Title: KINETIC ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEMS FOR PASSENGER CARS AND URBAN BUSES Scientific coordinator: Prof.

Giacomo Mantriota Collaborations: Politecnico di Torino; University of Surrey, Guildford ABSTRACT In recent years, the need for a decrease of fuel consumption of ground vehicles pushed the interest of the automotive engineers community towards the energy recovery in braking (KERS: Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems). It can be estimated that in urban cycles, more than 65% of the overall energy demand is due to speed-up and it is wasted in brakes, of course. Hybrid architectures are employed: a) to recover and store the energy which would be wasted in braking; b) reuse the stored energy in acceleration. Most of hybrid systems, be either still in production or in development, are based on electric-hybrid architecture with different layouts and storage devices. However, the multiple conversion of energy according to the path mechanical-electrical-chemical gives poor overall efficiency, that is estimated about of 35%. A further defect of the hybrid-electric systems is the battery life. As a matter of fact, a charge level higher than 90-95% is suggested to guarantee a long life to batteries, and this condition is in contrast with the requirements of a profitable energy recovery that needs frequent complete cycles of charge and discharge. Because of these reasons, an interesting and promising solution is given by the mechanical hybrid system, which stores the energy in a rotating flywheel connected into the driveline by a mechanical speed regulator. The mechanical hybrid system (mechanical KERS) stores the energy in a highspeed rotating flywheel, avoiding any energy conversion. It results that the overall efficiency of the system can be up to 70%, that is twice the value of electrical-hybrid. An additional advantage is the small packaging of the system. BACKGROUND The basic principle of a mechanical-hybrid system is simple: as the vehicle decelerates, the flywheel is accelerated. The energy transfer between the vehicle and the flywheel is obtained via a variable drive of which the rate of ratio change determines the amount of braking (or accelerating) torque into the driveline. For this reason, the variable drive is a key point for a profitable design of mechanical KERS. In the season 2009, Torotrak has manufactured a device made of a flywheel connected to a Toroidal CVT with a ratio spread (the ratio between the maximum and the minimum value of the transmission ratio) equal to 6. Such simple and compact architecture was optimal to meet the amendments of Formula 1 rule, but it is maybe not optimal for application on passenger cars. In fact, it is commonly believed that passenger cars and urban buses need larger ratio spread than those given by a simple CVT transmission. Power Split CVT systems are obtained via coupling CVT, ordinary and planetary gear trains and they allow larger ratio spreads. As an unfavourable effect, enlarging the ratio spread, also increases the size and costs, and reduces the efficiency of the system. This is why a correct design and optimization of the Power Split device is of utmost importance in the development of a high quality mechanical KERS. The most convenient energy recovery can be achieved by a correct tuning of the rate of change of the transmission ratio, power flows, available torques and efficiency.

applications of CVT and Power Split CVT to conventional topics (fuel consumption of passenger cars.) constraints of the KERS will be determined. with both theoretical and experimental approaches. Power Split CVT. An ideal transmission with unitary efficiency will be considered in this phase. Moreover some original architectures of Power Split CVT systems have been suggested.The research activity of this project is aimed at the optimization of the Power Split CVT systems for mechanical KERS. cost and size. Some recent studies have shown the possibility to develop generalized mathematical efficiency models of Power Split CVTs. The research project will be split into four phases: In the phase 1. metal belt CVTs. rate of change of the transmission ratio. . Studies about mechanical KERS will be carried on. IVT).. The mathematical optimization method will operate on the design parameters of the transmissions as variables: layout. with a larger torque spread. transmission ratios (gears. The wide ratio spread required binds to choose Power Split CVT systems. one of which have been patented by the author. The optimized set of parameters will suggest the optimal variable drive to be applied to the KERS.) and dynamic (flywheel inertia. The investigations have dealt with: efficiency. As an example. size and cost. dynamics. kinematic (working velocities of the flywheel. but it would reduce the efficiency of the variable drive and it would also increase its costs and size. The cost function will be built to take into account the fuel consumption. fuel consumption of buses. simulations of the vehicle dynamics will be performed (passenger car... IVTs (Infinitely Variable Transmissions). and non-conventional topics. The optimization of the device will be performed considering several aspects: energy saving. The results obtained will lead to the right choice of transmission layout (CVT. planetary gears and CVT) working velocities of the flywheel. RESEARCH PROPOSAL The optimization of Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems for application to passenger cars and urban buses is the main purpose of this project. power flows and efficiency of Power Split CVT.. bus) for the evaluation of the fuel consumption driving standard cycles. The same analysis will be performed for both passenger cars and urban buses. metal chain CVTs. The research group has a 16 years experience in the field of continuously variable transmissions. In the phase 2. flywheel inertia. . torques. a general purpose model to predict the performances of all possible layouts of Power Split systems and Compound CVT systems will be developed. number of axles where to connect the device into. spread of transmission ratio. focusing on purpose of reducing costs and size. with application to passenger cars and urban buses. The application to urban buses is expected to be promising because of the frequent start-stop sequence of their typical driving cycle. In the phase 3 the optimization will be formulated and solved. . an increase of the ratio spread (the ratio between the maximum and the minimum allowable transmission ratios) would permit in theory to recover larger amounts of energy in braking. In a mechanical KERS the continuously variable transmission has a key role for the energy transfer from the vehicle to the flywheel. Toroidal CVTs. Assuming a perfect recovery of the energy. Compound Split CVT. The investigation of the optimal solution for Power Split architecture is constrained by factors which play an opposite role in determining the best choice.

851-864. pp.. No D7.. 5. Mantriota G.: Power split CVT systems with high efficiency. Part D. 11. 2002. pp. 6. pp.. No. pp. Mantriota G. Vol. Proc. 37. No.. 130. Vol. pp. Mechanism and Machine Theory. 1.: A comparison between the performance of full and half toroidal traction drives. Vol.. Instn Mech. Mangialardi L. 7. pp. 37. Engrs. 8. Engrs. 16-23. 11. 2002. 2001. Vol. 2. Carbone G. 7.: Performances of a parallel infinitely variable transmission with a type ii power flow. Mantriota G. 34. Mantriota G. Mantriota G. 215. 4. 110. Section 3..: Fuel consumption of a mid class vehicle with Infinitely Variable Transmission. Part D. 1. No. Mantriota G. SAE Transaction 2002 Journal of Engines. Vol. Mangialardi L. 215.. Mantriota G. Vol. . Mechanism and Machine Theory. pp. 6. Vol.. No. Vol. No. Mechanism and Machine Theory. Mantriota G. Vol. 1999. Journal of Vehicle Design. Journal of Automobile Engineering. Mangialardi L. 2004. 6. 10. 555-578. Part D. Mechanism and Machine Theory. 973-994. Journal of Automobile Engineering. Proc.: Performances of a series infinitely variable transmission with a type i power flow. 3.Journal of Automobile Engineering. No D3.SOME RELATED PUBLICATIONS 1. Mantriota G. Instn Mech. pp. No D7. 2004..: Theoretical and experimental study of a power split continuously variable transmission system: Part. Engrs. Vol.: Performance of a City Bus equipped with a Toroidal Traction Drive. 37. 579-597. 2001.: MG-IVT: an infinitely variable transmission with optimal power flows. 921-942..: Fuel consumption of a vehicle with power split CVT system. 357-368. Carbone G. 2001. Soria L. pp. Proc. 327-342. ASME Journal of Mechanical Design. IASME Transactions.: Theoretical and experimental study of a power split Continuously Variable Transmission system: Part 2. pp.: Power flows and efficiency in infinitely variable transmissions. Instn Mech. 2005. 39. Mangialardi L. 2002. 1. No. Vol. 9. Int. 4. Mantriota G. Bottiglione F. 2008. Carbone G. 2474-2483. 215. 837-850. Mantriota G.