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Instructions Read the text and then select the correct answer, A, B, C or D.

Is too much sport bad for young people?
Tennis fans will remember when Martina Hingis wanted to retire from professional tennis at the (1) …. age of 21. At the time she was (2) …. number seven in the world but severe leg injuries forced her to drop out of the major championships taking place at that time. She began playing tennis when she was two, (3)…. her mother’s guidance. She achieved a (4) …. career, not only winning Wimbledon but the French, Australian and US open championships. However, some say that Hingis was (5) …. another example of ‘burn-out’, caused by too much training. Most professional sportspeople have been coached since they were (6) …. able to walk. Such intensive training (7) …. the risk of serious injury, which ironically may not occur until they reach the (8) …. of their career. Most athletes who retire from their profession do (9) …. because of injuries. The pressure is often more intense because sportspeople have to follow (10) …. diets while their bodies are still developing. Also, like child filmstars, sporting children devote themselves totally to their career sometimes at the (11) …. of personal relationships. In some cases they may also rebel against their parents for pushing them into the (12) …. in the first place.

Gap 1 Gap 2 Gap 3 Gap 4 Gap 5 Gap 6 Gap 7 Gap 8 Gap 9 Gap 10 Gap 11 Gap 12

A tender B gentle C soft D good A ordered B classified C ranked D labelled A by B through C under D at A ambitious B glittering C shining D self-made A yet B still C though D even A merely B narrowly C purely D barely A takes B makes C produces D runs A mark B point C best D peak A such B so C that D which A strict B firm C obligatory D harder A damage B expense C harm D hurt A publicity B prominence C spotlight D profile

1. A

2.C

3.C

4.B

5.A

6.D

7. D

8. D

9. B

10. A 11. B

12.C

When 'ice cold' doesn't mean 'nice cold'
Brain freeze, (1)……………. known as 'ice cream headache', is the scientific name given to the form of pain in the head commonly (2)……………… with the fast consumption of cold beverages and foods. A recent article in the British Medical Journal made (3) ………………… to several papers about the problems of consuming ice cold food items. The painful (4)……………… of 'brain freeze' has been studied as an example of 'referred pain'; in other words, a pain in an area separate from the site of the painful stimulation. Brain freeze occurs when something very cold, like ice cream, touches the top palate in the mouth. The effect of the cold is to constrict the blood vessels. (5)………………, as the palate warms up, the blood vessels suddenly enlarge and the blood rushes through the blood vessels. The nerves in this area send a signal for pain to the front of the brain, (6) …………….. in a brief albeit excruciating headache. Sufferers report that the pain begins a few seconds after ingesting ice-cold food and will last between 30 and 60 seconds. (7) ………………….. does a brain freeze headache last longer than 5 minutes. Brain freeze has not been shown to (8)………………….. a serious health risk. It has been estimated that 1 in 3 people experience ice cream headache and children are particularly (9)………………... Some studies suggest that it is more common in people who experience migraines; other studies have shown the (10)………………….. . Surprisingly, frozen yogurt, which maintains a more liquid state than ice-cream at lower temperatures, will (11)……………. brain freeze in test subjects more readily than dairy ice-cream, cold drinks or ice. Brain freeze (12)…………………… once the palate has had a chance to thaw. This can be hastened by pressing the tongue hard against the roof of the mouth or by breathing into your hands to heat the mouth.
Gap 1 Gap 2 Gap 3 Gap 4 Gap 5 Gap 6 Gap 7 Gap 8 Gap 9 Gap 10 Gap 11 Gap 12 A primarily B above C specially D purposely A combined B mixed C associated D united A mention B quotation C reference D recommendation A happening B phenomenon C episode D eventuality A However B Moreover C Further D Despite A producing B affecting C happening D resulting A exceptionally B uncommonly C Hardly D Rarely A position B advance C set D pose A inclined B susceptible C subjected D given A reverse B return C contradiction D earlier A bring B trigger C spark D set A sinks B descends C subsides D lowers

1.A 2.C 3.C 4.B 5.A 6.D 7.D 8.D 9.B 10.A 11.B 12.C Click on the answer A, B, C or D that completes each sentence.

1 ........ all means call me if you need any help with the decorating. A for B in C at D By 2 We've been laying ........ so much money during this holiday I think we're going to have to start economising. A out B up C in D down 3 I think the council needs to ........ steps to combat the rising level of vandalism in this area. A make B do C take D place 4 If the opportunity should ........ to work abroad I would be keen to be considered. A arise B surface C appear D come 5 I don't want to have to intervene ........ your discussion unless it gets out of hand. A on B in C with D to 6 Cast your mind ........ to last weekend. Can you remember whether we went shopping? A away B off C back D aside 7 She always comes across as very confident ........ the surface but the more you get to know her the more you realise how insecure she is. A at B on C in D against 8 We need to ........ a balance between being child centred but at the same time not spoiling our son. A hit B make C create D strike

1.D

2.A

3.C

4.A

5.B

6.C

7.B

8.D

Instructions

Read the text and then select the correct answer, A, B, C or D.

Different types of online learner
E-learning has become well established in the last five years, but most learners are (1) ………. at learning online, even if they are (2) ………. with basic computing skills like word processing or sending emails. According to research by Gilly Salmon, people are likely to (3) ……… learning with technology in three different ways. There are ‘swimmers’, ‘wavers’ and ‘drowners’. Those who ‘swim’ with e-learning are (4) ……. to trying out different communication tools like bulletin boards and chat rooms. However, they can also be (5) …….. if the learning activities are not sophisticated enough. They may say that they know of an even better system than the one that the tutor has chosen to (6) ………! ‘Wavers’, on the other hand, need considerable support in getting started with e-learning. They may have problems learning how to (7) …….. through the vast amount of online material, or simply managing their time efficiently. Once started they tend to become keen (8) …….. . The final group, the ‘drowners’, appear to have little (9) ……….. in studying online. They seem to find everything difficult and although they faithfully (10) ……….. to log on every day, the tutor usually discovers that they haven’t. ‘Drowners’ seem to complain (11) ………. every opportunity, which may be an attempt to hide their discomfort. Often those who take a leading (12) ……… in a regular classroom situation find the transition to online communication the most difficult. A solution to this is to appoint one of the ‘swimmers’ as a mentor.

Gap 1 Gap 2 Gap 3 Gap 4 Gap 5 Gap 6 Gap 7 Gap 8 Gap 9 Gap 10 Gap 11 Gap 12

A novices B recruits C apprentices D newcomers A practised B able C familiar D known A respond B receive C greet D welcome A game B amenable C willing D compliant A demanding B challenging C severe D unwieldy A exert B consume C apply D adopt A sail B wade C pull D carry A enthusiasts B fanatics C maniacs D worshippers A motivation B interest C excitement D thrill A commit B pledge C promise D assure A at B in C by D within A mission B role C duty D job

1.A 2.C 3.C 4.B 5.A 6.D 7.B 8.A 9.B 10.C 11.A 12.B

Instructions Read the text and then select the correct answer, A, B, C or D.

How brain mapping makes surgery safer
Brain mapping is a relatively new (1) ............... of neuro-science that developed around twenty years ago. The purpose of brain mapping is to (2) ............... our understanding of how the functions of our brain are organised; in other words to (3) ............... precisely the areas of the brain (4) ............... for movement, sensation and language. One of the (5) ............... of this knowledge is to make neurosurgery a less risky (6) ............... Certain medical interventions, such as the removal of brain tumours, are (7) ............... delicate operations and require such brain mapping to (8) ............... the risk of damage to the patient’s healthy brain functions. (9) ............... to surgery taking place, a patient has an MRI scan, the (10) ............... of which is to collect data that is then synchronised to a computer. From then on, functional mapping begins; this is done via a series of tests. The patient is put under (11) ............... for the doctor to perform both motor mapping (movement) and sensory mapping (sensation). Language mapping must be carried out when the patient has been woken. The brain mapping (12) ............... is entirely painless for the patient.
Gap 1 Gap 2 Gap 3 Gap 4 Gap 5 Gap 6 Gap 7 Gap 8 Gap 9 Gap 10 Gap 11 Gap 12 A branch B part C section D chapter A progress B accelerate C advance D surge A fathom B distinguish C pinpoint D estimate A accountable B responsible C liable D related A benefits B helps C favours D aids A chore B duty C work D undertaking A deeply B widely C thoroughly D highly A shrink B contract C shorten D minimize A earlier B Prior C Previous D Preceding A purpose B design C end D reason A sleeping B anaesthetic C medication D sedative A custom B formula C procedure D action

1.A 2.C 3.C 4.B 5.A 6.D 7.D 8.D 9.B 10.A 11.B 12.C

Click on the answer A, B, C or D that completes each sentence. 1 It wasn't a serious problem. It was simply blown ........ of all proportion by the manager. A in B away C up D out 2 I wish you'd stop ........ with that television. You don't know what you're doing and you'll only end up breaking it. A tinkering B tangling C trifling D toying 3 Good luck in the exam. I'll keep my fingers ........ for you. A twisted B bent C crossed D knotted 4 The builders are making ........ progress with the extension and we're hoping it will be finished next week. A steady B even C smooth D flowing 5 I'm very touched that you feel you can confide ........ me with your problems. A with B in C towards Don 6 I won't be able to get away from the office until late today as I'm a bit ........ up with work. A wound B strapped C tied D snarled 7 The research will be more successful if people are selected ........ random. A on B at C in D with 8 If you don't check regularly that there's oil in the engine it could ........ up. A twist B stiffen C freeze D seize

1.D 2.A 3.C 4.A 5.B 6.C 7.B 8.D