Prepared by: K.Y.

LOH

This is a section through the testis showing numerous seminiferous tubules.

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and develop a long flagellum (your book calls it a "tail"). and enter the lumen. Differentiation of the presperm cell into the spermatozoan Basically. they do not look like spermatozoa yet. .When these four cells are first born. Once that is done. It takes a little bit of time for them to change from round cells to the flagellated cells we think of as spermatozoa. put tons of mitochondria (for making ATP) into its midpiece. the cell has to organize its nucleus and enzymes into a head region. the spermatozoa (or sperm cell) can wriggle its way free of the seminiferous tubule wall.

Transition: Spermatid to spermatozoan .

mitosis .

Males undergo spermatogenesis continually. once a spermatozoan makes it into the lumen of a seminiferous tubule. and that site is within the epididymus. it is has a continuous path with the urethra available to it. • • Males do not run out of sperm because mitosis precedes • Human males produce approximately1000 sperm per second (30 billion/year). and between 2 to 6 mL of semen are released in each ejaculation. It cannot traverse this pathway. however. it needs a storage and maturation site.• The lumina of the seminiferous tubules are continuous with the rete testes. approximately 500 million spermatozoa (or. and vas deferens lumina. They need to because millions of spermatozoa leave the body in every ejaculation. But. Therefore. So. each meiosis. a half a billion) are released in each ejaculation. . efferent ductules. 120 million spermatozoa are in every single mL of semen. The only way to have so many spermatozoa available for semen is to continually make them and store them as they are made until the next ejaculation. basically. until it matures and is specifically released.

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• Oogenesis occurs by meiosis as well. Because of this. it would not be good for females to make millions of ova. but with some modifications. . since a female cannot carry millions of fetuses! Instead. First of all. females do not need to have constant mitosis of their germ cells occurring. no more than one ovum per month should be made.

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the one cell that is destined to become the ovum (out of 4 potential daughter cells) is the only one that should get the nutrients. These tiny other cells are called polar bodies. only one of the daughter cells can become the ovum-. . Polar bodies die pretty quickly. and they do not last long.we only want one ovum per month! So. And it should get ALL of the nutrients! We want to start our zygote off well! This means that the other cells do not need much of the nutrient-rich cytoplasm.• The primary oocyte is a very large cell containing many nutrients that will be important for the early mitotic divisions of the zygote (as it grows into an embryo). When the cell divides during meiosis. Just the ovum survives.

(As it enlarges.• Females start off with millions of primary oocytes. The secondary oocyte is released from the ovary. Every month. the entire follicle enlarges). The oocyte is now a secondary oocyte. one of these primary oocytes is hormonally stimulated to begin to enlarge and to complete the first meiotic division. and its polar body will degenerate. .

The second meiotic division only occurs when fertilization happens. it never undergoes the second meiotic division. Now the ovum is ready to fuse with the spermatozoan. since I have never gotten pregnant. the secondary oocyte undergoes its second meiotic division to form the ovum (and another polar body). I have never had any of my oocytes finish meiosis! However.• Once the secondary oocyte exits the ovary. If it does not encounter a spermatozoan. it begins to travel down the uterine (fallopian) tube. . That means that . if the secondary oocyte comes in contact with a spermatozoan and fertilization begins.

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each of which is in Prophase I. Each egg begins oogenesis as a primary oocyte. . a total of 400-500 eggs.Oogenesis The ovary contains many follicles composed of a developing egg surrounded by an outer layer of follicle cells. At birth each female carries a lifetime supply of developing oocytes. A developing egg (secondary oocyte) is released each month from puberty until menopause.

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• Ovulation occurs approximately once every 28 days.• Each month. Females ovulate approximately 400 times during their lifetime. . approximately 1000 primary oocytes will to mature but most will die.

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SPERMATOGENESIS .

Oogenesis .

by mitosis in plants) in specialized organs known as gonads (in males these are termed testes). This all the cytoplasm and organelles go into the egg. the polar bodies. Spermatogenesis is the process of forming sperm cells by meiosis (in animals.• Gametogenesis is the process of forming gametes (by definition haploid. oogenesis places most of the cytoplasm into the large egg. n) from diploid cells of the germ line. do not develop. Oogenesis is the process of forming an ovum (egg) by meiosis (in animals.000. The other cells. After division the cells undergo differentiation to become sperm cells. Whereas in spermatogenesis all 4 meiotic products develop into gametes. by mitosis in the gametophyte in plants) in specialized gonads known as ovaries. while the female produces one egg (usually) each menstrual cycle.000 sperm per day. . Human males produce 200.

Oogenesis Spermatogenesis Oogonium (female germ cell) Germ cells committed to Meiosis Primary Oocyte First Meiotic Division Secondary Oocyte First Polar Body Second Meiotic Division Ovum and Second Polar Body Spermatogonium (male germ cell) Primary Spermatocyte Secondary Spermatocyte Secondary Spermatocyte 4 Spermatids 1 Ovum ( 1 viable gamete) 4 Spermatozoa ( 4 viable gametes) .