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**Numerical Methods for Civil Engineers ภาคการศึกษาที่ 3 ปการศึกษา 2548 MATLAB Lecture 1 Introduction
**

Instructor: Mongkol JIRAVACHARADET School of Civil Engineering Institute of Engineering Suranaree University of Technology

Textbook

Applied Numerical Methods With MATLAB for Engineers and Scientists

STEVEN C. CHAPRA

McGraw-Hill International Edition

References

Numerical Methods For Engineers with Personal Computer Applications, (Third Edition) by Chapra, S.C. and R.P. Canale, McGraw-Hill, 1998 Numerical Methods with MATLAB : Implementations and Applications, Gerald W. Recktenwald, Prentice-Hall, 2000 An Introduction to Numerical Methods : A MATLAB Approach, Abdelwahab Kharab and Ronald B. Guenther, Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2002 Numerical Methods using MATLAB, John H. Mathews and Kurtis D. Fink, Prentice-Hall, 2004 The Matlab 7 Handbook , Mathwork Inc.

KEEP THESE BOOKS! They are excellent career references (at least for a while)

Topics Covered

• Introduction to Matlab • Approximations and Errors • Roots of Equations • Linear Systems • Curve Fitting • Interpolation • Numerical Integration • Ordinary Differential Equations • Optimization

Conduct of Course

Homework/Projects/Quizzes Midterm Exam Final Exam 30 % 30 % 40 %

Grading Policy

Final Score 100 - 90 89 - 85 84 - 80 79 - 75 74 - 70 69 - 65 64 - 60 59 - 0 Grade A B+ B C+ C D+ D F

WARNINGS !!!

1) Participation expected, check by quizzes 2) Study in groups but submit work on your own 3) No Copying of Matlab code 4) Submit Homework at the beginning of class 5) Late homework with penalty 30% 6) No make up quizzes or exams

MATLAB

The Language of Technical Computing

M ATLAB เปนโปรแกรมที่รวมการคํานวณทาง

คณิตศาสตร การแสดงผล และภาษาที่มีประสิทธิภาพ เพื่อสรางสภาวะแวดลอมที่ยืดหยุนสําหรับการคํานวณ ทางเทคนิค ดวยสถาปตยกรรมแบบเปด ทําใหเปนการงาย ที่จะใช MATLAB ในการสํารวจขอมูล สรางอัลกอริธึม หรือ สรางเครื่องมือคํานวณตามที่ผูใชตองการ

The latest version Matlab 7.3 R2006b

www.mathworks.com

**MATLAB = MATrix LABoratory
**

- Math and computation - Algorithm development - Modeling, Simulation, and Prototyping - Data analysis, exploration, and visualization - Scientific and Engineering Graphics - Many toolboxes for solving problems: Control System Toolbox Signal Processing Toolbox System Identification Toolbox Neural Network Toolbox Statistics Toolbox Optimization Toolbox Partial Diff. Equation Toolbox Symbolic Math Toolbox

**MATLAB Educational Sites
**

http://www.mathworks.com/ http://www.eece.maine.edu/mm/matweb.html http://www.math.utah.edu/lab/ms/matlab/matlab.html http://www.math.mtu.edu/~msgocken/intro/intro.html

MATLAB 1

- Getting started - Basic Arithmetic - Built-in Functions - Built-in Variables - Vector & Matrix

**The MATLAB System
**

The MATLAB system consists of five main parts: Development Environment: set of tools and facilities that help you use MATLAB functions and files. Many of these tools are graphical user interfaces. It includes the MATLAB desktop and Command Window, a command history, an editor and dedugger, and browsers for viewing help, the workspace, files, and the search path. The MALAB Mathematical Function Library: a vast collection of computational algorithms. The MATLAB Language: This is a high-level matrix/array language with control flow statements, functions, data structures, input/output, and objected-oriented programming features. Graphics: MATLAB has extensive facilities 2-D and 3-D data visualization, animation, and presentation graphics. The MATLAB Application Program Interface (API): allows you to write C and Fortran programs that interact with MATLAB.

Getting Started

MATLAB Desktop

Getting Started

Command Window

Command prompt >> DEMO

Getting Started

Editor/Debugger

Basic Arithmetic

Calculator functions work as you'd expect:

>>(1+4)*3 ans = 15

+ and - are addition, / is division, * is multiplication, ^ is an exponent.

>> >>

5*5*5 5^(-2.5)

>> 3*(23+14.7-4/6)/3.5

Last-line editing Up Arrow

>> 2 + 6 - 4 ans = 4 The value in ans can be recalled: >> ans/2 ans = 2 Assign value to a variable: >> a = 5 >> b = 6 >> c = b/a

Upper & Lower Case >> a=2; >> A=3; >> 2*a >> 2*A Several commands in the same line: >>x=2;y=6+x,x=y+7

… For too long command: >> Num_Apples = 10; >> Num_Orange = 25; >> Num_Pears = 12; >> Num_Fruit=Num_Apples+Num_Orange... + Num_Pears

Built-in Functions

>> sin(pi/4) ans = 0.7071 >> pi ans = 3.1416 sin(x), cos(x), tan(x), sqrt(x), log(x), log10(x), asin(x), acos(x), atan(x)

The output of each command can be suppress by using semicolon ; >> x = 5; >> y = sqrt(59); >> z = log(y) + x^0.25 z = 3.5341

The commas allow more than one command on a line: >> a = 5; b = sin(a), c = sinh(a) b = -0.9589 c = 74.2099 MATLAB Variables is created whenever it appears on the left-hand of “ = “ >> t = 5; >> t = t + 2 t = 7

Any variable appearing on the right-hand side of “ = “ must already be defined. >> x = 2*z ??? Undefined function or variable ‘z’ >> who >> whos >> clear Use long variable names is better to remember and understandable for others >> radius = 5.2;

Format

>> pi >> format long >> pi >> format short >> format bank >> format short e >> format long e >> format compact >> format loose

>> area = pi*radius^2; >> format

Built-in Variables

Use by MATLAB, Should not be assigned to other values Variable ans eps i, j pi realmax realmin Inf NaN >> x = 0; >> 5/x >> x/x Meaning value of an expression when not assigned to variable floating-point precision unit imaginary numbers, i = j = π = 3.14159265 . . . largest positive floating-point number smallest positive floating-point number ∞, a number larger than realmax, result of 1/0 not a number (0/0) >> help log On-line Help: >> lookfor cosine

−1

**Matrices and Magic Squares
**

In MATLAB, a matrix is a rectangular array of numbers. scalars = 1-by-1 matrices vectors = one row or column matrices it is usually best to think of everything as a matrix. The matrices operations in MATLAB are designed to be as natural as possible.

MATLAB allows you to work with entire matrices quickly and easily.

Renaissance engraving Melencolia I by the German artist and amateur mathematician Albrecht Dürer.

Entering Matrices

You can enter matrices into MATLAB in several different ways: • Enter an explicit list of elements. • Load matrices from external data files. • Generate matrices using built-in functions. • Create matrices with your own functions in M-files. Start by entering matrix as a list of its elements. You only have to follow a few basic conventions: • Separate the elements of a row with blanks or commas. • Use a semicolon, ; , to indicate the end of each row. • Surround the entire list of elements with square brackets, [ ] . To enter matrix, simply type in the Command Window >> A = [16 3 2 13; 5 10 11 8; 9 6 7 12; 4 15 14 1]

**Row and Column Vectors
**

Row vector >> A = [ 2 3 5 7 11]

Column vector >> A = [ 2; 3; 5; 7; 11] Transposition >> At = A’

Arrays Operations

>> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> A = [ 3 5 7 9 11 ] A(3) length(A) clear(A) B = [ 2 4 6 8 10 ] A + B A - B A * B A .* B >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> A / B A ./ B A .^ 2 odd = 1:2:11 even = 2:2:12 natural = 1:6 angle = 0:pi/10:pi; sin(angle)

**Generate matrices using built-in functions
**

>> >> >> >> A A A A = = = = zeros(4) ones(4) eye(4) magic(4) >> A = zeros(3,4)

**Elementary Matrix Operations
**

>> S = A + B >> D = A - B >> A*B >> C = [ 10 11; 12 13; 14 15]; >> A*C >> A^2 >> L = log10(A) >> [m , n] = size(A) >> det(A) >> inv(A) >> v = [1 2 3]; >> A = diag(v) >> B = diag([1 2 1 2]) >> w = diag(B)

Subscripts

The element in row i and column j of A is denoted by A(i , j) A = [16 3 2 13; 5 10 11 8; 9 6 7 12; 4 15 14 1] MATLAB displays the matrix you just entered. A = 16 5 9 4 3 10 6 15 2 11 7 14 13 8 12 1

For example, A(4,2) is the number in the fourth row and second column. >> A(4,2) ans = 15

Submatrix

>> A(1,:) >> A(:,2) >> A(3:4,1:2)

Juxtaposition

>> B = [9 8 2 5 ; 4 5 6 7 ; 2 1 3 4] >> [A B] >> size(ans) >> [A ; B]

**The Colon Operator
**

The colon, :, is one of the most important MATLAB operators. >> 1:10 To obtain nonunit spacing, specify an increment. For example, >> 100:-7:50 and >> 0:pi/4:pi

Linspace

linspace function creates row vectors with equally spaced elements. >> u = linspace(0.0,0.25,5) >> v = linspace(0,9,4)’ >> x = linspace(0,pi/6,6*pi); >> s = sin(x); >> c = cos(x); >> t = tan(x); >> [x’ s’ c’ t’]

Workspace Browser

The MATLAB workspace consists of the set of variables (named arrays) built up during a MATLAB session and stored in memory. You add variables to the workspace by using functions, running M-files, and loading saved workspaces. To view the workspace and information about each variable, use the Workspace browser, or use the functions who and whos.

**Example 2.1 Transportation route analysis
**

The following table gives data for the distance travel along five truck routes and the corresponding time required to traveled each route. Use the data to compute the average speed required to drive each route. Find the route that has the highest average speed. 1 Distance (miles) Time (hrs) 560 10.3 2 440 8.2 3 490 9.1 4 530 10.1 5 370 7.5

Solution:

>>d = [560, 440, 490, 530, 370] >>t = [10.3, 8.2, 9.1, 10.1, 7.5] >>speed = d./t speed = 54.3689

53.6585

53.8462

52.4752

49.3333

>>[highest_speed, route] = max(speed) highest_speed = 54.3689 route = 1

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