final optimized answers. The effect of averaged burst sub-measurements and reduced echo spacing on the quality of NMR T2 distributions is illustrated in Figure 1: 1) Real Time T2 distribution (computed using the long cycle and the 0.8 ms inter-echo spacing burst): the shape of T2 distribution allows identifying the main formation characteristics with sufficient precision. 2) Memory mode T2 distribution without any burst use: sensitivity to short T2s is limited and a porosity deficit appears. This demonstrates the need of the bursts. 3) Memory mode T2 distribution using the long cycle and the 0.8 ms inter-echo spacing burst: it is similar to RT results but a bit smoother as not affected by MWD jitters and improved stacking. 4) Memory mode T2 distribution using the long cycle and the 0.6 ms inter-echo spacing burst: it represents an improvement from previous track with a better definition of short T2s. 5) Memory mode T2 distribution using all the three cycles (long cycle, 0.8 ms and 0.6 ms inter-echo spacing bursts): this is the best achievable result with the most stable T2 logarithmic mean (T2LM). 6) Total porosities comparison: the biggest change is due to burst addition, confirming they are fundamental for quantitative analysis. There is also an improvement using the 0.6 ms burst compared to the 0.8 ms inter-echo spacing burst, and the best results are obtained using all the three cycles. 7) Bound fluid comparison: without bursts, BFV is definitely under estimated. There is a progressive improvement adding bursts, with “0.6 ms” being better than “0.8 ms” and finally using all the data available the result is close to long cycle and 0.6 ms inter-echo spacing burst but just a bit more stable. Additional details relative to the latest tool development are described in separate paper SPE-160022-PP. In summary, calibrated porosity data ranging from at least 0.5 ms to 5000 ms, suitable to be used for direct interpretation of pore size distribution and movable fluids are available both in real time and memory modes. 3

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012

Figure # 1: comparison of different NMR processing options 3.2 Multi-function collar overview LWD Resistivity and density-neutron measurements were originally implemented in two separate collars. The nuclear one, lacking an upper real time connection and enabling a fishable radioactive source, had always to be placed at the top of the BHA, resulting in measurements normally very far apart from the bit. Mixing data obtained at different invasion times due to the distance between the resistivity sub and the nuclear section poses limits to the degree of accuracy of the resulting formation evaluation. A new compact multi-function LWD collar of 6-3/4 inches diameter has been designed to replace the previous combination of tools. It can be placed closer to the bit, reducing the amount of rat hole required, it improves operations efficiency by simplifying BHA and due to optimized design it also has a longer mean time in between failures (MTBF) resulting in potential reduced lost time than the traditional combination of separate tools. The new collar supports advanced formation evaluation, incorporating multi-physics measurements sensors and detectors. The bottom section of the tool contains an azimuthal gamma ray sensor (GR) with 16-sector GR image, annular pressure while drilling (APWD), drilling dynamics and inclination, Density measurement is provided within a centrally located stabilizer. The side-loaded cesium source, results in increased count rates and improved statistics. At the top of the stabilizer two oppositely located ultrasonic sensors provide high resolution 16-sector caliper measurements. In the top section a Pulsed Neutron Generator (PNG) with He3 and GR detectors are collocated with 2MHZ and 400 KHz phase shift and attenuation resistivity propagation measurements. PNG source provides a new hydrogen index porosity measurement, known as best-phi, along with the traditional TNPH (neutron porosity derived from near to far detector count rate ratio). Being a pulsed source, it also enables measurement of formation capture cross-section (sigma), elemental capture spectroscopy for lithology identification and a neutron gamma density (NGD), not derived from a chemical radioactive source. This last feature is the mean for a source-less density measurement. Measurements collocated in a single collar have several advantages. As acquisition occurs at the same time, all the different sensors with similar depth of investigation are equally affected. In a petrophysical analysis equations are normally used to combine several measurements. The most classical resistivity equation, developed experimentally by Archie mixes resistivity and porosity. Naturally, the implicit assumption is that both measurements happen at the same time, a rare case with previous tools under dynamic drilling conditions. With the new multi-function collar, the resistivity and the nuclear measurements are effectively superposed, and the gamma-gamma density is only few centimeters below. Investigating the same volume of formation with all the measurements justifies use of the data in the petrophysical equations and provides trust in the obtained results. 3.3 Interpretation Models To resolve a petrophysical problem at least two different approaches exist: a truly deterministic method, consisting in breaking the evaluation problem in a succession of simple tasks, linked to each other, and a more general one based on the simultaneous probabilistic solution of a matrix solver. The first method is generally suitable for simple lithology problems like the ones encountered in siliciclastics reservoirs. In this case, shale fraction, porosity and saturation are computed sequentially. The second type of approach is indicated for complex lithology evaluation, where 4

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 the minerals in the rock matrix and multiple fluids are all affecting the log responses in a non-obvious manner. The difficulty is to resolve an inverse problem, identifying the volumetric fractions of the components that drive the log responses as measured. Using this methodology the analyst has a powerful advantage. After computing the volumetric fractions of mineral and fluids best representing the formation, the same information with forward modeling, allows generating synthetic logs. The difference between measured and reconstructed (synthetic) logs determines the validity of the approach, providing a quantifiable quality control. Inability to reconstruct determined logs is an indication that the constituents of the model may not be appropriate and further investigation is required. The degree of freedom or the chance of identifying a non-unique solution of a multi-mineral problem is significantly reduced when spectroscopy data are available. Spectroscopy can be used to directly drive the matrix determination based on pre-determined end-points characterized in laboratory. The methodology therefore becomes extremely scientific and removes need for educated guesses. As described previously the key to success is the availability of reliable mineralogy measurements as input. The new multi-function collar satisfies these requirements, especially for carbonate evaluation, as magnesium stripping enables a direct identification of the calcite versus dolomite composition. Drilling in complex carbonates including randomly cemented intervals is a slow process. Rarely drilling rate (ROP) exceeds 10 meter per hours and most commonly is less than 5 m/hr. While upsetting drilling engineers, the low ROP is actually providing significant benefits for an accurate petrophysical analysis. All nuclear measurements are inherently statistical and the longer the exposure time, the better the data. Slow drilling actually allows acquiring data of unprecedented quality without requiring any additional rig time. A well would have to be drilled anyway: the plus is to simultaneously acquire valuable data.As acquisition is versus time, data stacking allows improving signal to noise ratio, guaranteeing small equivalent depth sampling rate due to slow tool movements. Minimizing vibrations, guaranteeing that all the useful energy is used to drive the bit and not to shake the BHA, is a common goal of drilling engineers and petrophysicists. Under these conditions, drilling time is “logging saved time”. In addition to spectroscopy another valuable data is capture cross section (sigma). Sigma is especially sensitive to the amount of chlorine, and can easily differentiate formation water from hydrocarbons when salinity is sufficiently high. In typical carbonate formations encountered in Brazil formations water salinity lies in the optimum range, providing a large contrast between hydrocarbons and water. (Oil sigma is around 20 capture units versus 100 or more capture units for a typical formation water). Instead of using a resistivity equation, a volumetric solution is achievable with sigma. Typically, this allows computing the relative volumes of water and oil within 8 to 10 inches of the borehole wall. If invasion is deep, sigma provides a mean to detect it, especially with SOBM in a water zone. 2Mhz propagation resistivity is another element enabling solution of the petrophysical challenge. In vertical wells the deepest curves are normally corresponding to Rt or Rh. In highly deviated wells propagation logs are sensitive to anisotropy and with appropriate processing a combination of Rh and Rv can be obtained. As in carbonates formations a relatively low amount of anisotropy has been observed, with the exclusion of polarization horns at layer boundaries, deep phase or attenuation resistivities can be used as valid representation of Rt. To finalize the problem definition NMR provides the missing information. The integrated porosity in T2 distribution up to the bound fluid cutoff defines the amount of unmovable fluids. With the improvement in accuracy and T2 range extension lately achieved, the NMR derived bound fluid volume can be directly associated to the amount of irreducible water within a multi-mineral solver. An alternative method also available is to use the NMR free fluid fraction to define the amount of movable fluids. Knowing total porosity and free fluid, the difference is obviously the non-movable fraction. This is true even in the remote cases where T2 decays are so fast not to be able to be fully measured. The last logical assumption is to consider that the amount of irreducible water measured by NMR having a shallow depth of investigation is unchanged far away from the borehole. The combination of the elements mentioned above allows to fully characterizing the mineralogy and the fluid composition of the carbonate rocks encountered in post and pre-salt carbonates offshore Brazil. Using the methodology described in the J.K.Hassall et al paper, based on the analysis of the NMR T2 distribution shape, it is possible to determine present-day carbonate texture. An enhanced permeability estimation over more than four decades may be derived (typically from 0.1 to 1000 mD, while traditional SDR or Timor-Coates equation tend to saturate around 100 md, exactly where the macro porosity fraction is generally boosting permeability). Actual estimations have been verified where possible against formation tester dynamic station pressure measurements. 5

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 The described methodology was applied to both Real Time and memory data as illustrated in the following chapter.

4. Example of Real Time and Memory Analysis using LWD Measurements
An 8.5 inch bit size high angle borehole was drilled with SOBM using a BHA which included Rotary Steering Assembly, multi-function measurement tool and LWD NMR tool. The measurements acquired were propagation resistivity, neutron-density, elemental spectroscopy, NMR, and sigma. All data were streamed in real time to enable a complete formation evaluation. As the measurements have different azimuthal sensitivities they are sensitive to different regions of the formation around the borehole. Propagation resistivity, the measurement with the deepest depth of investigation, normally reads beyond the flushed zone, while sigma, the shallowest volumetric measurement, is used to characterize the flushed zone. Due to the relatively small time after bit, the resistivity logs have no visible separation suggesting negligible invasion. In addition, the well inclination over the reservoir section is not excessively high to trigger 2D effects like polarization horns. For this reason, P40H is assumed to represent Rt. Use of the sigma measurement for flushed zone analysis is an effective alternative and was chosen in the model. Spectroscopy measurements for the carbonate zone detects mostly calcite with inclusions of dolomite, quartz and clay are also present in the formation. NMR response is good, reading within the invaded zone. It responds mainly to surface relaxation enabling rock texture characterization. The Quanti-ELAN* multi-mineral solver is setup similarly for both real time and memory data. Memory channels have suffix _EC when derived from the multi-function tool, e.g. SIFA_EC for formation Sigma, TNPH_EC for thermal neutron porosity, P40H_EC for phase shift resistivity at high frequency, and _PV for the LWD NMR, as in BFV_PV bound fluid volume fraction. Real Time channels have all suffix _RT. The six elemental dry weight fractions (DWAL_EC, DWCA_EC, DWSI_EC, DWFE_EC, DWMG_EC, DWSU_EC) define the rock matrix mineralogy. To differentiate between calcite and dolomite, elemental capture spectroscopy data are processed downhole enabling magnesium stripping. Density and neutron porosity measurements are used for porosity computation. Neutron porosity in real time is corrected for bit size. The NMR bound fluid channel is assigned to the irreducible water volume, consisting of water associated with clay and capillary bound water. NMR porosity (MRP_PV) is included in the solver, contributing directly to the porosity estimation and reflecting its consistency with the analysis and other measurements in the reconstructed curves overlay. It is of particular benefit in real time, since as at that stage thermal neutron porosity has not been yet fully corrected for environmental effects and needs to be given a smaller weight. Volumetric saturation in the flushed zone derived from sigma identified only irreducible water and oil based mud filtrate. The combined information provided a comprehensive picture of reservoir behavior: mud filtrate is displacing all the movable water in the flushed zone. Sigma based interpretation is consistent with NMR, enabling the complementary use and reconstruction of the two methods.

Input Properties Figure 2 : Quanti ELAN* input channels, uncertainties and equation types 6

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012

Special Models

Figure 3: Petrophysical Analysis Parameter Initialization for LWD based logs interpretation

Figure 4: Multi-Mineral Evaluation using Logging While Drilling data displaying reconstructions and results. Figure 4 is a quality control display of the multi-mineral formation evaluation. The first twelve tracks on the left are the input curves, each with its specific uncertainty range and the corresponding reconstructed curves computed using tool forward model based on the volumetric fractions of the formation model. The reconstructed curves are contained within the tolerance range for all the input curves validating the analysis performed. The overall model error is extremely low as displayed on the 4th track from the right. Petrophysical volumes are following the input logs in the following order: Flushed zone analysis (showing oil based mud invasion), virgin zone analysis (with practically no oil saturation), rock lithology and predominant rock mineralogy. To complete the display porosity and water saturation respectively in the flushed and the virgin zones are included. The degree of diagenesis in the reservoir rock indicated by a significant fraction of dolomite is matching the operators expectations. It shows the importance of the spectroscopy data, which in this context has the unique capability of detecting the relative calcite/dolomite fractions. Contrast in saturation between flushed and virgin zones confirms the presence of invasion, and therefore permeability. The virgin zone analysis however established that producible fluid is water. 7

100 m

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012

Figure5: Petrophysical evaluation and textural analysis with LWD data The top of the carbonate interval is tight with no free fluid. This is followed by a progressive improvement in texture and porosity, achieving the best reservoir characteristics towards the bottom of the zone, highlighted by the two rectangles. The permeability estimations were confirmed by MDT stations. In the middle zone permeability expectations are higher than effectively measured, but we cannot exclude depth correlation inaccuracy (due to well deviation) and impact of laminated beds, as suggested by the lithology plot patterns. Overall however, the quality of the estimation is positively contributing to reservoir behavior understanding and it was considered conclusive. 8

50 m

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012

5. Conclusions
The results shown in this paper demonstrate that the newly introduced multi-function measurement and LWD NMR collars allow performing an extensive formation evaluation in complex carbonate formation. In the examples provided the LWD data demonstrates the potential to spare extra investigation costs, especially if the main evaluation in critical wells is executed with a complete set of LWD measurements. Drilling in carbonates inherently supports the LWD choice as the relatively low ROP in these formations helps to acquire better quality log data without requiring extra rig time. LWD measurements make formation evaluation in high angle/horizontal wells feasible where traditional WL services would not be practical. Finally, spectroscopy and NMR measurements are key tools to characterize complex carbonate reservoirs. Both of these measurements are available with LWD conveyance.

6. Nomenclature
Rt Rxo WL LWD MRP BFV Quanti-ELAN* POR_QE Di Phie Sw Sxo Dpoints SOBM * Mark of Schlumberger True resistivity in unflushed zone Flushed Zone Resistivity Wireline data acquisition Logging While Drilling data acquisition Total NMR Porosity Bound Fluid Volume (from NMR) Multi-Mineral Petrophysical Analsysis Porosity Quality Control Output Invasion diameter Effective porosity Water saturation in unflushed zone Water saturation in flushed zone Frame constituents for mud pulse data transmission Synthetic Oil Based Mud

7. Acknowledgements
The authors are grateful to OGX Petroleo for releasing data shown on this paper and Schlumberger for granting permission to publish this work.

8. Quotations and Bibliography
Archie, G.,E., AIME Transactions 31, 350-366, 1942 “The Electrical Resistivity Logs as an Aid in Determining Some Reservoirs Characteristics” Hansen P. and Shray F., 37th Annual Logging Symposium SPWLA, 1996. “Unraveling the Differences Between LWD and Wireline Measurements” Klein, J. D., Martin P.R, Allen, D.F. 36th Electrically Anisotropic Reservoirs” SPWLA Annual Logging Symposium, 1995 “The Petrophysics of

Qiming Li, ChengBing Liu, Carlos Maeso, Peter Wu, Jan Smith, Hendrayadi Prabawa, John Bradfield. SPWLA 44th Annual Logging Symposium, 2003 “Automated Interpretation for LWD Propagation Resistivity Tools through Integrated Model Selection”


Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 M. Ribeiro, V. Costa, R. Guedes, P. Bittencourt, OGX; P. Ferraris, A. Guedes, Schlumberger. OTC-22738 2011. “Integrated Petrophysics and Geosteering Reservoir Characterization in the initial development phase of a carbonate reservoir – Campos Basin, Offshore Brazil.” Ferraris Paolo 2012 NT workshop BGRC Rio de Janeiro “Real Time Multi-Mineral Formation Evaluation with LWD Spectroscopy and NMR data” Raghu Ramamoorthy, Charles Flaum, Austin Boyd, Nikita Seleznev, Tom Neville SPWLA symposium 2008 Paper: B “A New Workflow for Petrophysical and Textural Evaluation of Carbonate Reservoirs” J.K. Hassall, Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations; Paolo Ferraris, M. Al-Raisi, Schlumberger; N.F. Hurley, Colorado School of Mines; A. Boyd, D.F. Allen , Schlumberger-Doll Research SPE 88683-MS ADIPEC 2004 “Comparison of Permeability Predictors from NMR, Formation Image and Other Logs in a Carbonate Reservoir” Walid Najia, Mohammad Shaban, Hedhili Gossa, ZADCO, Abu Dhabi; Paolo Ferraris, Badarinadh Vissapragada, Mario Petricola, K.M.N. Namboodri, Schlumberger, Abu Dhabi, UAE SPE 78485-MS 2002 “Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), a valuable tool for Tar detection in a Carbonate Formation of Abu Dhabi” Asbjorn Gyllensten, Mohamed Ibrahim Al-Hammadi, Emhemed Abousrafa, ADCO; Austin Boyd, Raghu Ramamoorthy, Steve Neumann, Schlumberger; Thomas J. Neville, Schlumberger-Doll Research, SPE 2008 “A New Workflow for Comprehensive Petrophysical Characterization of Carbonate Reservoirs Drilled with Water-Base Muds” S. Al Arfi, ADCO, and D. Heliot, J. Li, X. Zhan, and D. Allen, Schlumberger ADIPEC 2006 “A New Porosity Partitioning-Based Methodology for Permeability and Texture Analysis in Abu Dhabi Carbonates” S. L. Herron , M. M. Herron Schlumberger-Doll Research SPWLA 37th Annual Logging Symposium, 16 – 19 June 1996, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, Paper E. “Quantitative Lithology: an application for Open and Cased Hole Spectroscopy” E. Mirto, SPE, G. Weller, SPE, T. el-Halawani, SPE, J. Grau, SPE, M. Berheide, SPE, F. Allioli, SPE, and M. Evans, SPE, Schlumberger Oilfield Services; R. Berto, M. Borghi, and M. Firinu, Eni; and M. Giorgioni, Shell SPE Europec/EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition, 12-15 June 2006, Vienna, Austria ISBN978-1-55563-230-4 “Developments in Sourceless Logging While Drilling Formation Evaluation: A Case Study from Southern Italy” V. Machado, P. Frederico Petrobras CENPES, P. Netto Petrobras, R. Bagueira Fluminense Federal University, A. Boyd, A. Souza Schlumberger Brazil Research and Geoengineering Center Rio de Janeiro, L. Zielinski Schlumberger-Doll Research Cambridge, MA , E.Junk Schlumberger , SPWLA 52th Annual Symposium 2011, Paper B “Carbonate Petrophysics in wells drilled with Oil-Base Mud” V. Jain, C. Flaum, B. Boling, A. Dementyev, David O., K. Ganesan, T.Hopper, J. Motta Calderon, C. Madubike, A.Kennedy, S.Liu, M. Edward Flaum, L.DePavia, JM Degrange, B.Vandermeer, N.Heaton SPE ATCE 2012 , Paper SPE-160022-PP “New Generation Magnetic Resonance While Drilling”