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DET NORSKE VERITAS
DNVRPC201
BUCKLING STRENGTH OF
PLATED STRUCTURES
OCTOBER 2010
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FOREWORD
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DET NORSKE VERITAS
CHANGES
• General
As of October 2010 all DNV service documents are primarily published electronically.
In order to ensure a practical transition from the “print” scheme to the “electronic” scheme, all documents having incorporated
amendments and corrections more recent than the date of the latest printed issue, have been given the date October 2010.
An overview of DNV service documents, their update status and historical “amendments and corrections” may be found
through http://www.dnv.com/resources/rules_standards/.
• Main changes
Since the previous edition (October 2002), this document has been amended, most recently in October 2008. All changes have
been incorporated and a new date (October 2010) has been given as explained under “General”.
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 4
© Det Norske Veritas AS 1997
Data processed and typeset by Division Technology and Products, Det Norske Veritas AS
Printed in Norway by Det Norske Veritas AS
28/10/2010 12:09:00  RpC201.doc
x.9x.x000 (to be filled in by DTP 274)
Para 13 will be inserted by DTP 274
CONTENTS
Part 1. Buckling Strength of Plated
Structures  Conventional Buckling
Code...................................................... 6
1 Introduction.................................................................6
1.1 General..........................................................................6
1.2 Symbols ........................................................................6
2 Safety format...............................................................7
3 General design considerations for flat plate
structures.....................................................................8
3.1 Introduction...................................................................8
3.2 Definitions ....................................................................8
3.3 Failure modes................................................................8
3.4 Tolerance requirements.................................................8
3.5 Serviceability limit states..............................................8
3.6 Validity .........................................................................8
4 Analysis Strategies ....................................................11
4.1 General........................................................................11
4.2 Plated structure assumed to resist shear only..............11
4.3 Consideration of shear lag effects...............................11
4.4 Determination of buckling resistance based upon linear
elastic buckling stress .................................................11
5 Lateral loaded plates ................................................11
6 Buckling of unstiffened plates..................................12
6.1 General........................................................................12
6.2 Buckling of unstiffened plates under longitudinally
uniform compression ..................................................12
6.3 Buckling of unstiffened plates with transverse
compression................................................................12
6.4 Buckling of unstiffened plate with shear ....................13
6.5 Buckling of unstiffened biaxially loaded plates with
shear............................................................................13
6.6 Buckling of unstiffened plates with varying
longitudinal stress. Internal compression elements.....14
6.7 Buckling of outstand compression elements...............15
6.8 Buckling of unstiffened plates with varying transverse
stress........................................................................... 15
6.9 Buckling of unstiffened plate with longitudianal and
transverse varying stress and with shear stress........... 15
7 Buckling of stiffened plates...................................... 17
7.1 General ....................................................................... 17
7.2 Forces in the idealised stiffened plate ........................ 17
7.3 Effective plate width .................................................. 18
7.4 Resistance of plate between stiffeners........................ 18
7.5 Characteristic buckling strength of stiffeners............. 19
7.6 Resistance of stiffened panels to shear stresses.......... 20
7.7 Interaction formulas for axial compression and lateral
pressure ...................................................................... 21
7.8 Check for shear force ................................................. 22
8 Buckling of girders................................................... 23
8.1 General ....................................................................... 23
8.2 Girder forces............................................................... 23
8.3 Resistance parameters for girders............................... 24
8.4 Effective widths of girders ......................................... 24
8.5 Torsional buckling of girders ..................................... 25
9 Local buckling of stiffeners, girders and brackets 26
9.1 Local buckling of stiffeners and girders..................... 26
9.2 Buckling of brackets................................................... 26
10 Commentary ............................................................. 27
Part 2. Buckling Strength of Plated
Structures  PULS Buckling Code... 30
1 Introduction.............................................................. 30
1.1 General ....................................................................... 30
1.2 Purpose....................................................................... 31
1.3 Theoretical background.............................................. 31
1.4 Code principles........................................................... 31
1.5 Safety formats ............................................................ 31
1.6 PULS software features.............................................. 33
1.7 References.................................................................. 33
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 5
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Introduction
This document describes two different, but equally acceptable methods, for buckling and ultimate strength assessment of
plated structures.
The first method, as given in Part 1, is a conventional buckling code for stiffened and unstiffened panels of steel. It is an
update and development of the stiffened flat plate part of previous DNV Classification Note No. 30.1 “Buckling Strength
Analysis”. Recommendations are given for plates, stiffeners and girders.
The second method, as given in Part 2, is a computerised semianalytical model called PULS (Panel Ultimate Limit State). It
is based on a recognized nonlinear plate theory, RayleighRitz discretizations of deflections and a numerical procedure for
solving the equilibrium equations. The method is essentially geometrically nonlinear with stress control in critical positions
along plate edges and plate stiffener junction lines for handling material plasticity. The procedure provides estimates of the
ultimate buckling capacity to be used in extreme load design (ULS philosophy). The buckling limit is also assessed as it may
be of interest in problems related to functional requirements, i.e. for load conditions and structural parts in which elastic
buckling and thereby large elastic displacements are not acceptable (SLS philosophy). The PULS code is supported by official
stand alone DNV Software programs. It is also implemented as a postprocessor in other DNV programs.
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 6
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Part 1.
Buckling Strength of Plated Structures  Conventional Buckling Code
1 Introduction
1.1 General
This document gives design recommendations to flat steel
plate structures intended for marine structures. The RP is
intended to supplement the DNV Offshore standards DNV
OSC101 and is intended to be used for design of structures
according to this standard.
1.2 Symbols
The following symbols apply to this document:
A cross sectional area
A
e
effective area
A
f
cross sectional area of flange
A
G
crosssectional area of girder
A
s
cross sectional area of stiffener
A
w
cross sectional area of web
C factor
C
x
buckling factor for stresses in xdirection
C
xs
effective width factor due to stresses in x
direction
C
ys
effective width factor due to stresses in y
direction
C
0
factor
E Young’s modulus of elasticity, 2.1⋅10
5
MPa
G shear modulus
I moment of inertia
I
p
polar moment of inertia
I
po
polar moment of inertia =
}
dA r
2
where r is
measured from the connection between the
stiffener and the plate
I
s
moment of inertia of stiffener with full plate
width
I
z
moment of inertia of stiffener about zaxis
L length, distance
L
P
length of panel
L
G
length of girder
L
Gk
buckling length of girder
L
GT
distance between lateral support of girder
L
GT0
limiting distance between lateral support of
girder
M
p,Rd
design bending moment resistance on plate
side
M
pl,Rd
design plastic bending moment resistance
M
Rd
design bending moment resistance
M
Sd
design bending moment
M
s,Rd
design bending moment resistance on
stiffener side
M
st,Rd
design bending moment resistance on
stiffener side in tension
N
E
Euler buckling strength
N
ks,Rd
design stiffener induced axial buckling
resistance
N
kp,Rd
design plate induced axial buckling resistance
N
Sd
design axial force
P
Sd
design lateral force
Q Factor
V
Rd
design shear resistance
V
Sd
design shear force
W elastic section modulus
W
eG
effective section modulus on girder flange
side
W
ep
effective section modulus on plate side
W
es
effective section modulus on stiffener side
b width of flange
b
e
effective width
c length of plate outstand, Factor
c
i
interaction factor
e
f
flange eccentricity
f
cr
elastic plate buckling strength
f
d
design yield strength
f
E
Euler buckling strength
f
Epx
Euler buckling strength for plate due to
longitudinal stresses
f
Epy
Euler buckling strength for plate due to
transverse stresses
f
Epτ
Euler buckling shear strength for plate
f
ET
torsional elastic buckling strength
f
ETG
torsional elastic buckling strength for girders
f
Ey
, f
Ez
Euler buckling strength corresponding to the
member y and z axis respectively
f
k
characteristic buckling strength
f
r
characteristic strength
f
T
characteristic torsional buckling strength
f
TG
characteristic torsional buckling strength for
girders
f
y
characteristic yield strength
h height
h
w
height of stiffener web
h
wG
height of girder web
i radius of gyration
i
e
effective radius of gyration
k, k
g
buckling factor
k
c
factor
k
p
reduction factor for plate buckling due to
lateral pressure
k
σ
buckling factor for unstiffened plates
l length, element length
l
e
effective length
C stiffener buckling length
l
l
length of longitudinal web stiffener
l
t
length of transverse web stiffener
l
T
distance between sideways support of
stiffener
l
1
length to reference point
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 7
DET NORSKE VERITAS
p
f
lateral pressure giving yield in outerfibre of a
continuous stiffener using elastic section
modules
p
Sd
design hydrostatic pressure, design lateral
pressure
p
0
equivalent lateral pressure
q
Sd
design lateral line load
r radius, factor
s plate width, stiffener spacing
s
e
effective width of stiffened plate
t thickness
t
b
bracket thickness
t
f
flange thickness
t
w
web thickness
z
p
, z
t
distance
z
*
distance
β Factor
γ
f
partial factor for actions
γ
M
resulting material factor
ε Factor
⎯λ reduced slenderness, column slenderness
parameter
⎯λ
e
reduced equivalent slenderness
⎯λ
G
reduced slenderness
⎯λ
p
reduced plate slenderness
⎯λ
T
reduced torsional slenderness
⎯λ
TG
reduced torsional slenderness for girders
⎯λ
τ
reduced slenderness
μ coefficient, geometric parameter
ν Poisson’s ratio
σ
j,Sd
design von Mises’ equivalent stress
σ
y1,Sd
larger design stress in the transverse direction,
with tensile stresses taken as negative
σ
y2,Sd
smaller design stress in the transverse
direction, with tensile stresses taken as
negative
τ
ceg
, τ
cel
elastic buckling strength
τ
crg
, τ
crl
critical shear stress
τ
Rd
design resistance shear stress
τ
Sd
design shear stress
ψ, ψ
x
, ψ
y
factors
2 Safety format
This Recommended Practice is written in the load and
resistance factor design format (LRFD format) to suit the
DNV Offshore Standard DNVOSC101. This standard make
use of material (resistance) and loadfactors as safety factors.
This Recommended Practice may be used in combination
with a working stress design format (WSD) by the following
method. For the formulas used in this standard use a material
factor γ
M
= 1.15 . The checks should be made using a
modified allowable usage factor taken as UF·1.15, where UF
is the allowable usage factor according to the WSD standard.
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 8
DET NORSKE VERITAS
3 General design considerations for flat
plate structures
3.1 Introduction
The structural stability shall be checked for the structure as a
whole and for each structural member.
Buckling strength analyses shall be based on the
characteristic buckling strength for the most unfavourable
buckling mode.
The characteristic buckling strength shall be based on the
lower 5
th
percentile of test results. In lieu of more relevant
information or more refined analysis, characteristic buckling
strength may be obtained from this note.
3.2 Definitions
Notation of plate elements are shown in Figure 31. The plate
panel may be the web or the flange of a beam, or a part of
box girders, bulkheads, pontoons, hull or integrated plated
decks.
Figure 31 Stiffened plate panel
3.3 Failure modes
This recommended practice addresses failure modes for
unstiffened and stiffened plates, which are not covered by the
cross sectional check of members. (See DNVOSC101
Sec.5 A 400.) Such failure modes are:
• Yielding of plates in bending due to lateral load.
• Buckling of slender plates (high span to thickness
ratio) due to inplane compressive stresses or shear
stresses.
Guidance for determining resistance is given both for
individual plates (unstiffend plates), stiffened plates and for
girders supporting stiffended plate panels. For stiffened
panels the recommendations cover panel buckling, stiffener
buckling as well as local buckling of stiffener and girder
flanges, webs and brackets. See Table 31.
3.4 Tolerance requirements
The recommendations are applicable for structures built
according to DNVOSC401 Fabrication and Testing of
Offshore Structures or normal ship classification standards.
See also Commentary Chapter 10.
3.5 Serviceability limit states
Check of serviceability limit states for slender plates related
to out of plane deflection may normally be omitted if the
smallest span of the plate is less than 120 times the plate
thickness. See also Commentary to 6 in Chapter 10.
3.6 Validity
This Recommended Practice is best suited to rectangular
plates and stiffened panels with stiffener length being larger
than the stiffener spacing ( l > s ). It may also be used for
girders being orthogonal to the stiffeners and with the girder
having significant larger crosssectional dimensions than the
stiffeners.
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 9
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Table 31 Reference table for buckling checks of plates
Description Load Sketch Clause
reference
Limiting value
Unstiffened
plate
Longitudinal
compression
x,Sd x,Sd
 t 
l
s
σ σ
6.2 s < l
Buckling check not
necessary if
ε 42
t
s
≤
Unstiffened
plate
Transverse
compression
y,Sd
 t  s
l
σ
y,Sd σ
6.3 s < l
Buckling check not
necessary if
5.4ε
t
s
≤
Unstiffened
plate
Shear stress
Sd
s  t 
l
τ
6.4 s < l
Buckling check not
necessary if
ε 70
t
s
≤
Unstiffened
plate
Linear varying
longitudinal
compression
 t 
x,Sd
σ
l
s
ψ
x,Sd
σ ψ
x,Sd
σ σ
x,Sd
6.6 s < l
Buckling check not
necessary if
ε 42
t
s
≤
Unstiffened
plate
Linear varying
transverse
compression
 t 
y,Sd
σ
l
s
l1
6.8 s < l
Buckling check not
necessary if
5.4ε
t
s
≤
y
235/f ε =
ε = 1.0 for f
y
= 235 MPa ε = 0.814 for f
y
= 355 MPa
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 10
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Description Load Sketch Clause
reference
Limiting value
Unstiffened
plate
Combined
longitudinal
and
transverse
compression
and shear
t s
Sd
y,Sd
x,Sd
6.5 s < l
Buckling check not
necessary if
5.4ε
t
s
≤
Unstiffened
plate
Uniform
lateral load
and inplane
normal and
shear
stresses
x,Sd P
Sd
Sd
y,Sd
s  t 
l
σ
σ τ
5 and
6.5
s < l
Buckling check not
necessary if
5.4ε
t
s
≤
Longitudinal
stiffened plate
panel
Longitudinal
and
transverse
compression
combined
with shear
and lateral
load
τ
σ
σ
G
L
Sd
y,Sd
x,Sd Sd
P
 t 
l
5 and 7
Girder
supporting
stiffened
panel
Longitudinal
and
transverse
compression
combined
with shear
and lateral
load
L
Sd
y,Sd
x,Sd Sd
P
l
τ
σ
σ
 t 
l
G
5 and 8
Stiffeners to
girder webs
Longitudinal
and
transverse
compression
combined
with shear
and lateral
load
s
l
t
l l
s
9.1
Brackets
9.2
y
235/f ε =
ε = 1.0 for f
y
= 235 MPa ε = 0.814 for f
y
= 355 MPa
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 11
DET NORSKE VERITAS
4 Analysis Strategies
4.1 General
The design check of plated structures are normally made
with linear elastic finite element analyses for determination
of load effects. Flat plate structures will redistribute
compressive stresses to the edges as the load approaches the
resistance of the plate and the plate will cease to behave
linearly. Linear finite element analyses will generally be
adequate as long as the resistance is checked for the
resultants from the integrated stresses in the analyses.
As slender plates under compressive loading will tend to
redistribute stresses to the edges, an analysis where the part
of the structure subject to buckling is given reduced stiffness
may lead to more efficient structures. The adjoining structure
need to be checked on the basis of the same model.
4.2 Plated structure assumed to resist shear
only
The following design philosophy may be used for plate
panels which main function is to carry inplane shear loads.
These plated structures may be analysed and checked by
considering the plates as pure shear panels. Such panels may
be decks or walls in topside modules. Then all axial
membrane stresses need to be carried by the adjoining
framing only which should be analysed and checked
accordingly. The analysis may be carried out with the plate
panels modelled with elements that are only given shear
stiffness.
4.3 Consideration of shear lag effects
If the stresses are determined from beam theory, the effect of
shear deformations of wide flanges need to be considered.
See also Commentary to 7 in Chapter 10.
4.4 Determination of buckling resistance based
upon linear elastic buckling stress
The buckling resistance may be based on linear elastic
buckling stress provided the following effects are accounted
for:
• Material nonlinearities
• Imperfections
• Residual stresses
• Possible interaction between local and global buckling
modes
See also Commentary Chapter 10.
5 Lateral loaded plates
For plates subjected to lateral pressure, either alone or in
combination with inplane stresses, the stresses may be
checked by the following formula:
(
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

+ 
.

\

≤
x
2
y
2
M
y
Sd
ψ
s
ψ
s
t
γ
f
4.0 p
l
(5.1)
where
p
Sd
= design lateral pressure
2
y
Sd
2
y
Sd x,
2
y
Sd j,
y
f
τ
3
f
σ
4
3
1
f
σ
1
ψ


.

\

−


.

\

−


.

\

−
=
(5.2)
2
y
Sd
2
y
Sd y,
2
y
Sd j,
x
f
τ
3
f
σ
4
3
1
f
σ
1
ψ


.

\

−


.

\

−


.

\

−
=
(5.3)
2
Sd Sd y, Sd x,
2
Sd y,
2
Sd x, Sd j,
3τ σ σ σ σ σ + ⋅ − + =
(5.4)
This formula for the design of a plate subjected to lateral
pressure is based on yieldline theory, and accounts for the
reduction of the moment resistance along the yieldline due
to applied inplane stresses. The reduced resistance is
calculated based on von Mises’ equivalent stress. It is
emphasised that the formulation is based on a yield pattern
assuming yield lines along all four edges, and will give
uncertain results for cases where yieldlines can not be
developed along all edges. Furthermore, since the formula
does not take account of secondorder effects, plates
subjected to compressive stresses shall also fulfil the
requirements of Chapter 6 and 7 whichever is relevant.
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 12
DET NORSKE VERITAS
6 Buckling of unstiffened plates
6.1 General
This section presents recommendations for calculating the
buckling resistance of unstiffened plates.
For plates that are part of a stiffened panel, the plate are
checked as part of the buckling checks according to Chapter
7. Then additional check of the plate according to this section
is not required.
Buckling checks of unstiffened plates in compression shall
be made according to the effective width method. The
reduction in plate resistance for inplane compressive forces
is expressed by a reduced (effective) width of the plate which
is multiplied by the design yield strength to obtain the design
resistance, see Figure 61 .
See also Commentary Chapter 10.
S
S e
S
.
Real stress distribution
Effective
stress distribution
Figure 61 Effective width concept
6.2 Buckling of unstiffened plates under
longitudinally uniform compression
The design buckling resistance of an unstiffened plate under
longitudinal compression force may be calculated as:
M
y
x Rd x,
γ
f
C ⋅ = σ
(6.1)
where
1 C
x
=
when
673 . 0
p
≤ λ
(6.2)
( )
2
p
p
x
22 . 0
C
λ
λ −
=
when
673 . 0
p
> λ
where ⎯λ
p
is the plate slenderness given by:
E
f
t
s
525 . 0
f
f
λ
y
cr
y
p
= =
(6.3)
in which
s = plate width
t = plate thickness
f
cr
= critical plate buckling strength
The resistance of the plate is satisfactory when:
Rd x, Sd x,
σ σ ≤
(6.4)
x,Sd x,Sd
 t 
l
s
σ σ
Figure 62 Plate with longitudinal compression
6.3 Buckling of unstiffened plates with
transverse compression
The design buckling resistance of a plate under transverse
compression force may be found from:
M
R y,
Rd y,
γ
σ
σ =
(6.5)
p y
y y
R y,
k f
f
E t 3 . 1
1 κ
f
E t 3 . 1
⋅ ⋅
(
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

⋅
⋅
− ⋅ + ⋅
⋅
=
l l
σ
(6.6)
where:
0 . 1 κ = for λ
c
≤ 0.2
( )


.

\

⋅ − + + − + + ⋅
⋅
=
2
c
2
2
c
2
c
c
2
λ 4 λ μ 1 λ μ 1
λ 2
1
κ
for 0.2 <⎯λ
c
< 2.0
0.07
λ 2
1
κ
c
2
+
⋅
= for⎯λ
c
≥ 2.0
(6.7)
and ⎯λ
c
is:
E
f
t
s
1.1
y
⋅ ⋅ =
c
λ
(6.8)
and μ is:
( ) 2 . 0 21 . 0 − ⋅ =
c
λ μ
(6.9)
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 13
DET NORSKE VERITAS
t = plate thickness
l = plate length
s = plate width
The reduction factor due to lateral load k
p
may, in lieu of
more accurate results, be calculated as:
0 k but ,
s
t
2
f
p
h 0 . 1 k
otherwise
f
s
t
2 p for 1.0 k
p
2
y
Sd
α p
y
2
Sd p
≥


.

\


.

\

⋅ − ⋅ − =
⋅ 
.

\

⋅ ≤ =
(6.10)
where
5 0.7
t
s
0.05 h
α
− ⋅ =
but h
α
≥ 0
(6.11)
The resistance of the plate is satisfactory when:
Rd y, Sd y,
σ σ ≤ (6.12)
y,Sd
 t  s
l
σ
y,Sd σ
Figure 63 Plate with transverse compression
6.4 Buckling of unstiffened plate with shear
Shear buckling of a plate can be checked by
Rd Sd
τ τ ≤ (6.13)
3
f
γ
C
y
M
τ
Rd
⋅ = τ
(6.14)
where
0.8 λ for 1.0 C
w τ
≤ =
( ) 2 . 1 8 . 0 for , 8 . 0 625 . 0 0 . 1 C
τ
≤ < − − =
w w
λ λ
2 . 1 for ,
9 . 0
C
τ
> =
w
w
λ
λ
(6.15)
l
k E
f
t
s
795 . 0 λ
y
w
⋅
⋅ ⋅ =
(6.16)
s for , 4
s
34 . 5
s for ,
s
4 34 . 5 k
2
2
< + 
.

\

=
≥ 
.

\

+ =
l
l
l
l
l
(6.17)
6.5 Buckling of unstiffened biaxially loaded
plates with shear
A plate subjected to biaxially loading with shear should fulfil
the following requirement:
0 . 1 c
2
Rd
Sd
Rd y,
Sd y,
Rd x,
Sd x,
i
2
Rd y,
Sd y,
2
Rd x,
Sd x,
≤


.

\

+


.

\

⋅


.

\

⋅ −


.

\

+


.

\

τ
τ
σ
σ
σ
σ
σ
σ
σ
σ
(6.18)
where if both σ
x,Sd
and σ
y,Sd
is compression (positive) then
120
t
s
for 0 c
120
t
s
for
t 120
s
1 c
i
i
> =
≤
⋅
− =
If either of σ
x,Sd
and σ
y,Sd
or both is in tension (negative), then
c
i
= 1.0.
σ
x,Rd
is given by eq. (6.1) and σ
y,Rd
is given by eq. (6.5). In
case of tension, apply f
y
/γ
M
.
τ
Rd
is given by eq. (6.19) in cases where σ
y,Sd
is positive
(compression) and by eq. (6.14) in cases where σ
y,Sd
is zero
or negative (in tension).
3
f
γ
C
y
M
τe
Rd
⋅ = τ
(6.19)
8 . 0 for 0 . 1 C
τe
≤ =
w
λ
( ) 25 . 1 8 . 0 for , 8 . 0 8 . 0 0 . 1 C
τe
≤ < − ⋅ − =
w w
λ λ
25 . 1 for ,
0 . 1
C
2
τe
> =
w
w
λ
λ
(6.20)
t s
Sd
y,Sd
x,Sd
Figure 64 Biaxially loaded plate with shear
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 14
DET NORSKE VERITAS
6.6 Buckling of unstiffened plates with varying
longitudinal stress. Internal compression
elements
The buckling resistance of an unstiffened plate with varying
longitudinal stress may be found from:
M
y
x Rd x,
γ
f
C = σ
(6.21)
where
1 C
x
= when
673 . 0
p
≤ λ
(6.22)
( )
2
p
p
x
ψ 3 055 . 0
C
λ
λ + ⋅ −
=
when
673 . 0
p
> λ
(6.23)
where ⎯λ
p
is the plate slenderness given by:
σ
λ
k ε 4 . 28
1
t
s
f
f
cr
y
p
⋅ = =
(6.24)
in which
s = plate width
ψ = σ
2
/ σ
1
Stress ratio. σ
1
is largest stress with
compressive stress taken as positive.
t = plate thickness
f
cr
= critical plate buckling strength
ε =
y
f
235
k
σ
=
ψ 05 . 1
2 . 8
+
when 1 ψ 0 ≤ ≤
= 7.816.29ψ+9.78ψ
2
when 0 ψ 1 < ≤ −
= 5.98(1ψ)
2
when 1 ψ 2 − < ≤ −
The resistance of the plate is satisfactory when:
Rd x, Sd x,
σ σ ≤ (6.25)
 t 
x,Sd
σ
l
s
ψ
x,Sd
σ ψ
x,Sd
σ σ
x,Sd
Figure 65 Plate with varying longitudinal stress
In order to perform cross sectional checks for members
subjected to plate buckling the local buckling effects can be
accounted for by checking the resistance by using the
effective width according to Table 61.
Table 61 Effective width for internal compression plate elements
Stress distribution (compression positive) Effective width b
eff
b
b b e1 e2
σ
1
σ
2
ψ = 1
eff e2
eff e1
eff
b 0.5 b
b 0.5 b
b C b
=
=
⋅ =
x
b
b b e1 e2
σ
1
σ
2
1> ψ > 0
e1 eff e2
eff e1
eff
b b b
b
ψ  5
2
b
b C b
− =
=
⋅ =
x
b
b b e1 e2
σ
1
σ
2
b b
c t
ψ < 0
eff e2
eff e1
c eff
b 0.6 b
b 0.4 b
ψ 1
b C
b C b
=
=
−
⋅
= ⋅ =
x
x
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 15
DET NORSKE VERITAS
6.7 Buckling of outstand compression elements
The buckling resistance of an outstand compression element
with varying or constant longitudinal stress may be found
from:
M
y
x Rd x,
γ
f
C = σ
(6.26)
where
1 C
x
= when
749 . 0
p
≤ λ
(6.27)
2
p
p
x
188 . 0
C
λ
λ −
=
when
749 . 0
p
> λ
(6.28)
where ⎯λ
p
is the plate slenderness given by:
σ
λ
k ε 4 . 28
1
t
s
f
f
cr
y
p
⋅ = =
(6.29)
in which
s = plate width
t = plate thickness
f
cr
= critical plate buckling strength
ε =
y
f
235
For outstand with largest compression stress at free edge:
k
σ
= 0.57  0.21 ψ + 0.07 ψ
2
when 1 ψ 3 ≤ ≤ −
For outstand with largest compression stress at supported
edge:
k
σ
=
ψ 34 . 0
578 . 0
+
when 1 ψ 0 ≤ ≤
k
σ
= 1.7  5 ψ + 17.1 ψ
2
when 0 ψ 1 < ≤ −
Cross sectional checks of members subjected to plate
buckling local buckling effects can be accounted for by
checking the resistance by using the effective width
according to Table 62 and Table 63 for outstand elements
with largest compression stress at free edge or supported
edge respectively.
6.8 Buckling of unstiffened plates with varying
transverse stress
In case of linear varying transverse stress the capacity check
can be done by use of the design stress value at a distance l
1
from the most stressed end of the plate, but not less than 0.75
of maximum σ
y,Sd
.
The resistance σ
y,Rd
should be calculated
from eq. (6.5).
l
1
= minimum of 0.25 l and 0.5 s
 t 
y,Sd
σ
l
s
l
1
Figure 66 Linear varying stress in the transverse
direction
6.9 Buckling of unstiffened plate with
longitudianal and transverse varying stress and
with shear stress
The check of combined varying loads may be done according
to eq. (6.18) with the resistance calculated according to eq.
(6.21) and eq. (6.5) using the stress point defined in sec. 6.8.
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 16
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Table 62 Effective width for outstand compression plate elements with largest stress at free edge
Stress distribution (compression positive) Effective width b
eff
c
σ
2
σ
1
b
eff
0< ψ ≤ 1
c C b
eff
⋅ =
x
b
σ
2
σ
1
b
t
eff
b
c
ψ < 0
ψ  1
c C
b C b
c eff
⋅
= ⋅ =
x
x
Table 63 Effective width for outstand compression plate elements with largest stress at supported edge
Stress distribution (compression positive) Effective width b
eff
c
σ
1
σ
2
b
eff
0< ψ ≤ 1
c C b
eff
⋅ =
x
b
σ
1
σ
2
b
eff
b
c t
ψ < 0
ψ  1
c C
b C b
c eff
⋅
= ⋅ =
x
x
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 17
DET NORSKE VERITAS
7 Buckling of stiffened plates
7.1 General
This chapter deals with stiffened plate panels subjected to
axial stress in two directions, shear stress and lateral load.
There are different formulas for stiffeners being continuous
(or connected to frames with their full moment resistance)
and simple supported (sniped) stiffeners.
An example of a stiffened plate panel is shown in Figure 31.
The stiffener cross section needs to fulfil requirements to
avoid local buckling given in Chapter 9.
For shear lag effects see Commentary Chapter 10.
The plate between stiffeners will normally be checked
implicitly by the stiffener check since plate buckling is
accounted for by the effective width method. However, in
cases where σ
y,Sd
stress is the dominant stress it is necessary
to check the plate resistance according to eq. (7.19).
For slender stiffened plates the load carrying resistance in the
direction transverse to the stiffener may be neglected. Then
σ
y,Sd
stresses may be assumed to be carried solely by the
girder. In such cases the effective girder flange may be
determined by disregarding the stiffeners, and the stiffener
with plate may be checked by neglecting σ
y,Sd
stresses
(method 2 in sec. 8.4). See also Commentary to 8 in Chapter
10.
7.2 Forces in the idealised stiffened plate
Stiffened plates subjected to combined forces, see Figure 71
should be designed to resist an equivalent axial force
according to eq. (7.1) and an equivalent lateral load
according to eq. (7.8).
The equivalent axial force should be taken as:
( ) st τ st A σ N
tf s Sd x, Sd
+ + =
(7.1)
where
A
s
= cross sectional area of stiffener
s = distance between stiffeners
t = plate thickness
σ
x,Sd
= axial stress in plate and stiffener with
compressive stresses as positive
crg Sd tf
τ τ τ − =
for
M
crl
Sd
γ
τ
τ >
and tension field action is allowed
(7.2)
0 τ
tf
=
otherwise
(7.3)
Assumption of tension field action implies that no (or
negligible) resistance of the plate against transverse
compression stresses (σ
y
)
can be assumed. See also
Commentary Chapter 10.
τ
crg
= critical shear stress for the plate with the stiffeners
removed, according to eq. (7.4).
τ
crl
= critical shear stress for the plate panel between two
stiffeners, according to eq. (7.6).
2
g crg
t
E 0.904 k τ 
.

\

⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
l
(7.4)
where :
G
2
G
G
2
G
g
L for , 4
L
34 . 5
L for ,
L
4 34 . 5 k
> +


.

\

=
≤


.

\

+ =
l
l
l
l
(7.5)
L
G
= Girder length see Figure 31
2
cr
s
t
E 0.904 k τ 
.

\

⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
l l
(7.6)
where:
s for , 4
s
34 . 5
s for ,
s
4 34 . 5 k
2
2
< + 
.

\

=
≥ 
.

\

+ =
l
l
l
l
l
(7.7)
The equivalent lateral line load should be taken as:
( )s p p q
0 Sd Sd
+ =
(7.8)
p
0
shall be applied in the direction of the external pressure
p
Sd
. For situations where p
Sd
is less than p
0
, the stiffener need
to be checked for p
0
applied in both directions (i.e. at plate
side and stiffener side).
p
Sd
= design lateral pressure
s = stiffener spacing
( )
Sd y1, 0 0
σ C 0.4ψ 0.6 p + = if ψ > 1.5
(7.9)
0 p
0
=
if ψ ≤ 1.5
(7.10)
p
0
= 0 in case σ
y,Sd
is in tension along the whole length of the
panel.
s t E k
m f W
C
2
c
c y es
0
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅
=
(7.11)
Sd y1,
Sd y2,
σ
σ
ψ =
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 18
DET NORSKE VERITAS
σ
y1,Sd
= larger design stress in the transverse direction,
with tensile stresses taken as negative
σ
y2,Sd
= smaller design stress in the transverse direction,
with tensile stresses taken as negative
W
es
= section modulus for stiffener with effective plate
at flange tip
m
c
= 13.3 for continuous stiffeners or,
= 8.9 for simple supported stiffeners (sniped stiffeners)


.

\

⋅
⋅
+ + ⋅ =
s t
I 10.9
1 1 2 k
3
s
c
(7.12)
I
s
= moment of inertia of stiffener with full plate width
STIFFENED PLATE BEAM COLUMN
y1,Sd
NSd
N ( x,Sd, Sd)
x,Sd
Sd,
Sd
p
y2, Sd
Sd
N
(p p )
Sd
q =q
σ
σ
σ
τ
Sd = τ σ
o
Figure 71 Strut model
7.3 Effective plate width
The effective plate width for a continuous stiffener subjected
to longitudinal and transverse stress and shear is calculated
as:
ys xs
e
C C
s
s
=
(7.13)
The reduction factor due to stresses in the longitudinal
direction, C
xs
, is
673 . 0 if 1.0,
673 . 0 if ,
λ
0.22 λ
C
p
p 2
p
p
xs
≤ =
>
−
=
λ
λ
(7.14)
where
E
f
t
s
525 . 0 λ
y
p
=
(7.15)
and the reduction factor for compression stresses in the
transverse direction, C
ys
, is found from:


.

\

⋅ ⋅
⋅
+


.

\

− =
R y, y xs
Sd y, Sd x,
i
2
R y,
Sd y,
ys
σ f C
σ σ
c
σ
σ
1 C
(7.16)
where
120
t
s
for 0 c
120
t
s
for
t 120
s
1 c
i
i
> =
≤
⋅
− =
σ
y,R
is calculated according to eq. (6.6).
In case of linear varying stress, σ
y,Sd
may be determined as
described in sec. 6.8
The reduction factor for tension stresses in the transverse
direction, C
ys
, is calculated as:
0 . 1 C but ,
f
σ
f
σ
3 4
2
1
C
ys
y
Sd y,
2
y
Sd y,
ys
≤



.

\

+


.

\

− =
(7.17)
Tensile stresses are defined as negative.
The effective width for varying stiffener spacing see Figure
72.
Figure 72 Effective widths for varying stiffener spacing
7.4 Resistance of plate between stiffeners
The plate between stiffeners shall be checked for:
M
y
Rd Sd
γ 3
f
τ τ
⋅
= ≤
(7.18)
Rd y, sp Sd y,
k σ σ ⋅ ≤
(7.19)
where:
2
y
Sd
sp
f
τ
3 0 . 1 k


.

\

⋅ − =
(7.20)
and σ
y,Rd
is determined from eq. (6.5).
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 19
DET NORSKE VERITAS
When this check and stiffener check according to sec. 7.7 is
carried out it is not necessary to check the plate between
stiffeners according to Chapter 6.
See also Commentary Chapter 10.
7.5 Characteristic buckling strength of
stiffeners
7.5.1 General
The characteristic buckling strength for stiffeners may be
found from:
1
f
f
r
k
=
when 2 . 0 ≤ λ
(7.21)
( )
2
2
2
2 2
r
k
2
4 1 1
f
f
λ
λ λ μ λ μ − + + − + +
=
when 2 . 0 > λ
(7.22)
where
E
r
f
f
= λ
(7.23)
2
k
e 2
E
i
E f


.

\

=
l
π
(7.24)
for check at plate side
( ) 0.2 λ
i
z
08 . 0 34 . 0
e
p
−


.

\

+ = μ
(7.25)
for check at stiffener side
( ) 0.2 λ
i
z
08 . 0 34 . 0
e
t
−


.

\

+ = μ
(7.26)
where:
f
r
= f
y
for check at plate side
f
r
= f
y
for check at stiffener side if⎯λ
T
≤ 0.6
f
r
= f
T
for check at stiffener side if⎯λ
T
> 0.6,
f
T
may be calculated according to sec. 7.5.2
T λ see eq. (7.30)
l
k
see eq. (7.74)
e
e
e
A
I
i =
, effective radius of gyration
I
e
effective moment of inertia
A
e
effective area
z
p
, z
t
is defined in Figure 73
A
B
t
w
c
e
t
zp
z
t
f
b
C
h
w
t
t
f
c
t
w
b
w
t
b
f
t
.
c
A = centroid of stiffener with effective plate flange.
B = centroid of stiffener exclusive of any plate flange.
C = centroid of flange.
a
w w
h
w
h
w
h
e
f
Figure 73 Crosssectional parameters for stiffeners and
girders
7.5.2 Torsional buckling of stiffeners
The torsional buckling strength may be calculated as:
0 . 1
f
f
y
T
=
when
6 . 0
T
≤ λ
(7.27)
( )
2
T
2
T
2
2
T
2
T
y
T
2
4 1 1
f
f
λ
λ λ μ λ μ − + + − + +
=
when 6 . 0
T
> λ
(7.28)
where
( ) 6 . 0 35 . 0 μ
T
− = λ (7.29)
ET
y
T
f
f
λ =
(7.30)
Generally f
ET
may be calculated as:
2
T po
z
2
s 2
po
t
ET
I
I Eh
π
I
GI
β f
l
+ =
(7.31)
For L and Tstiffeners f
ET
may be calculated as:
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 20
DET NORSKE VERITAS
2
T f
W
z
2
2
w
W
f W
f
2
W
f
W
ET
A
3
A
EI
h
t
G
A 3 A
A
t
t
A
β f
l


.

\

+
+


.

\

+


.

\

+
=
π
(7.32)
W
f
f 2
f
2
f z
A
A
1
A
e b A
12
1
I
+
+ =
(7.33)
For flatbar stiffeners f
ET
may be calculated as:
2
w
w
2
T
w
ET
h
t
G
h
2 β f


.

\

⋅
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

+ =
l
(7.34)
where
β = 1.0,
or may for stocky plates alternatively be calculated as
per eq. (7.35) for s ≤ l
A
f
= cross sectional area of flange
A
W
= cross sectional area of web
G = shear modulus
I
po
= polar moment of inertia=
}
dA r
2
where r is measured from the connection between the
stiffener and the plate
I
t
= stiffener torsional moment of inertia (St. Venant
torsion)
I
z
= moment of inertia of the stiffeners neutral axis normal
to the plane of the plate
b = flange width
e
f
= flange eccentricity, see Figure 73
h
w
= web height
h
s
= distance from stiffener toe (connection between
stiffener and plate) to the shear centre of the stiffener
l
T
= distance between sideways supports of stiffener,
distance between tripping brackets (torsional buckling
length).
t = plate thickness
t
f
= thickness of flange
t
W
= thickness of web
where
0.2 C
0.2 3C
β
+
+
=
(7.35)
( ) η 1
t
t
s
h
C
3
w
w
−


.

\

=
(7.36)
where:
0 . 1
f
σ
η
ep
Sd j,
≤ = η
(7.37)
2
Sd Sd y, Sd x,
2
Sd y,
2
Sd x, Sd j,
τ 3 σ σ σ σ σ + − + =
(7.38)
4
e
y
ep
1
f
f
λ +
=
(7.39)
c
1
c
Epτ
Sd
c
Epy
Sd y,
c
Epx
Sd x,
Sd j,
y
2
e
f
τ
f
σ
f
σ
σ
f
λ



.

\



.

\

+


.

\

+


.

\

=
(7.40)
where
l
s
2 c − =
(7.41)
2
Epx
s
t
3.62E f 
.

\

=
(7.42)
2
Epy
s
t
0.9E f 
.

\

=
(7.43)
2
Epτ
s
t
5.0E f 
.

\

=
(7.44)
σ
x,Sd
and σ
y,Sd
should be set to zero if in tension
7.6 Resistance of stiffened panels to shear
stresses
The resistance towards shear stresses τ
Rd
is found as the
minimum of τ
Rdy
, τ
Rdl
and τ
Rds
according to the following:
M
y
Rdy
γ 3
f
τ
⋅
=
(7.45)
M
cr
Rd
γ
τ
τ
l
l
=
(7.46)
M
s cr
Rds
γ
τ
τ =
(7.47)
where τ
crl
is obtained from eq. (7.6) and τ
crs
is obtained
from:
4
3
s p 2 crs
I I
t s
E 36
τ ⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅
⋅
=
l
(7.48)
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 21
DET NORSKE VERITAS
with:
10.9
s t
I
3
p
⋅
=
(7.49)
and I
s
= moment of inertia of stiffener with full plate width.
7.7 Interaction formulas for axial compression
and lateral pressure
7.7.1 Continuous stiffeners
For continuous stiffeners the following four interaction
equations need to be fulfilled in case of:
Lateral pressure on plate side:
1 u
N
N
1 M
z N M
N
N
E
Sd
Rd s1,
*
Sd Sd 1,
Rd ks,
Sd
≤ +


.

\

−
⋅ −
+
(7.50)
1 u
N
N
1 M
z N M
N
N
2
N
N
E
Sd
Rd p,
*
Sd Sd 1,
Rd
Sd
Rd kp,
Sd
≤ +


.

\

−
⋅ −
+ ⋅ −
(7.51)
1 u
N
N
1 M
z N M
N
N
2
N
N
E
Sd
Rd st,
*
Sd Sd 2,
Rd
Sd
Rd ks,
Sd
≤ +


.

\

−
⋅ +
+ ⋅ −
(7.52)
1 u
N
N
1 M
z N M
N
N
E
Sd
Rd p,
*
Sd Sd 2,
Rd kp,
Sd
≤ +


.

\

−
⋅ +
+
(7.53)
Lateral pressure on stiffener side:
1 u
N
N
1 M
z N M
N
N
2
N
N
E
Sd
Rd st,
*
Sd Sd 1,
Rd
Sd
Rd ks,
Sd
≤ +


.

\

−
⋅ +
+ ⋅ −
(7.54)
1 u
N
N
1 M
z N M
N
N
E
Sd
Rd p,
*
Sd Sd 1,
Rd kp,
Sd
≤ +


.

\

−
⋅ +
+
(7.55)
1 u
N
N
1 M
z N M
N
N
E
Sd
Rd s2,
*
Sd Sd 2,
Rd ks,
Sd
≤ +


.

\

−
⋅ −
+
(7.56)
1 u
N
N
1 M
z N M
N
N
2
N
N
E
Sd
Rd p,
*
Sd Sd 2,
Rd
Sd
Rd kp,
Sd
≤ +


.

\

−
⋅ −
+ ⋅ −
(7.57)
where
2
Rd
Sd
τ
τ
u


.

\

=
(7.58)
When tension field action is assumed according to eq. (7.2)
then u = 0.
For resistance parameters see sec. 7.7.3 for stiffener and sec.
8.3 for girders.
M
1,Sd
=
12
q
2
Sd
l
for continuous stiffeners with equal spans
and equal lateral pressure in all spans
= absolute value of the actual largest support
moment for continuous stiffeners with unequal spans
and/or unequal lateral pressure in adjacent spans
M
2,Sd
=
24
q
2
Sd
l
for continuous stiffeners with equal spans
and equal lateral pressure in all spans
= absolute value of the actual largest field moment
for continuous stiffeners with unequal spans and/or
unequal lateral pressure in adjacent spans
q
sd
is given in eq. (7.8)
l = span length
z
*
is the distance from the neutral axis of the effective section
to the working point of the axial force. z
*
may be varied in
order to optimise the resistance. z
*
should then be selected so
the maximum utilisation found from the equations (7.50) to
(7.53) or (7.54) to (7.57) is at its minimum, see also
Commentary Chapter 10. The value of z
*
is taken positive
towards the plate. The simplification z
*
= 0 is always
allowed.
7.7.2 Simple supported stiffener (sniped stiffener)
Simple supported stiffener (sniped stiffener):
Lateral pressure on plate side:
1 u
N
N
1 M
z N
8
q
N
N
2
N
N
E
Sd
Rd st,
*
Sd
2
Sd
Rd
Sd
Rd ks,
Sd
≤ +


.

\

−
⋅ +
+ ⋅ −
l
(7.59)
1 u
N
N
1 M
z N
8
q
N
N
E
Sd
Rd p,
*
Sd
2
Sd
Rd kp,
Sd
≤ +


.

\

−
⋅ +
+
l
(7.60)
Lateral pressure on stiffener side:
if
*
Sd
2
Sd
z N
8
q
⋅ ≥
l
then:
1 u
N
N
1 M
z N
8
q
N
N
E
Sd
Rd s2,
*
Sd
2
Sd
Rd ks,
Sd
≤ +


.

\

−
⋅ −
+
l
(7.61)
1 u
N
N
1 M
z N
8
q
N
N
2
N
N
E
Sd
Rd p,
*
Sd
2
Sd
Rd
Sd
Rd kp,
Sd
≤ +


.

\

−
⋅ −
+ ⋅ −
l
(7.62)
if
*
Sd
2
Sd
z N
8
q
⋅ <
l
then:
1 u
N
N
1 M
8
q
z N
N
N
2
N
N
E
Sd
Rd st,
2
Sd *
Sd
Rd
Sd
Rd ks,
Sd
≤ +


.

\

−
− ⋅
+ ⋅ −
l
(7.63)
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 22
DET NORSKE VERITAS
1 u
N
N
1 M
8
q
z N
N
N
E
Sd
Rd p,
2
Sd *
Sd
Rd kp,
Sd
≤ +


.

\

−
− ⋅
+
l
(7.64)
l = span length is given in eq. (7.58)
q
sd
is given in eq. (7.8)
z
*
is the distance from the neutral axis of the effective section
to the working point of the axial force, which for a sniped
stiffener will be in the centre of the plate. The value of z
*
is
taken positive towards the plate.
7.7.3 Resistance parameters for stiffeners.
The following resistance parameters are used in the
interaction equations for stiffeners:
M
y
e Rd
γ
f
A N =
(7.65)
A
e
= (A
s
+s
e
t) effective area of stiffener and plate
A
s
= cross sectional area of stiffener
s
e
= effective width, see sec. 7.3
M
k
e Rd ks,
γ
f
A N =
(7.66)
where f
k
is calculated from sec. 7.5 using eq. (7.26)
M
k
e Rd kp,
γ
f
A N =
(7.67)
where f
k
is calculated from sec. 7.5 using eq. (7.25)
M
r
es Rd s1,
γ
f
W M =
(7.68)
where f
r
is calculated from sec. 7.5 for stiffener side using l
T
= 0.4 l or distance between lateral support if this is less.
M
r
es Rd s2,
γ
f
W M =
(7.69)
where f
r
is calculated from sec. 7.5 for stiffener side using l
T
= 0.8 l or distance between lateral support if this is less.
M
y
es Rd st,
γ
f
W M =
(7.70)
M
y
ep Rd p,
γ
f
W M =
(7.71)
W
ep
=
p
e
z
I
, effective elastic section modulus on
plate side, see Figure 73.
W
es
=
t
e
z
I
, effective elastic section modulus on
stiffener side, see Figure 73.
2
e
k
e
2
E
i
EA π
N


.

\

=
l
(7.72)
where
e
e
e
A
I
i =
(7.73)
For a continuous stiffener the buckling length may be
calculated from the following equation:


.

\

− =
f
Sd
k
p
p
0.5 1 l l
(7.74)
where p
Sd
is design lateral pressure and p
f
is the lateral
pressure giving yield in outerfibre at support.
M
y
2
f
γ
f
W 12
p
s l ⋅
=
(7.75)
W = the smaller of W
ep
and W
es
l = span length
In case of varying lateral pressure, p
Sd
in eq. (7.74) should be
taken as the minimum of the value in the adjoining spans.
For simple supported stiffener l
k
= l.0·l.
7.8 Check for shear force
The stiffener should in all sections satisfy:
3 γ
f
A V V
M
y
net Rd Sd
⋅ = ≤
(7.76)
where:
V
Sd
= design shear force
V
Rd
= design shear resistance
A
net
= net shear area (shear area minus cut outs)
If V
Sd
> 0.5 V
Rd
then the stiffener section modulus and
effective area need to be reduced to account for the
interaction of the shear with the moment and axial force in
the stiffener.
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 23
DET NORSKE VERITAS
8 Buckling of girders
8.1 General
The check for girders is similar to the check for stiffeners of
stiffened plates in equations (7.50) to (7.57) or (7.59) to
(7.64) for continuous or sniped girders, respectively. Forces
shall be calculated according to sec. 8.2 and cross section
properties according to 8.4. Girder resistance should be
found from sec. 8.3. Torsional buckling of girders may be
assessed according to sec. 8.5.
In the equations (7.50) to (7.57) or (7.59) to (7.62) u = 0 for
girders.
Girders may be checked for shear forces similar to stiffeners
see sec. 7.8.
8.2 Girder forces
The axial force should be taken as:
( )
G Sd y, Sd y,
A t σ N + = l (8.1)
The lateral line load should be taken as:
( )l
0 Sd Sd
p p q + =
(8.2)
where
p
Sd
= design lateral pressure
p
0
= equivalent lateral pressure
A
G
= cross sectional area of girder
The calculation of the additional equivalent lateral pressure
due to longitudinal compression stresses and shear shall be
calculated as follows:
For compression in the xdirection:
( )
Sd Sd x,
2
G
y
G
wG
s
0
Cτ σ
L
E
f
L
s
1 h
s
A
t 0.4
p + 
.

\



.

\

−

.

\

+
=
l
But not less than
( )
Sd Sd x,
s
Cτ σ
s
A
t
0.02 +
+
l
(8.3)
where
2
crl
crg Sd
2
τ
τ τ
s
5 7 Q C


.

\

−


.

\


.

\

− =
l
for τ
Sd
> τ
crg
(8.4)
0 C = for τ
Sd
≤ τ
crg
(8.5)
Q = 2 . 0
G
− λ , but not less than 0 and not greater than 1.0
G
λ =
EG
y
f
f
f
EG
is given in eq. (8.11)
τ
crg
= critical shear stress of panel with girders removed,
calculated from eq.(8.6) with
τ
λ
calculated using
τ
ce
= τ
ceg
. If the stiffener is not continuous
through the girder τ
crg
= 0.
τ
crl
= critical shear stress of panel between girders calculated
from eq. (8.6) with
τ
λ
calculated using τ
ce
= τ
cel
1 λ for , f
λ
0.6
1 λ for , 0.6f τ
τ y 2
τ
τ y cr
> =
≤ =
(8.6)
τ
λ =
ce
y
τ
0.6f
with
τ
ceg
=
2
P
2
cel
L
l ⋅ τ
τ
cel
=
75 . 0
s
2
s
tI
t
E 18

.

\

l
L
P
= length of panel
h
wG
= web height of girder
A
s
= cross sectional area of stiffener
L
G
= girder span
s = stiffener spacing
I
s
= moment of inertia of stiffener with full plate width
For linear variation of σ
x,Sd
, the maximum value within
0.25L
G
to each side of the midpoint of the span may be used.
τ
Sd
should correspond to the average shear flow over the
panel.
L
L
s
l
Stiffener
Girder
P
G
Figure 81 Panel geometry definitions
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 24
DET NORSKE VERITAS
For tension in the xdirection:
Sd
2
G
y
G
wG
s
0
Cτ
L
E
f
L
s
1 h
s
A
t 0.4
p 
.

\



.

\

−

.

\

+
=
l
(8.7)
8.3 Resistance parameters for girders
The resistance of girders may be determined by the
interaction formulas in sec. 7.7 using the following
resistance
( )
M
y
e G Rd
γ
f
t A N l + =
(8.8)
( )
M
k
e G Rd ks,
γ
f
t A N l + =
(8.9)
where
f
k
is calculated from sec. 7.5 using μ according to eq. (7.26).
( )
M
k
e G Rd kp,
γ
f
t A N l + =
(8.10)
where:
f
k
is calculated from sec. 7.5 using μ according to eq.
(7.25) using:
f
r
= f
y
for check at plate side
f
r
= f
TG
for check at girder flange side
2
Gk
Ge 2
EG
L
i
E f


.

\

= π
(8.11)
L
Gk
= buckling length of girder equal L
G
unless further
evaluations are made
f
TG
may be obtained from eq. (8.27)
A
G
= cross sectional area of girder
l
e
= effective width of girder plate, see sec. 8.4.
M
r
eG Rd s1,
γ
f
W M =
(8.12)
with f
r
calculated using l
t
= 0.4 L
G
or distance between lateral
support if this is less.
M
r
eG Rd s2,
γ
f
W M =
(8.13)
with f
r
calculated using l
t
= 0.8 L
G
or distance between lateral
support if this is less.
M
y
eG Rd st,
γ
f
W M =
(8.14)
M
y
ep Rd p,
γ
f
W M =
(8.15)
W
ep
=
p
e
z
I
, effective elastic section modulus on plate
side, see Figure 73
W
eG
=
t
e
z
I
, effective elastic section modulus on girder
flange side, see Figure 73
2
Ge
Gk
Ge
2
E
i
L
EA π
N


.

\

=
(8.16)
where
Ge
Ge
Ge
A
I
i =
(8.17)
8.4 Effective widths of girders
8.4.1 General
The effective width for the plate of the girder is taken equal
to:
τG yG xG
e
C C C ⋅ ⋅ =
l
l
(8.18)
For the determination of the effective width the designer is
given two options denoted method 1 and method 2. These
methods are described in sec. 8.4.2 and 8.4.3 respectively:
8.4.2 Method 1
Calculation of the girder by assuming that the stiffened plate
is effective against transverse compression (σ
y
) stresses. See
also Commentary Chapter 10 and sec. 7.1.
In this method the effective width may be calculated as:
2
kx
Sd x,
xG
f
σ
1 C


.

\

− =
(8.19)
where:
y xs kx
f C f =
(8.20)
C
xs
is found from eq. (7.14).
If the σ
y
stress in the girder is in tension due to the combined
girder axial force and bending moment over the total span of
the girder C
yG
may be taken as:
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 25
DET NORSKE VERITAS
C
yG
= 1.0
(8.21)
If the σ
y
stress in the plate is partly or complete in
compression C
yG
may be found from eq. (7.16).
2
y
Sd
τG
f
τ
3 1 C


.

\

− =
(8.22)
l
e
should not be taken larger than 0.3 L
G
for continuous
girders and 0.4 L
G
for simple supported girders when
calculating section modules W
ep
and W
eG
.
8.4.3 Method 2
Calculation of the girder by assuming that the stiffened plate
is not effective against transverse compression stresses (σ
y
).
See also Commentary Chapter 10 and Sec. 7.1.
In this case the plate and stiffener can be checked with σ
y
stresses equal to zero.
In method 2 the effective width for the girder should be
calculated as if the stiffener was removed.
then:
2
y
Sd x,
xG
f
σ
1 C


.

\

− =
(8.23)
where
σ
x,Sd
is based on total plate and stiffener area in xdirection.
673 . 0 λ if 1.0,
673 . 0 λ if
λ
0.22 λ
C
G
G
2
G
G
yG
≤ =
>
−
=
(8.24)
where
E
f
t
525 . 0 λ
y
G
l
=
(8.25)
2
y
Sd
τG
f
τ
3 1 C


.

\

− =
(8.26)
8.5 Torsional buckling of girders
The torsional buckling strength of girders may be determined
as:
y TG
f f =
if 6 . 0 λTG ≤
( )



.

\

− + + − + +
⋅ =
2
TG
2
TG
2
2
TG
2
TG
y TG
2
4 1 1
f f
λ
λ λ μ λ μ
if 6 . 0 λTG >
(8.27)
ETG
y
TG
f
f
λ =
(8.28)
( ) 6 . 0 35 . 0 μ
TG
− = λ
(8.29)
where
2
GT
w
f
z
2
ETG
L
3
A
A
EI π
f

.

\

+
=
(8.30)
L
GT
= distance between lateral supports
A
f
, A
w
= cross sectional area of flange and web of girder
I
z
= moment of inertia of girder (exclusive of plate flange)
about the neutral axis perpendicular to the plate
Torsional buckling need not to be considered if tripping
brackets are provided so that the laterally unsupported length
L
GT
, does not exceed the value L
GT0
defined by:

.

\

+
=
3
A
A f
EA
C
b
L
w
f y
f GT0
(8.31)
where
b = flange width
C = 0.55 for symmetric flanges
1.10 for one sided flanges
Tripping brackets are to be designed for a lateral force P
Sd
,
which may be taken equal to (see Figure 82 ):

.

\

+ =
3
A
A 0.02σ P
w
f Sd y, Sd
(8.32)
σ
y,Sd
= compressive stress in the free flange
P
Sd
A
f
Tripping bracket
1/3 A
w
Figure 82 Definitions for tripping brackets
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 26
DET NORSKE VERITAS
9 Local buckling of stiffeners, girders and
brackets
9.1 Local buckling of stiffeners and girders
9.1.1 General
The methodology given in Chapter 7 and Chapter 8 is only
valid for webs and flanges that satisfy the the following
requirements or fulfils requirements to cross section type III
defined in Appendix A of DNVOSC101.
Flange outstand for T or L stiffeners or girders should
satisfy:
c ≤ 14 t
f
ε for welded sections
c ≤ 15 t
f
ε for rolled sections
(9.1)
For definition of c see Figure 73 .
Web of stiffeners and girders should satisfy:
h
w
≤ 42 t
w
ε
(9.2)
ε =
y
f
235
In lieu of more refined analysis such as in Chapter 7, web
stiffeners should satisfy the requirements given in sec. 9.1.2
and sec. 9.1.3.
9.1.2 Transverse web stiffeners:
E
f
s
2
s
2.5 t s 0.3 I
y
t
t
W
2
t s


.

\

− >
l
l
l
(9.3)
I
s
= moment of inertia of web stiffener with full web plate
flange s
l
t
= length of transverse web stiffener
s = distance between transverse web stiffeners
s
l
t
Figure 91 Definitions for transverse web stiffeners
9.1.3 Longitudinal web stiffener:
( )
E
f
st A 0.25 I
y
W s
2
s
+ >
l
l
(9.4)
I
s
= moment of inertia of web stiffener with full web plate
flange s.
A
s
= cross sectional area of web stiffener exclusive web
plating.
l
l
= length of longitudinal web stiffener
s = distance between longitudinal web stiffeners
l
l
s
Figure 92 Definitions for longitudinal web stiffeners
9.2 Buckling of brackets
Brackets should be stiffened in such a way that:
y
b 0
f
E
0.7t d ≤
(9.5)
y
b 1
f
E
1.65t d ≤
(9.6)
y
b 2
f
E
1.35t d ≤
(9.7)
t
b
= plate thickness of bracket.
Stiffeners as required in eq. (9.6) or eq. (9.7) may be
designed in accordance with Chapter 7. See Figure 93.
Figure 93 Definitions for brackets
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 27
DET NORSKE VERITAS
10 Commentary
Commentary to 3.4 Tolerance requirements
An important factor for the buckling strength is the
imperfections that are permitted. As a basis the formulas are
developed on the basis that the imperfections are similar to
what is allowed in the DNVOSC401 Fabrication and
Testing of Offshore Structures. There are differences in this
standard and what is allowed in DNV Classification Rules
for Ships and IACS “Shipbuilding and Repair Quality
StandardPart A. However, the formulas is seen as being
relevant for both typical ship with normal good practice and
offshore structures even if an nonlinear FEM analysis of the
panel including the worst combination of allowable
imperfections may yield less resistance than obtain from the
RP formulas. The reason why this is seen as acceptable is the
following:
• The resistance of stiffened plate structures is dependent
on imperfections in several elements. Both the
imperfection size and pattern for both the plate and
stiffener are important and it is less probable that they
have their maximum at the same time.
• The resistance is dependent on more than one element. It
is less probable that all elements have their most
detrimental imperfection pattern and size at the same
time.
• The importance of the imperfection is largest for small
slenderness plate and stiffeners while the likelihood of
deviations are largest for large slenderness plates.
• There are several supportive effects in a real stiffened
plate structure that are disregarded in the resistance
formulations that will in many cases mean a capacity
reserve that is larger than the effect from imperfections.
For structures where these elements are less valid it may be
necessary to evaluate the effect of imperfections separately.
An example may be a short stocky sniped stiffener
constructed according to ship rules fabrication tolerances and
where redistribution of stresses are not possible. Ship rules
tolerances are given with a tolerances that are independent of
the member length. This will imply that the tolerances are
larger than the basis for this Recommended Practise and the
capacity of short members may be overpredicted.
Commentary to 4.4 Determination of buckling
resistance based upon linear elastic buckling stress
Linear elastic buckling stress found from literature or by
FEM eigenvalue analyses may be used as basis for
determination of buckling resistance. In order to account for
material nonlinearity, residual stresses and imperfection a
suitable buckling curve may be used by calculating the
reduced slenderness parameter defined as:
cr
y
p
f
f
λ =
where f
cr
is linearised buckling stress.
The linearised buckling stress should be carefully selected to
be maximum compressive stress in the analysis. From the
reduced slenderness a buckling resistance may be determined
by using an appropriate buckling curve. Normally a column
buckling curve as defined in eq. (7.21) and eq. (7.22) can be
used unless it is evident that a plate buckling curve as
defined in eq. (6.2) and eq. (6.6) or a shear buckling curve as
in eq. (6.17) can be used.
In case of interaction effects e.g. between local and global
buckling the interaction effects can be conservatively
accounted for by calculated a combined linearised buckling
stress according to the following formula:
crlocal crglobal crcomb
f
1
f
1
f
1
+ =
Commentary to 6 Buckling of unstiffened plates
Slender plates designed according to the effective width
formula utilise the plates in the post critical range. This
means that higher plate stresses than the buckling stress
according to linear theory or the socalled critical buckling
stress are allowed. Very slender plates, i.e. span to thickness
ratio greater than 120, may need to be checked for
serviceability limit states or fatigue limit states. Examples of
failure modes in the serviceability limit states are reduced
aesthetic appearance due to out of plane distortions or snap
through if the plate is suddenly changing its out of plane
deformation pattern. As the main source for the distortions
will be due to welding during fabrication, the most effective
way to prevent these phenomena is to limit the slenderness of
the plate. The likelihood of fatigue cracking at the weld
along the edges of the plate may increase for very slender
plates if the in plane loading is dynamic. This stems from
bending stresses in the plate created by out of plane
deflection in a deflected plate with in plane loading. For
plates with slenderness less than 120, ordinary fatigue checks
where out of plane deflections of plate are disregarded will
be sufficient.
Commentary to 7 Buckling of stiffened plates
For wide flanges the stresses in the longitudinal direction
will vary due to shear deformations, (shear lag). For buckling
check of flanges with longitudinal stiffeners shear lag effects
may be neglected as long as the flange width is less than 0.2
L to each side of the web (bulkhead). L being length between
points of counterflexure.
Commentary to 7.2 Forces in the idealised stiffened
plate
With tension field action is understood the load carrying
action in slender webs beyond the elastic buckling load.
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 28
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Commentary to 7.4 Resistance of plate between
stiffeners
If secondary stiffeners are used to stabilise the plate field
between ordinary stiffeners the secondary stiffeners need to
be checked as a plate stiffener and the ordinary stiffeners as
girders according to sec. 7.5 and Chapter 8, respectively.
Commentary to 7.7 Interaction equations for axial
compression and lateral pressure
The equations (7.50) and (7.51) may be seen as interaction
formulas for the stiffener and plate side respectively for a
section at the support. Equations (7.52) and (7.53) are
likewise interaction checks at the midspan of the stiffener.
See also Figure 101.
l/2 l/2
Figure 101 Check points for interaction equations
With the lateral load on the stiffener side, the stresses change
sign and the equations (7.54) to (7.57) shall be used. The
sections to be checked remain the same.
The eccentricity z* is introduced in the equations to find the
maximum resistance of the stiffened panel. In the ultimate
limit state a continuos stiffened panel will carry the load in
the axis giving the maximum load. For calculation of the
forces and moments in the total structure, of which the
stiffened panel is a part, the working point for the stiffened
panel should correspond to the assumed value of z*. In most
cases the influence of variations in z* on global forces and
moments will be negligible. See also Figure 102.
Figure 102 Definition of z
*
. Positive value shown
The maximum capacity will be found for the value of z*
when the largest utilisation ratio found for the four equations
is at its minimum. See Figure 103.
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80
z* (mm)
U
t
i
l
i
s
a
t
i
o
n
r
a
t
i
o
Check point 1
Check point 2
Check point 3
Check point 4
Figure 103 Utilisation ratios for the four interaction
equations with varying z*
Commentary to 8 Buckling of girders
When a stiffened panel supported by girders is subjected to
lateral loads the moments from this load should be included
in the check of the girder. If the girder is checked according
to method 1, the stiffener and plate should also be checked
for the σ
y
stresses imposed by the bending of the girder. In
method 2, the σ
y
stresses imposed by the bending of the
girder can be neglected when checking plate and stiffener.
Maximum capacity
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 29
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
Page 30
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Part 2.
Buckling Strength of Plated Structures  PULS Buckling Code
1 Introduction
1.1 General
1.1.1 This part describes an accepted computerised semi
analytical model for ultimate and buckling strength
assessment of thinwalled unstiffened or stiffened flat plates.
The code has the name PULS as a shortcut for Panel
Ultimate Limit State.
1.1.2 The PULS code assess the buckling strength of
different types of elements classified according to their
structural action and position in large plated constructions,
e.g. in ship hulls, offshore platforms etc., Figure 1.
1.1.3 The code can be used for both steel and aluminium
material. Special criteria are introduced for aluminium alloys
with respect to Heat affected zone effects (HAZ).
1.1.4 Application to other metallic materials than steel and
aluminium is possible. Special care is needed with respect to
welding effects, heat affected zone effects etc.
1.1.5 The PULS code is programmed in a Visual basic (VB)
environment. Two separate user interfaces are available
using the same input/output file format, see Sec. 1.6.
1.1.6 The PULS VB program will be revised and updated
with respect to new element types, improved solutions, new
features etc. whenever appropriate. The latest official
program version with corresponding documentation is
available by contacting the authorised unit within DNV.
1.1.7 The PULS code is implemented into other user
interface applications and as postprocessors in different DNV
software.
Figure 1 Ship hulls with stiffened panels as main building block
Global hull sections
Stiffened panels
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
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DET NORSKE VERITAS
1.2 Purpose
1.2.1 The present computerised buckling code is introduced
as an alternative to the more standard buckling code format
given in the first part of the present document. The purpose
is to assess the ultimate and buckling strength limits with
greater consistency than available with more empirical curve
fitting approaches.
1.2.2 The code also facilitate reduced orthotropic stiffness
parameters of elastically deformed/buckled plates. These
properties are meant for application on large plated structures
analysed using linear finite elements programs and coarse
meshing, typically FE plate and shell models with one
element between stiffeners. The goal with such applications
is to improve the assessment of the nominal stress flow in
ship hulls etc. accepting and accounting for local elastic plate
buckling between stiffeners. The option of
anisotropic/orthotropic material models in standard FE
programs can be used. Details of such applications are not
described here.
1.3 Theoretical background
1.3.1 The PULS models are based on a recognized non
linear thinwalled plate theory according to Marguerre and
von Karman see e.g. Ref. [1], [2]. A harmonic RayleighRitz
discretization of deflections is used together with energy
principles for establishing the nonlinear elastic equilibrium
equations. The equilibrium equations are solved using
incremental numerical procedures.
1.3.2 For stiffened panels the models are based on an
orthotropic version of Marguerre’s plate theory in which the
stiffeners are smeared out over the plate surface. The elastic
local buckling, postbuckling and imperfection effects of each
component plate in the crosssection are lumped into a set of
reduced orthotropic stiffness coefficients. These reduced
orthotropic coefficients are used for assessing the upper
bound global elastic buckling limit.
1.3.3 In nonlinear elastic buckling theory the internal stress
distribution is split in two categories i.e. the direct external
applied stresses and a second order stress field due to the
combined effect of buckling and geometrical imperfections.
The latter stress field is due to the nonlinear geometrical
effect. These stress categories add together forming a
redistributed stress field across the panel.
1.3.4 In the Puls code the redistributed stress field is used
for identifying the critical positions (“hard corners”) where
material yielding starts. The values of the external loads, at
which the redistributed membrane stresses reaches the yield
condition, are used as indicators for the ULS strength (limit
state formulations). For stiffened panels the largest
redistributed stresses will typically be along supported edges
or along platestiffener junction lines.
1.4 Code principles
1.4.1 The ultimate load bearing capacity of plates will
depend on whether the considered plate and/or stiffened
panel constitute an integrated part of a bottom, deck, ship
side or bulkhead construction or whether they are a part of a
girder web with free membrane boundary conditions.
Integrated thin plates in a ship deck, bottom or ship sides etc.
can carry loads far beyond the ideal elastic buckling load
(over critical strength), while plates with free membrane
stress support has limited overcritical strength.
1.4.2 For integrated elements and extreme load design (ULS
design), elastic buckling is accepted, i.e. large elastic
displacements are accepted as long as the consequences are
controlled and accounted for.
1.4.3 Ideal elastic buckling stresses (eigenvalues) are
independent of the inplane (membrane stiffness) support
from neighbouring elements. They are useful as reference
values and can be used as upper limits in case of functional
considerations i.e. for load conditions and structural parts in
which elastic buckling and thereby large elastic
displacements are not acceptable (SLS philosophy). Ideal
elastic buckling stresses is also acceptable as the upper limits
for web girder design, stringer decks etc.
1.4.4 The yield stress to be used in a code strength
prediction is to be the characteristic value as specified for
each material type in the rules.
1.4.5 The PULS ULS capacity assessment is based on the
redistributed stress distribution and local material yield
criterion in highly stressed positions (“hard corners”) along
plate edges and stiffener plate junction lines. This will limit
extensive damages and permanent sets.
1.4.6 There is no coupling between strength assessments of
different element types, i.e. the strength evaluation of the
stiffened panel is selfcontained with no need for buckling
check of the individual plate elements of which it is
composed.
1.4.7 The PULS ultimate capacity values, using the default
settings for imperfections, are consistent with the IACS
Shipbuilding and Quality Repair Manual and DNVOSC401
fabrication standard.
1.4.8 Required safety margin against ULS element failure
depends on type of construction, global redundancy,
probability of loads and consequence of failure. Required
safety margins are given in respective Ship rules and
Offshore standards.
1.5 Safety formats
1.5.1 The PULS code calculates the usage factor η as a
measure of the available safety margin. The usage factor
represents the ratio between the applied combined loads and
the corresponding ultimate strength values (ULS). It is a
parameter used in DNV Ship Rule contexts.
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
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DET NORSKE VERITAS
1.5.2 For combined loads the usage factor is defined as the
ratio between the radius vector to the applied load point in
load space and the corresponding radius vector to the ULS
collapse boundary, Figure 2.
The usage factor is defined as
u 0
L / L = η
where the radius vectors L
0
and L
u
in load space are defined
as
) ( L
2
0 K
2
0 i
2
20
2
10 0
σ + + σ + + σ + σ =
) ( L
2
Ku
2
iu
2
u 2
2
u 1 u
σ + + σ + + σ + σ =
K is the maximum number of simultaneously acting
independent inplane load components.
1.5.3 For a single load cases the definition of usage factor
1.5.2 becomes
iu 0 i
/ σ σ = η i = axial load, transverse load etc.
1.5.4 The ULS acceptance criterion is
allow
η < η
allow
η (= )
max
η is the acceptable usage factor specified in
the rules. It will vary depending on the probability level of
the loads, consequence of failure and global redundancy of
the construction.
Figure 2 Definition of safety margin/usage factor; example for biaxial loading on a plate
2D  view
3D  view
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201, October 2010
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DET NORSKE VERITAS
1.5.5 In the DNV Offshore Standards the LRFD format is
used. This implies that the acceptance criterion is on the form
d d
R S <
S
d
is the load effect including relevant problem dependent
load factors. R
d
is the design resistance, which is related to
the characteristic resistance as
m k d
/ R R γ =
The factor γ
m
is the material parameter given in the
respective offshore standards.
1.5.6 The LRFD offshore strength format in the PULS
terminology is
allow
η η < where
k
d
R
S
= η and
m
allow
1
γ
= η
The following definitions for S
d
and R
k
in case of combined
loads apply:
Load effect
0 d
L S ≡ (design load effect
inclusive load factors)
Characteristic resistance
u k
L R ≡ (ultimate strength
exclusive safety factors)
The ratio
k d
R / S is the same as the usage factor η. It gives
a consistent measure of the safety margin. The material
factor γ
m
is the inverse of the acceptable usage factor η
allow
.
1.5.7 The ratio (
allow
/ η η ) can be used as a measure of the
safety margin relative to the required strength margin, i.e.
1
allow
<
η
η
1.6 PULS software features
1.6.1 The PULS code is supported by two separate stand
alone user interfaces applying the same input/output file
format (pbp):
− Advanced Viewer (AV): Simple cell input of data with
basic result presentation. More results available such as
3D graphics of buckling deflections, redistributed
stresses, capacity curves for combined loads etc.
− Excel spread sheet: Simple data input and output line by
line. A special option for systematic variation of main
design parameters such as stiffener height etc. is
available.
1.6.2 The PULS code is also available in a dll format
(PulsComClasses) for implementation as a postprocessor in
linear FE codes or similar analyses tools.
1.6.3 The software features and basic theoretical background
is found in Ref.[3]. More details, publications, papers etc.
can be found on the DNV internet site www.dnv.com
1.7 References
/1/
Washizu, K. (1975). “Variational methods in
elasticity and plasticity”, Pergamon Press, Second
Edition, Bath, Great Britain.
/2/
Brush.D.O. and Almroth. B.O. “Buckling of Bars,
Plates and Shells”, McGrawHill 1975
/3/
NAUTICUS HULL, User Manual – PULS,
July 2007, DNV Software.
1.5.8 The offshore WSD format in PULS terminology
implies that η < η
p
where η
p
is permissible usage factor
given in the offshore standard DNVOSC201 and η is the
actual usage factor as calculated by the PULS code.
FOREWORD
DET NORSKE VERITAS (DNV) is an autonomous and independent foundation with the objectives of safeguarding life, property and the environment, at sea and onshore. DNV undertakes classification, certification, and other verification and consultancy services relating to quality of ships, offshore units and installations, and onshore industries worldwide, and carries out research in relation to these functions. DNV service documents consist of amongst other the following types of documents: — Service Specifications. Procedual requirements. — Standards. Technical requirements. — Recommended Practices. Guidance. The Standards and Recommended Practices are offered within the following areas: A) B) C) D) E) F) G) H) J) O) Qualification, Quality and Safety Methodology Materials Technology Structures Systems Special Facilities Pipelines and Risers Asset Operation Marine Operations Cleaner Energy Subsea Systems
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CHANGES
• General
As of October 2010 all DNV service documents are primarily published electronically. In order to ensure a practical transition from the “print” scheme to the “electronic” scheme, all documents having incorporated amendments and corrections more recent than the date of the latest printed issue, have been given the date October 2010. An overview of DNV service documents, their update status and historical “amendments and corrections” may be found through http://www.dnv.com/resources/rules_standards/.
• Main changes
Since the previous edition (October 2002), this document has been amended, most recently in October 2008. All changes have been incorporated and a new date (October 2010) has been given as explained under “General”.
DET NORSKE VERITAS
.4 5 6 6................ 30 Purpose.....................................2 8............ 23 Girder forces..........4 7........11 General............................................8 Introduction.....................................................11 Lateral loaded plates ..........................................3 4............................3 7....................2 3..........................................................................................3 6........7 Buckling Strength of Plated Structures ........7 Introduction................ 31 Safety formats .......................8 Serviceability limit states.......3 3.................................................................................................. 18 Resistance of plate between stiffeners.......2 1............................................... October 2010 Page 4 CONTENTS 6.................................... 1 1...........................8 Definitions ........................PULS Buckling Code.....................................................6 1................................. 23 General ....................................... 33 © Det Norske Veritas AS 1997 Data processed and typeset by Division Technology and Products............1 9..... 6 6............. 15 Buckling of stiffened plates................... 17 General ..............8 Failure modes......2 6.................8 Tolerance requirements.........................4 6........15 Buckling of unstiffened plates with varying transverse stress.........................................................................................................................2 2 3 3..................7 General design considerations for flat plate structures ................ 30 Introduction ....... 17 Effective plate width ..................... Internal compression elements...... 20 Interaction formulas for axial compression and lateral pressure ............................................x000 (to be filled in by DTP 274) Para 13 will be inserted by DTP 274 .......6 7...............5 6................... 31 Theoretical background.......................................................................................................................................1 4....RpC201...........................8 Validity ...... girders and brackets 26 Local buckling of stiffeners and girders............................................ 22 Buckling of girders ......... 24 Effective widths of girders ............... 31 Code principles...........................1 3....4 1....................12 General.............8 Part 1..3 8.....12 Buckling of unstiffened plates with transverse compression ......................... 18 Characteristic buckling strength of stiffeners.6 6..........1 7.............11 Plated structure assumed to resist shear only..................................2 4.......................... 15 Buckling of unstiffened plate with longitudianal and transverse varying stress and with shear stress..................1 1.............................................................11 Determination of buckling resistance based upon linear elastic buckling stress ............................ 31 PULS software features........4 8...............................9 7 7............... 30 General ............ 26 Commentary ...9x... Det Norske Veritas AS Printed in Norway by Det Norske Veritas AS 28/10/2010 12:09:00 .............................................................Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201.1 1........................... 27 Part 2..........................................8 8 8...............11 Consideration of shear lag effects............. 23 Resistance parameters for girders.....................................................13 Buckling of unstiffened plates with varying longitudinal stress..... Buckling Strength of Plated Structures .............................12 Buckling of unstiffened plate with shear .7 7...................................6 General................ 26 Buckling of brackets............................1 8....................14 Buckling of outstand compression elements............................ 25 Local buckling of stiffeners................2 10 1 1............................................................................................6 Safety format.........................................3 1...........6 Symbols ......................................................5 9 9. 24 Torsional buckling of girders ........................................ 21 Check for shear force .............5 1.8 Analysis Strategies ........... 33 References .....Conventional Buckling Code...doc x......11 Buckling of unstiffened plates......................................2 7............................................. 17 Forces in the idealised stiffened plate ..................................4 3.......................................................5 3...............13 Buckling of unstiffened biaxially loaded plates with shear...1 6....5 7...............................................6 4 4............... 19 Resistance of stiffened panels to shear stresses........................................12 Buckling of unstiffened plates under longitudinally uniform compression .........................
It is based on a recognized nonlinear plate theory. It is also implemented as a postprocessor in other DNV programs. i. The PULS code is supported by official stand alone DNV Software programs.Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201.1 “Buckling Strength Analysis”. The procedure provides estimates of the ultimate buckling capacity to be used in extreme load design (ULS philosophy). Recommendations are given for plates. as given in Part 2. as given in Part 1. It is an update and development of the stiffened flat plate part of previous DNV Classification Note No. is a computerised semianalytical model called PULS (Panel Ultimate Limit State). The method is essentially geometrically nonlinear with stress control in critical positions along plate edges and plate stiffener junction lines for handling material plasticity. but equally acceptable methods. stiffeners and girders. for load conditions and structural parts in which elastic buckling and thereby large elastic displacements are not acceptable (SLS philosophy). The second method. 30. The first method. The buckling limit is also assessed as it may be of interest in problems related to functional requirements. RayleighRitz discretizations of deflections and a numerical procedure for solving the equilibrium equations. is a conventional buckling code for stiffened and unstiffened panels of steel.e. October 2010 Page 5 Introduction This document describes two different. DET NORSKE VERITAS . for buckling and ultimate strength assessment of plated structures.
Rd DET NORSKE VERITAS . October 2010 Page 6 Part 1. Buckling Strength of Plated Structures . fEz fk fr fT fTG fy h hw hwG i ie k. Factor interaction factor flange eccentricity elastic plate buckling strength design yield strength Euler buckling strength Euler buckling strength for plate due to longitudinal stresses Euler buckling strength for plate due to transverse stresses Euler buckling shear strength for plate torsional elastic buckling strength torsional elastic buckling strength for girders Euler buckling strength corresponding to the member y and z axis respectively characteristic buckling strength characteristic strength characteristic torsional buckling strength characteristic torsional buckling strength for girders characteristic yield strength height height of stiffener web height of girder web radius of gyration effective radius of gyration buckling factor factor reduction factor for plate buckling due to lateral pressure buckling factor for unstiffened plates length.1 Introduction General NE Nks. distance length of panel length of girder buckling length of girder distance between lateral support of girder limiting distance between lateral support of girder design bending moment resistance on plate side design plastic bending moment resistance design bending moment resistance design bending moment design bending moment resistance on stiffener side design bending moment resistance on stiffener side in tension Is Iz L LP LG LGk LGT LGT0 Mp. element length effective length stiffener buckling length length of longitudinal web stiffener length of transverse web stiffener distance between sideways support of stiffener length to reference point 1.Rd Mst.Rd NSd PSd Q VRd VSd W WeG Wep Wes b be c ci ef fcr fd fE fEpx fEpy fEpτ fET fETG fEy. The RP is intended to supplement the DNV Offshore standards DNVOSC101 and is intended to be used for design of structures according to this standard.2 Symbols The following symbols apply to this document: A Ae Af AG As Aw C Cx Cxs Cys C0 E G I Ip Ipo cross sectional area effective area cross sectional area of flange crosssectional area of girder cross sectional area of stiffener cross sectional area of web factor buckling factor for stresses in xdirection effective width factor due to stresses in xdirection effective width factor due to stresses in ydirection factor Young’s modulus of elasticity. kg kc kp kσ l le C ll lt lT l1 This document gives design recommendations to flat steel plate structures intended for marine structures. Euler buckling strength design stiffener induced axial buckling resistance design plate induced axial buckling resistance design axial force design lateral force Factor design shear resistance design shear force elastic section modulus effective section modulus on girder flange side effective section modulus on plate side effective section modulus on stiffener side width of flange effective width length of plate outstand.1⋅105MPa shear modulus moment of inertia polar moment of inertia polar moment of inertia = r 2 dA where r is measured from the connection between the stiffener and the plate moment of inertia of stiffener with full plate width moment of inertia of stiffener about zaxis length.Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201. 2.Rd Nkp.Conventional Buckling Code 1 1.Rd MRd MSd Ms.Rd Mpl.
geometric parameter Poisson’s ratio design von Mises’ equivalent stress larger design stress in the transverse direction. ψx. zt z* β γf γM ε ⎯λ ⎯λe ⎯λG ⎯λp ⎯λT ⎯λTG ⎯λτ μ ν σj. τcel τcrg.Sd σy2.Sd σy1. where UF is the allowable usage factor according to the WSD standard.Sd τceg. column slenderness parameter reduced equivalent slenderness reduced slenderness reduced plate slenderness reduced torsional slenderness reduced torsional slenderness for girders reduced slenderness coefficient.Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201. factor plate width. with tensile stresses taken as negative smaller design stress in the transverse direction. τcrl τRd τSd ψ.15.15 . This standard make use of material (resistance) and loadfactors as safety factors. ψy lateral pressure giving yield in outerfibre of a continuous stiffener using elastic section modules design hydrostatic pressure. design lateral pressure equivalent lateral pressure design lateral line load radius. DET NORSKE VERITAS . This Recommended Practice may be used in combination with a working stress design format (WSD) by the following method. The checks should be made using a modified allowable usage factor taken as UF·1. October 2010 Page 7 pf pSd p0 qSd r s se t tb tf tw zp. For the formulas used in this standard use a material factor γM = 1. stiffener spacing effective width of stiffened plate thickness bracket thickness flange thickness web thickness distance distance Factor partial factor for actions resulting material factor Factor reduced slenderness. with tensile stresses taken as negative elastic buckling strength critical shear stress design resistance shear stress design shear stress factors 2 Safety format This Recommended Practice is written in the load and resistance factor design format (LRFD format) to suit the DNV Offshore Standard DNVOSC101.
Figure 31 Stiffened plate panel DET NORSKE VERITAS .3 Failure modes 3 3. bulkheads.6 Validity This Recommended Practice is best suited to rectangular plates and stiffened panels with stiffener length being larger than the stiffener spacing ( l > s ).Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201. See also Commentary Chapter 10. (See DNVOSC101 Sec.5 A 400.2 Definitions 3. stiffener buckling as well as local buckling of stiffener and girder flanges. hull or integrated plated decks. The recommendations are applicable for structures built according to DNVOSC401 Fabrication and Testing of Offshore Structures or normal ship classification standards.) Such failure modes are: • • Yielding of plates in bending due to lateral load. The characteristic buckling strength shall be based on the lower 5th percentile of test results.1 General design considerations for flat plate structures Introduction This recommended practice addresses failure modes for unstiffened and stiffened plates. Guidance for determining resistance is given both for individual plates (unstiffend plates). See Table 31.5 Serviceability limit states Check of serviceability limit states for slender plates related to out of plane deflection may normally be omitted if the smallest span of the plate is less than 120 times the plate thickness. 3. The plate panel may be the web or the flange of a beam. stiffened plates and for girders supporting stiffended plate panels. characteristic buckling strength may be obtained from this note. Buckling of slender plates (high span to thickness ratio) due to inplane compressive stresses or shear stresses. The structural stability shall be checked for the structure as a whole and for each structural member. In lieu of more relevant information or more refined analysis. 3. October 2010 Page 8 3. pontoons. 3. Buckling strength analyses shall be based on the characteristic buckling strength for the most unfavourable buckling mode. or a part of box girders. which are not covered by the cross sectional check of members. It may also be used for girders being orthogonal to the stiffeners and with the girder having significant larger crosssectional dimensions than the stiffeners. webs and brackets.4 Tolerance requirements Notation of plate elements are shown in Figure 31. See also Commentary to 6 in Chapter 10. For stiffened panels the recommendations cover panel buckling.
4ε t σy.3 Unstiffened plate Transverse compression σy.Sd tl σx.Sd s 6. October 2010 Page 9 Table 31 Description Unstiffened plate Reference table for buckling checks of plates Load Longitudinal compression Sketch Clause reference 6.814 for fy = 355 MPa DET NORSKE VERITAS .2 Limiting value s<l Buckling check not necessary if s ≤ 42 ε t σx.Sd ts s<l Buckling check not necessary if s ≤ 5.6 σx.Sd Unstiffened plate Linear varying transverse compression l1 ts 6.Sd Unstiffened plate Shear stress τ Sd s l 6.Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201.Sd s s<l Buckling check not necessary if s ≤ 42 ε t ψ σx.8 s<l Buckling check not necessary if s ≤ 5.Sd l ψ σx.4 s<l Buckling check not necessary if s ≤ 70 ε t t l Unstiffened plate Linear varying longitudinal compression 6.Sd l ε = 235/f y ε = 1.4ε t σy.Sd t σx.0 for fy = 235 MPa ε = 0.
Sd τ Sd LG t 5 and 7 σx.5 Limiting value s<l Buckling check not necessary if s ≤ 5.Sd PSd l Girder supporting stiffened panel σy. October 2010 Page 10 Description Unstiffened plate Load Combined longitudinal and transverse compression and shear Sketch y.4ε t tSd s Unstiffened plate Uniform lateral load and inplane normal and shear stresses σy.Sd τ Sd LG t 5 and 8 σx.Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201.0 for fy = 235 MPa ε = 0.2 ε = 235/fy ε = 1.1 lt s s ll Brackets 9.Sd PSd l l Stiffeners to girder webs 9.4ε t l Longitudinal stiffened plate panel Longitudinal and transverse compression combined with shear and lateral load Longitudinal and transverse compression combined with shear and lateral load Longitudinal and transverse compression combined with shear and lateral load σy.5 PSd s<l Buckling check not necessary if s ≤ 5.Sd Clause reference 6.Sd x.Sd τ Sd s t σx.Sd 5 and 6.814 for fy = 355 MPa DET NORSKE VERITAS .
Sd = σ 2 Sd + σ 2 Sd − σ x. See also Commentary to 7 in Chapter 10.2) 2 4. and accounts for the reduction of the moment resistance along the yieldline due to applied inplane stresses. As slender plates under compressive loading will tend to redistribute stresses to the edges. Flat plate structures will redistribute compressive stresses to the edges as the load approaches the resistance of the plate and the plate will cease to behave linearly. Then all axial membrane stresses need to be carried by the adjoining framing only which should be analysed and checked accordingly.Sd 1− f y 2 (5. Linear finite element analyses will generally be adequate as long as the resistance is checked for the resultants from the integrated stresses in the analyses. plates subjected to compressive stresses shall also fulfil the requirements of Chapter 6 and 7 whichever is relevant. the effect of shear deformations of wide flanges need to be considered.1 Analysis Strategies General 5 Lateral loaded plates The design check of plated structures are normally made with linear elastic finite element analyses for determination of load effects.Sd ⋅ σ y. October 2010 Page 11 4 4.2 Plated structure assumed to resist shear only ψx = − 3 τ Sd f y 2 The following design philosophy may be used for plate panels which main function is to carry inplane shear loads. The adjoining structure need to be checked on the basis of the same model. σ j.Sd + 3τSd x. Furthermore.4) 4.Sd − 3 τSd 1− f f 4 y y 2 σ j. Such panels may be decks or walls in topside modules. It is emphasised that the formulation is based on a yield pattern assuming yield lines along all four edges. since the formula does not take account of secondorder effects.1) where pSd = design lateral pressure σ j.0 (5.3 Consideration of shear lag effects If the stresses are determined from beam theory.Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201. the stresses may be checked by the following formula: 2 f y t 2 s ψ y + ψ x γM s l p Sd ≤ 4. (5. See also Commentary Chapter 10.3) 2 3 σ y.4 Determination of buckling resistance based upon linear elastic buckling stress The buckling resistance may be based on linear elastic buckling stress provided the following effects are accounted for: • • • • Material nonlinearities Imperfections Residual stresses Possible interaction between local and global buckling modes This formula for the design of a plate subjected to lateral pressure is based on yieldline theory. either alone or in combination with inplane stresses. DET NORSKE VERITAS .Sd 4 fy 2 ψy = 2 (5. and will give uncertain results for cases where yieldlines can not be developed along all edges. an analysis where the part of the structure subject to buckling is given reduced stiffness may lead to more efficient structures. These plated structures may be analysed and checked by considering the plates as pure shear panels.Sd 1− f y 3σ 1 − x. y. The reduced resistance is calculated based on von Mises’ equivalent stress. 4. For plates subjected to lateral pressure. The analysis may be carried out with the plate panels modelled with elements that are only given shear stiffness.
0 where Cx = 1 Cx = when λp ≤ 0.6) for λc ≤ 0.Sd tl σx.1) for⎯λc ≥ 2.673 (6.2 Buckling of unstiffened plates under longitudinally uniform compression The design buckling resistance of an unstiffened plate under longitudinal compression force may be calculated as: σ x.5) (6.525 s t fy E and μ is: (6.3 Buckling of unstiffened plates with transverse compression The design buckling resistance of a plate under transverse compression force may be found from: Effective stress distribution S Se S σ y. For plates that are part of a stiffened panel.Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201. October 2010 Page 12 in which 6 6. See also Commentary Chapter 10.Sd s (6.9) DET NORSKE VERITAS . The reduction in plate resistance for inplane compressive forces is expressed by a reduced (effective) width of the plate which is multiplied by the design yield strength to obtain the design resistance.Sd ≤ σ x. see Figure 61 .0 κ= 1 2 ⋅ λ 2c + 0.0 κ= 1 2 ⋅ 1 + μ + λ c − 2 ⋅ λ 2c 6.3 ⋅ t 1.1 Buckling of unstiffened plates General s t = plate width = plate thickness This section presents recommendations for calculating the buckling resistance of unstiffened plates.2 <⎯λc < 2.2 (6.4) σx. . Rd = C x ⋅ fy γM (1 + μ + λ ) 2 2 c 2 − 4 ⋅ λc for 0. Buckling checks of unstiffened plates in compression shall be made according to the effective width method. Rd = σ y.3) μ = 0.7) Figure 62 Plate with longitudinal compression Real stress distribution 6.2 ) (6.21 ⋅ (λc − 0.673 p (6.2) and ⎯λc is: λc = 1.22 ) λ p2 when λp > 0.07 (6.Rd (6. the plate are checked as part of the buckling checks according to Chapter 7.8) where ⎯λp is the plate slenderness given by: λp = fy f cr = 0.R γM σ y. fcr = critical plate buckling strength The resistance of the plate is satisfactory when: σ x.R = 1. Then additional check of the plate according to this section is not required.3 ⋅ t E E ⋅f ⋅k ⋅ + κ ⋅ 1 − ⋅ y p l l fy fy Figure 61 Effective width concept where: κ = 1 .1 ⋅ ⋅ s t fy E (λ − 0.
4 Buckling of unstiffened plate with shear Shear buckling of a plate can be checked by Cτe = 1.Sd and σy.0 (6. for 0.Sd σ x. October 2010 Page 13 t l s = plate thickness = plate length = plate width fy s λ w = 0.Sd ⋅ σ y.34 + 4.12) where if both σx. (6.8 Cτe = 1.19) 6.14) in cases where σy. for λw > 1. be calculated as: t p Sd ≤ 2 ⋅ ⋅ f y s 2 k p = 1.Sd l Figure 63 Plate with transverse compression τRd is given by eq.0 − h α ⋅ Sd − 2 ⋅ fy s .0 otherwise for (6. σy.Sd is zero or negative (in tension). (6.11) The resistance of the plate is satisfactory when: σ y. σx.Sd ⋅ σ x.1) and σy. (6.Rd 2 where s h α = 0.0 − 0.Rd is given by eq.16) (6.Sd is positive (compression) and by eq. τ Rd = C τe f y ⋅ γM 3 (6.75 t − ci 2 σ x.8 < λw ≤ 1. for l < s l 2 2 (6.Sd ts σy.Sd x.625 (λw − 0.795 ⋅ ⋅ t E ⋅ kl s k l = 5. in lieu of more accurate results.34 + 4 .0 for λ w ≤ 0. apply fy/γM.Sd σ y.Rd σ + y.Rd σ y. then ci = 1.Sd and σy.Sd τ Rd C fy = τ ⋅ γM 3 (6.2 λw Figure 64 Biaxially loaded plate with shear DET NORSKE VERITAS s .5).25 y.19) in cases where σy.25 C τe = 1.15) Sd C τ = 1. for l ≥ s l s = 5.Rd (6.0 2 (6.9 Cτ = . for λw > 1.Sd is compression (positive) then s s for ≤ 120 ci = 1 − t 120 ⋅ t s ci = 0 for > 120 t If either of σx.2 0.05 ⋅ − 0.8 (6. but k p ≥ 0 A plate subjected to biaxially loading with shear should fulfil the following requirement: σ x.8 ⋅ λw − 0.10) 6. for 0.18) but hα ≥ 0 (6.Sd ≤ σ y.8 < λw ≤ 1.Sd or both is in tension (negative).0 − 0.0.20) τ Sd ≤ τ Rd (6.8).17) The reduction factor due to lateral load kp may.Rd is given by eq.0 for λw ≤ 0.Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201.14) where tCτ = 1.5 Buckling of unstiffened biaxially loaded plates with shear 2 p t k p = 1.13) ( ) λw2 .Rd τ Sd + τ Rd ≤ 1. In case of tension.8 . (6.
5 b eff b e2 = 0. fcr = critical plate buckling strength Table 61 Effective width for internal compression plate elements Effective width beff ψ=1 b eff = C x ⋅ b b e1 = 0.24) t σx.Sd (6.78ψ2 when = 5.Sd ≤ σ x.2 1.22) (6.Rd = C x where Cx = 1 Cx = fy γM (6.Sd s in which s = plate width ψ σx.29ψ+9.5 b eff Stress distribution (compression positive) σ1 b e1 b b e2 σ2 σ1 be1 b b e2 1> ψ > 0 b eff = C x ⋅ b b e1 = b e2 2 b eff 5ψ = b eff − b e1 σ2 bc σ1 be1 b b e2 bt ψ<0 b eff = C x ⋅ b c = b e1 = 0.Sd Figure 65 Plate with varying longitudinal stress ψ = σ2/ σ1 Stress ratio.21) = 7.Sd l ψ σx. Internal compression elements ε = 235 fy The buckling resistance of an unstiffened plate with varying longitudinal stress may be found from: kσ = 8. t = plate thickness In order to perform cross sectional checks for members subjected to plate buckling the local buckling effects can be accounted for by checking the resistance by using the effective width according to Table 61.4 ε kσ σx.23) λp − 0.05 + ψ when 0 ≤ ψ ≤1 σ x.816.6 Buckling of unstiffened plates with varying longitudinal stress.055 ⋅ (3 + ψ) 2 λp σ x.673 when λp > 0. October 2010 Page 14 6.6 b eff Cx ⋅ b 1− ψ σ2 DET NORSKE VERITAS .25) where ⎯λp is the plate slenderness given by: λp = fy f cr s 1 = ⋅ t 28.Rd (6.4 b eff b e2 = 0.98(1ψ)2 when −1 ≤ ψ < 0 − 2 ≤ ψ < −1 when λp ≤ 0.Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201.673 The resistance of the plate is satisfactory when: (6. σ1 is largest stress with compressive stress taken as positive.
0. 6.5) using the stress point defined in sec.18) with the resistance calculated according to eq. σ x.749 (6.9 Buckling of unstiffened plate with longitudianal and transverse varying stress and with shear stress For outstand with largest compression stress at supported edge: kσ = 0.25 l and 0.188 2 λp In case of linear varying transverse stress the capacity check can be done by use of the design stress value at a distance l1 from the most stressed end of the plate.21 ψ + 0.Sd l fcr = critical plate buckling strength ε = 235 fy Figure 66 Linear varying stress in the transverse direction For outstand with largest compression stress at free edge: kσ = 0.7 .1 ψ2 when −1 ≤ ψ < 0 DET NORSKE VERITAS .75 of maximum σy.27) (6.Sd.Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201. October 2010 Page 15 6. (6.7 Buckling of outstand compression elements The buckling resistance of an outstand compression element with varying or constant longitudinal stress may be found from: Cross sectional checks of members subjected to plate buckling local buckling effects can be accounted for by checking the resistance by using the effective width according to Table 62 and Table 63 for outstand elements with largest compression stress at free edge or supported edge respectively.34 + ψ The check of combined varying loads may be done according to eq.5 s where ⎯λp is the plate slenderness given by: λp = fy f cr s 1 = ⋅ t 28. l1 = minimum of 0.5 ψ + 17.5).28) λp − 0.07 ψ2 when − 3≤ ψ ≤1 6.8 Buckling of unstiffened plates with varying transverse stress when λp ≤ 0. (6. but not less than 0.749 when λp > 0.8.Rd = C x where Cx = 1 Cx = fy γM (6.578 0.21) and eq.29) in which s t = plate width = plate thickness l1 t s σy.26) 6.57 . The resistance σy.4 ε k σ (6. (6. (6. when 0 ≤ ψ ≤1 kσ = 1.Rd should be calculated from eq.
ψ DET NORSKE VERITAS .Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201. October 2010 Page 16 Table 62 Effective width for outstand compression plate elements with largest stress at free edge Stress distribution (compression positive) Effective width beff 0< ψ ≤ 1 b eff = C x ⋅ c b σ2 eff σ1 c bt bc σ1 ψ<0 b eff = C x ⋅ b c = Cx ⋅ c 1.ψ σ2 b eff Table 63 Effective width for outstand compression plate elements with largest stress at supported edge Stress distribution (compression positive) Effective width beff 0< ψ ≤ 1 b eff = C x ⋅ c beff σ1 c beff σ1 σ2 bc bt σ2 ψ<0 b eff = C x ⋅ b c = Cx ⋅ c 1.
e.34 L G 2 .8) (7. For shear lag effects see Commentary Chapter 10.4) where : l k g = 5. see Figure 71 should be designed to resist an equivalent axial force according to eq. In such cases the effective girder flange may be determined by disregarding the stiffeners. (7. according to eq. October 2010 Page 17 7 7.904 ⋅ E ⋅ s 2 (7. (7.5 σx. at plate side and stiffener side).Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201.9) (7. t τ crg = k g ⋅ 0.4). and the stiffener with plate may be checked by neglecting σy.34 + 4 L G l = 5. (7.5) + 4. See also Commentary to 8 in Chapter 10.6) where: s k l = 5.10) where As = cross sectional area of stiffener s t = distance between stiffeners = plate thickness = axial stress in plate and stiffener with compressive stresses as positive for τ Sd > (7. However.Sd (7.2) p 0 = (0. The equivalent axial force should be taken as: N Sd = σ x.7) 7.1 Buckling of stiffened plates General Assumption of tension field action implies that no (or negligible) resistance of the plate against transverse compression stresses (σy ) can be assumed.1) and an equivalent lateral load according to eq. pSd = design lateral pressure s = stiffener spacing ψ > 1.34 + 4 .2 Forces in the idealised stiffened plate Stiffened plates subjected to combined forces.Sd stresses may be assumed to be carried solely by the girder.19).Sd is in tension along the whole length of the panel. There are different formulas for stiffeners being continuous (or connected to frames with their full moment resistance) and simple supported (sniped) stiffeners.Sd stress is the dominant stress it is necessary to check the plate resistance according to eq. For slender stiffened plates the load carrying resistance in the direction transverse to the stiffener may be neglected. An example of a stiffened plate panel is shown in Figure 31.3) DET NORSKE VERITAS . (7. in cases where σy. The plate between stiffeners will normally be checked implicitly by the stiffener check since plate buckling is accounted for by the effective width method.Sd (A s + st ) + τ tf st The equivalent lateral line load should be taken as: q Sd = (p Sd + p 0 ) s (7.4ψ) C 0 σ y1. shear stress and lateral load. Then σy. C0 = Wes ⋅ f y ⋅ m c kc ⋅ E ⋅ t2 ⋅ s τ crl γM and tension field action is allowed τ tf = τ Sd − τ crg τ tf = 0 (7. (7. 8.8).Sd stresses (method 2 in sec.Sd σ y1.34 + 4.904 ⋅ E ⋅ l 2 This chapter deals with stiffened plate panels subjected to axial stress in two directions.11) otherwise ψ= σ y2.6 + 0. for l ≥ s l s = 5. 2 for l ≤ L G for l > L G (7. (7.6).5 (7. See also Commentary Chapter 10. the stiffener need to be checked for p0 applied in both directions (i. τcrg = critical shear stress for the plate with the stiffeners removed.Sd p0 = 0 in case σy. according to eq. For situations where pSd is less than p0. LG = Girder length see Figure 31 t τ crl = k l ⋅ 0.1) p0 shall be applied in the direction of the external pressure pSd. τcrl = critical shear stress for the plate panel between two stiffeners. for l < s l 2 2 (7.4). The stiffener cross section needs to fulfil requirements to avoid local buckling given in Chapter 9.Sd if p0 = 0 if ψ ≤ 1.
The effective width for varying stiffener spacing see Figure 72. σy. if λ p > 0.Sd = σy2.17) Tensile stresses are defined as negative.Sd ≤ k sp ⋅ σ y. is found from: and σy.Sd = Wes = larger design stress in the transverse direction.Rd (7.0 − 3 ⋅ Sd fy 2 (7.673 (7.Sd N Sd BEAM COLUMN STIFFENED PLATE Figure 71 Strut model 7. (6.Sd fy 2 Is = moment of inertia of stiffener with full plate width N Sd = N ( σx.14) = 1. October 2010 Page 18 σy1.12) In case of linear varying stress.3 for continuous stiffeners or.22 λ 2 p The plate between stiffeners shall be checked for: τ Sd ≤ τ Rd = fy 3 ⋅ γM (7.Sd y.3 Effective plate width Figure 72 Effective widths for varying stiffener spacing The effective plate width for a continuous stiffener subjected to longitudinal and transverse stress and shear is calculated as: se = C xs C ys s (7. σx. Cys.0 (7.8 The reduction factor for tension stresses in the transverse direction. (7. is calculated as: C ys = σ y. but C ys ≤ 1.Sd pSd σy1.R 2 (7.Sd may be determined as described in sec.15) and the reduction factor for compression stresses in the transverse direction. τSd) τ Sd σy2.Rd is determined from eq.Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201.4 Resistance of plate between stiffeners The reduction factor due to stresses in the longitudinal direction. Cys. DET NORSKE VERITAS .Sd σ ⋅σ + ci x. Cxs.19) where s fy λ p = 0.5).9 for simple supported stiffeners (sniped stiffeners) 10.9 ⋅ I k c = 2 ⋅ 1 + 1 + 3 s t ⋅s s 120 ⋅ t s for ≤ 120 t s for > 120 t σy.Sd C ys = 1 − σ y.673 if λ p ≤ 0.0.525 t E where: τ k sp = 1. Sd q Sd =q (pSd. 6.Sd. with tensile stresses taken as negative section modulus for stiffener with effective plate at flange tip σ y.R is calculated according to eq. with tensile stresses taken as negative smaller design stress in the transverse direction.13) 7. po ) .20) (7. = 8. (6.6).16) where ci = 1 − ci = 0 mc = 13.18) .R C xs ⋅ f y ⋅ σ y.Sd 1 4 − 3 f 2 y σ + y. σ y. is C xs = λ p − 0.
23) A = centroid of stiffener with effective plate flange.Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201.2 Torsional buckling of stiffeners for check at stiffener side z μ = 0.6 (7. a hw tw tf c hw tw c tf b 7. effective radius of gyration Ae Generally fET may be calculated as: f ET = β 2 GI t Eh s I z + π2 2 I po I po lT Ie effective moment of inertia Ae effective area (7.26) fT = 1.30) lk see eq. i f E = π 2 E e l k (7. zp.31) For L.2 λT see eq.34 + 0. (7.34 + 0.21) b ef C c hw B A tw tf fk 1+ μ + λ 2 − = fr (1 + μ + λ ) 2λ 2 2 2 − 4λ 2 (7.74) ie = I e .and Tstiffeners fET may be calculated as: DET NORSKE VERITAS .6.29) (7.6 where μ = 0.25) Figure 73 Crosssectional parameters for stiffeners and girders 7.6 λT = fy f ET fT may be calculated according to sec.35 ( λT − 0.0 fy 2 f T 1 + μ + λT − = fy when λT ≤ 0. zt is defined in Figure 73 b . 7.30) ) (7.27) where: fr = fr = fr = fy fy fT for check at plate side for check at stiffener side if⎯λT ≤ 0. B = centroid of stiffener exclusive of any plate flange.2 (7.5.24) for check at plate side p μ = 0.2 where e λ = fr fE 2 (7.1 The characteristic buckling strength for stiffeners may be found from: fk =1 fr when λ ≤ 0.22) zt hw tw zp when λ > 0. See also Commentary Chapter 10.28) when λT > 0. 7. C = centroid of flange. (7. (1 + μ + λ ) 2 2λT 2 2 T 2 − 4λT (7.08 t (λ − 0.08 (λ − 0.5.5 Characteristic buckling strength of stiffeners General 7.2) i e z (7. October 2010 Page 19 When this check and stiffener check according to sec.5.6 for check at stiffener side if⎯λT > 0.2 ) ie The torsional buckling strength may be calculated as: (7.7 is carried out it is not necessary to check the plate between stiffeners according to Chapter 6.
τ Rdl and τ Rds according to the following: τ Rdy = fy 3 ⋅ γM τ cr l γM (7.Sd + 3τ Sd x.36) where: (7. Venant torsion) Iz = moment of inertia of the stiffeners neutral axis normal to the plane of the plate b = flange width ef = flange eccentricity.6) and τ crs is obtained from: (7.39) t ⋅ G w hw 2 (7.Sd should be set to zero if in tension 7.43) 2 (7.0E s 2 (7.48) DET NORSKE VERITAS .40) where c = 2− s l 2 (7.Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201.Sd f ep Iz = 1 A f b 2 + e f2 12 Af A 1+ f AW η ≤ 1. y.Sd τ Sd + + f Epy f Epτ c c 1 c c (7. distance between tripping brackets (torsional buckling length).Sd f Epx σ y.Sd σ x.2 C + 0. 2 λe = fy σ j. (7. October 2010 Page 20 f ET t A W + f Af t t W =β G W h A W + 3A f w 2 (7.Sd and σy.0 (7. (7.9E s t f Epτ = 5.35) for s ≤ l Af = cross sectional area of flange AW = cross sectional area of web G = shear modulus Ipo = polar moment of inertia= r 2 dA where r is measured from the connection between the stiffener and the plate It = stiffener torsional moment of inertia (St.41) t f Epx = 3. or may for stocky plates alternatively be calculated as per eq.38) (7.Sd σ y. (7.62E s (7.46) tf = thickness of flange tW = thickness of web where β= 3C + 0.45) t = plate thickness τ Rdl = (7.34) f ep = fy 1+ λ 4 e where β = 1.6 Resistance of stiffened panels to shear stresses The resistance towards shear stresses τRd is found as the minimum of τRdy.32) π 2 EI z + AW 3 + Af 2 C= hw s 2 l T t t w 3 (1 − η) (7.44) σx.Sd = σ 2 Sd + σ 2 Sd − σ x.35) τ crs = 36 ⋅ E 4 ⋅ I p ⋅ I3 s s⋅ t ⋅l2 (7.0.33) η= σ j.37) For flatbar stiffeners fET may be calculated as: h f ET = β + 2 w l T 2 2 σ j. see Figure 73 hw = web height hs = distance from stiffener toe (connection between stiffener and plate) to the shear centre of the stiffener lT = distance between sideways supports of stiffener.47) where τ crl is obtained from eq.42) t f Epy = 0.2 τ Rds = τ cr s γM (7.
7 Interaction formulas for axial compression and lateral pressure Continuous stiffeners is given in eq. The value of z* is taken positive towards the plate.55) M 2.7.Rd 1 − Sd NE M 2. 8.Rd 1 − Sd NE (7.50) to (7.62) + u ≤1 When tension field action is assumed according to eq.7. z* may be varied in order to optimise the resistance. The simplification z* = 0 is always allowed.Sd − N Sd ⋅ z* N Sd + +u ≤ 1 N ks.Sd (7.Rd N Rd q Sd l 2 − N Sd ⋅ z * 8 N M p.Rd 1 − Sd NE M 2.Sd = q Sd l 2 for continuous stiffeners with equal spans 12 if q Sd l 2 < N Sd ⋅ z * then: 8 N Sd ⋅ z * − q Sd l 2 8 (7.54) to (7.Rd 1 − Sd NE (7. October 2010 Page 21 with: Ip = t3 ⋅s 10. M1.Rd N Rd N M p.2) then u = 0.60) +u ≤ 1 M1. Sd + N Sd ⋅ z * N Sd + +u ≤ 1 N kp.Rd 1 − Sd NE (7.Rd 1 − Sd NE M 2. z* should then be selected so the maximum utilisation found from the equations (7.1 For continuous stiffeners the following four interaction equations need to be fulfilled in case of: Lateral pressure on plate side: M1. Sd + N Sd ⋅ z* N N Sd +u ≤ 1 − 2 ⋅ Sd + N Rd N ks.Rd q Sd l 2 + N Sd ⋅ z * 8 N M st.59) +u≤ 1 Lateral pressure on stiffener side: M1.Rd N M s2.54) N Sd + N kp.61) + u ≤1 where τ u = Sd τ Rd 2 (7.2 (7.Rd N Rd N M st.Rd 1 − Sd NE M1.Rd q Sd l 2 − N Sd ⋅ z * 8 N M s2.Sd − N Sd ⋅ z * N Sd N − 2 ⋅ Sd + +u ≤ 1 N kp. Rd 1 − Sd NE * (7.Sd + N Sd ⋅ z N Sd N +u ≤ 1 − 2 ⋅ Sd + N ks. (7.56) Lateral pressure on stiffener side: q Sd l 2 ≥ N Sd ⋅ z* then: if 8 N Sd + N ks. Rd N M p.Sd − N Sd ⋅ z * N Sd N − 2 ⋅ Sd + +u ≤ 1 N kp.Rd N M s1.49) = q Sd l 2 for continuous stiffeners with equal spans 24 and Is= moment of inertia of stiffener with full plate width.Sd − N Sd ⋅ z * N Sd + +u ≤ 1 N ks.Rd 1 − Sd NE (7.Sd + N Sd ⋅ z N Sd + +u ≤ 1 N kp.Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201.53) N N Sd − 2 ⋅ Sd + N Rd N ks.53) or (7. Rd N M p.9 M2.51) 7. For resistance parameters see sec. Rd N Rd N M st.50) z* is the distance from the neutral axis of the effective section to the working point of the axial force.7. and equal lateral pressure in all spans = absolute value of the actual largest field moment for continuous stiffeners with unequal spans and/or unequal lateral pressure in adjacent spans qsd l 7.57) (7.52) Simple supported stiffener (sniped stiffener) * Simple supported stiffener (sniped stiffener): Lateral pressure on plate side: (7. (7.Rd q Sd l 2 + N Sd ⋅ z * 8 N M p.58) N Sd N − 2 ⋅ Sd + N kp.3 for stiffener and sec. Rd 1 − Sd NE (7. Rd 1 − Sd NE DET NORSKE VERITAS . 7.63) + u ≤1 and equal lateral pressure in all spans = absolute value of the actual largest support moment for continuous stiffeners with unequal spans and/or unequal lateral pressure in adjacent spans N Sd N − 2 ⋅ Sd + N ks. Rd N M st.3 for girders. (7. Rd 1 − Sd NE (7.8) = span length 7.Rd N Rd N M p.57) is at its minimum. see also Commentary Chapter 10.Rd 1 − Sd NE (7.
7. 7.58) qsd is given in eq.70) M p. (7.26) N kp. (7.76) where fr is calculated from sec. which for a sniped stiffener will be in the centre of the plate. 7. see Figure 73. pf = 12 W f y l 2 ⋅s γM (7.Rd = A e fk γM In case of varying lateral pressure.5 for stiffener side using lT = 0.68) VSd ≤ VRd = A net ⋅ fy γM 3 (7.64) + u ≤1 Wes = Ie .Rd N Sd ⋅ z * − q Sd l 2 8 (7. 7.Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201.73) The following resistance parameters are used in the interaction equations for stiffeners: N Rd = A e fy γM For a continuous stiffener the buckling length may be calculated from the following equation: p l k = l 1 − 0. see sec.Rd = Wes fr γM where: VSd = design shear force VRd = design shear resistance Anet = net shear area (shear area minus cut outs) If VSd > 0.8 Check for shear force The stiffener should in all sections satisfy: (7. DET NORSKE VERITAS . M st. (7. zt effective elastic section modulus on N M p.5 Sd pf (7. The value of z* is taken positive towards the plate.65) Ae = (As+set) effective area of stiffener and plate As = cross sectional area of stiffener se = effective width. where ie = Ie Ae (7. (7.Rd = Wes fr γM 7.Rd = Wes fy γM (7.69) where fr is calculated from sec.4 l or distance between lateral support if this is less.74) (7.5 VRd then the stiffener section modulus and effective area need to be reduced to account for the interaction of the shear with the moment and axial force in the stiffener.8 l or distance between lateral support if this is less.72) l = span length is given in eq. zp (7.66) l = span length where fk is calculated from sec. 7. (7.71) Wep = effective elastic section modulus on plate side. Rd = Wep fy γM Ie .Rd f = Ae k γM where pSd is design lateral pressure and pf is the lateral pressure giving yield in outerfibre at support.5 for stiffener side using lT = 0.5 using eq.67) where fk is calculated from sec.75) W = the smaller of Wep and Wes (7. (7.8) z* is the distance from the neutral axis of the effective section to the working point of the axial force. M s2.3 Resistance parameters for stiffeners. October 2010 Page 22 N Sd + N kp. 7. see Figure 73. NE = π 2 EA e lk i e 2 (7.Rd 1 − Sd NE stiffener side.3 N ks. pSd in eq.0·l.25) M s1.5 using eq. 7.74) should be taken as the minimum of the value in the adjoining spans. For simple supported stiffener lk = l. (7.
3) τSd should correspond to the average shear flow over the panel.75 (8.Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201. 8. Torsional buckling of girders may be assessed according to sec.2) τcel = 18E tI s tl 2 s where pSd = design lateral pressure p0 = equivalent lateral pressure AG = cross sectional area of girder The calculation of the additional equivalent lateral pressure due to longitudinal compression stresses and shear shall be calculated as follows: For compression in the xdirection: A 0. In the equations (7.2 .2 Girder forces with τceg = The axial force should be taken as: N y. calculated from eq. but not less than 0 and not greater than 1. (8. 8.6f y . October 2010 Page 23 λG = fy f EG fEG is given in eq.Sd + Cτ Sd ) s E l h wG 1 − L G t+ As s (σ + Cτ ) x.6f y τ ce 8. τcrg = critical shear stress of panel with girders removed. τcrl = critical shear stress of panel between girders calculated from eq.Sd (lt + AG ) The lateral line load should be taken as: qSd = (pSd + p0 )l τ cel ⋅ l 2 LP2 0. LP Stiffener LG Girder s (8.25LG to each side of the midpoint of the span may be used.6) with λ τ calculated using τce = τceg.57) or (7.1 Buckling of girders General The check for girders is similar to the check for stiffeners of stiffened plates in equations (7.62) u = 0 for girders.6) with λ τ calculated using τce = τcel τ cr = 0.59) to (7. (8.(8. Forces shall be calculated according to sec. 7.50) to (7.2 and cross section properties according to 8.5.8. Girders may be checked for shear forces similar to stiffeners see sec.6 = 2 f y .0 DET NORSKE VERITAS . If the stiffener is not continuous through the girder τcrg = 0. 8.50) to (7.3. (8.4) C=0 for τSd ≤ τcrg l Figure 81 Panel geometry definitions Q = λG − 0.02 where 2 s τ Sd − τ crg C = Q 7 − 5 l τ crl 2 for τSd > τcrg (8.64) for continuous or sniped girders.5) But not less than 0.11) 8 8.6) λτ = 0.4. for λ τ > 1 λτ (8.Sd. respectively.59) to (7.57) or (7. the maximum value within 0. Girder resistance should be found from sec.Sd Sd l LP = length of panel hwG = web height of girder As = cross sectional area of stiffener LG = girder span s = stiffener spacing Is = moment of inertia of stiffener with full plate width For linear variation of σx.4 t + s 2 s f y LG p0 = (σ x.Sd = σ y. for λ τ ≤ 1 0.1) (8.
2 Method 1 AG = cross sectional area of girder le = effective width of girder plate. effective elastic section modulus on girder zt flange side.4. In this method the effective width may be calculated as: σ x.4.4 LG or distance between lateral support if this is less. 8.10) where: fk fr is calculated from sec.18) LGk= buckling length of girder equal LG unless further evaluations are made fTG may be obtained from eq.Rd = WeG fr γM Calculation of the girder by assuming that the stiffened plate is effective against transverse compression (σy) stresses.1 Effective widths of girders General The effective width for the plate of the girder is taken equal to: fr = fTG for check at girder flange side f EG i = π 2 E Ge L Gk 2 (8. Cxs is found from eq.13) (8.3 respectively: 8.1.Rd = (A G + l e t ) fk γM where i Ge = I Ge A Ge (8.Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201.Rd = WeG fy γM (8. 8.25) using: = fy for check at plate side 8. See also Commentary Chapter 10 and sec.8) NE = π 2 EA Ge L Gk i Ge 2 (8.Rd = Wep fy γM (8. 7.8 LG or distance between lateral support if this is less. see Figure 73 I e . (7. October 2010 Page 24 For tension in the xdirection: M st.17) (8. see sec.4 8.4.2 and 8. If the σy stress in the girder is in tension due to the combined girder axial force and bending moment over the total span of the girder CyG may be taken as: DET NORSKE VERITAS . (8. 7.5 using μ according to eq.Sd = 1− f kx 2 (8.11) le = C xG ⋅ C yG ⋅ C τG l (8.9) where fk is calculated from sec. 7.16) N ks.14) A 0. M s1.Rd = (A G + l e t ) fk γM (8. see Figure 73 (8.19) with fr calculated using lt = 0.4.4.20) with fr calculated using lt = 0.15) Wep = 8.5 using μ according to eq.Rd = WeG fr γM where: f kx = C xs f y (8.27) For the determination of the effective width the designer is given two options denoted method 1 and method 2. N kp.7) M p.7 using the following resistance N Rd = (A G + le t ) fy γM side. These methods are described in sec.26).4 t + s 2 s f y LG p0 = Cτ Sd s E l h wG 1 − L G (8. effective elastic section modulus on plate zp The resistance of girders may be determined by the interaction formulas in sec.12) C xG (8. M s2. (7.14). (7. 7.3 Resistance parameters for girders WeG = I e .
Sd is based on total plate and stiffener area in xdirection.31) (8. Tripping brackets are to be designed for a lateral force PSd.Sd = 1− f y 2 Iz = moment of inertia of girder (exclusive of plate flange) about the neutral axis perpendicular to the plate Torsional buckling need not to be considered if tripping brackets are provided so that the laterally unsupported length LGT.673 if λ G ≤ 0. C yG = λ G − 0.32) λ G = 0.3 LG for continuous girders and 0.02σ y.24) = 1.0. October 2010 Page 25 CyG = 1.0 (8.10 for one sided flanges where σx. which may be taken equal to (see Figure 82 ): where l t fy E A PSd = 0.16).27) 2 1 + μ + λTG − f TG = f y ⋅ (1 + μ + λ ) 2 2λTG 2 2 TG 2 − 4λTG if λ TG > 0. (7.5 Torsional buckling of girders The torsional buckling strength of girders may be determined as: f TG = f y if λ TG ≤ 0.4 LG for simple supported girders when calculating section modules Wep and WeG.35 λTG − 0. 7.Sd A f + w 3 (8. does not exceed the value LGT0 defined by: LGT0 =C b EAf A f y Af + w 3 (8. 8. See also Commentary Chapter 10 and Sec.3 Method 2 LGT = distance between lateral supports cross sectional area of flange and web of girder Af.4.6 ( ) (8. Aw = Calculation of the girder by assuming that the stiffened plate is not effective against transverse compression stresses (σy).525 σy.29) (8.23) where b = flange width C = 0.1. then: C xG σ x.28) If the σy stress in the plate is partly or complete in compression CyG may be found from eq.30) le should not be taken larger than 0. In method 2 the effective width for the girder should be calculated as if the stiffener was removed.Sd = compressive stress in the free flange Af C τG τ = 1 − 3 Sd f y 2 (8.21) λ TG = fy f ETG (8.673 (8.22) where f ETG = π 2 EI z A A f + w L2 GT 3 CτG (8.Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201.26) PSd 1/3 A w Tripping bracket 8.25) (8.6 Figure 82 Definitions for tripping brackets DET NORSKE VERITAS . In this case the plate and stiffener can be checked with σy stresses equal to zero.55 for symmetric flanges 1.6 (8.22 2 λG if λ G > 0. τ = 1 − 3 Sd f y 2 μ = 0.
2) Figure 92 Definitions for longitudinal web stiffeners ll ε = 235 fy 9. 9.35t b (9.3 Longitudinal web stiffener: fy E 9 9.4) Is = moment of inertia of web stiffener with full web plate flange s. See Figure 93.1.1. s lt Figure 91 Definitions for transverse web stiffeners Figure 93 Definitions for brackets DET NORSKE VERITAS . 9. (9.65t b (9. October 2010 Page 26 9. girders and brackets Local buckling of stiffeners and girders General I s > 0.3) Brackets should be stiffened in such a way that: d 0 ≤ 0. As = cross sectional area of web stiffener exclusive web plating.7t b E fy E fy E fy s (9.1. ll = length of longitudinal web stiffener The methodology given in Chapter 7 and Chapter 8 is only valid for webs and flanges that satisfy the the following requirements or fulfils requirements to cross section type III defined in Appendix A of DNVOSC101.5 t − 2 s lt E d 1 ≤ 1.7) tb = plate thickness of bracket.Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201.1.25l l2 (A s + st W ) (9. s = distance between transverse web stiffeners Stiffeners as required in eq.1 Local buckling of stiffeners.3. web stiffeners should satisfy the requirements given in sec.1) s = distance between longitudinal web stiffeners For definition of c see Figure 73 . Web of stiffeners and girders should satisfy: hw ≤ 42 tw ε (9.5) l s fy I s > 0.3l t s 2 t W 2. 9.6) or eq.6) Is = moment of inertia of web stiffener with full web plate flange s lt = length of transverse web stiffener d 2 ≤ 1.2 and sec.2 Buckling of brackets In lieu of more refined analysis such as in Chapter 7.2 Transverse web stiffeners: (9. (9. Flange outstand for T or L stiffeners or girders should satisfy: c ≤ 14 tf ε c ≤ 15 tf ε for welded sections for rolled sections (9.1 9.7) may be designed in accordance with Chapter 7.1.
This stems from bending stresses in the plate created by out of plane deflection in a deflected plate with in plane loading. Commentary to 7 Buckling of stiffened plates For wide flanges the stresses in the longitudinal direction will vary due to shear deformations. The resistance is dependent on more than one element. In case of interaction effects e. may need to be checked for serviceability limit states or fatigue limit states. This means that higher plate stresses than the buckling stress according to linear theory or the socalled critical buckling stress are allowed. (shear lag). From the reduced slenderness a buckling resistance may be determined by using an appropriate buckling curve.6) or a shear buckling curve as in eq. Normally a column buckling curve as defined in eq.17) can be used. span to thickness ratio greater than 120. In order to account for material nonlinearity. Both the imperfection size and pattern for both the plate and stiffener are important and it is less probable that they have their maximum at the same time.g. (6. As the main source for the distortions will be due to welding during fabrication. There are several supportive effects in a real stiffened plate structure that are disregarded in the resistance formulations that will in many cases mean a capacity reserve that is larger than the effect from imperfections. For buckling check of flanges with longitudinal stiffeners shear lag effects may be neglected as long as the flange width is less than 0. As a basis the formulas are developed on the basis that the imperfections are similar to what is allowed in the DNVOSC401 Fabrication and Testing of Offshore Structures. (6.2 Forces in the idealised stiffened plate With tension field action is understood the load carrying action in slender webs beyond the elastic buckling load. 10 Commentary Commentary to 3. Commentary to 6 Buckling of unstiffened plates Slender plates designed according to the effective width formula utilise the plates in the post critical range. There are differences in this standard and what is allowed in DNV Classification Rules for Ships and IACS “Shipbuilding and Repair Quality StandardPart A. For plates with slenderness less than 120. (7. residual stresses and imperfection a suitable buckling curve may be used by calculating the reduced slenderness parameter defined as: Commentary to 7. ordinary fatigue checks where out of plane deflections of plate are disregarded will be sufficient.4 Tolerance requirements An important factor for the buckling strength is the imperfections that are permitted. Ship rules tolerances are given with a tolerances that are independent of the member length.21) and eq. The likelihood of fatigue cracking at the weld along the edges of the plate may increase for very slender plates if the in plane loading is dynamic. An example may be a short stocky sniped stiffener constructed according to ship rules fabrication tolerances and where redistribution of stresses are not possible.4 Determination of buckling resistance based upon linear elastic buckling stress Linear elastic buckling stress found from literature or by FEM eigenvalue analyses may be used as basis for determination of buckling resistance.2) and eq. Very slender plates. However. λp = fy f cr DET NORSKE VERITAS . This will imply that the tolerances are larger than the basis for this Recommended Practise and the capacity of short members may be overpredicted. It is less probable that all elements have their most detrimental imperfection pattern and size at the same time. Commentary to 4. i. (7. For structures where these elements are less valid it may be necessary to evaluate the effect of imperfections separately. the formulas is seen as being relevant for both typical ship with normal good practice and offshore structures even if an nonlinear FEM analysis of the panel including the worst combination of allowable imperfections may yield less resistance than obtain from the RP formulas. Examples of failure modes in the serviceability limit states are reduced aesthetic appearance due to out of plane distortions or snap through if the plate is suddenly changing its out of plane deformation pattern.22) can be used unless it is evident that a plate buckling curve as defined in eq. The importance of the imperfection is largest for small slenderness plate and stiffeners while the likelihood of deviations are largest for large slenderness plates. October 2010 Page 27 where fcr is linearised buckling stress. The reason why this is seen as acceptable is the following: The linearised buckling stress should be carefully selected to be maximum compressive stress in the analysis. (6. the most effective way to prevent these phenomena is to limit the slenderness of the plate. L being length between points of counterflexure.e. between local and global buckling the interaction effects can be conservatively accounted for by calculated a combined linearised buckling stress according to the following formula: 1 f crcomb = 1 f crglobal + 1 f crlocal • • • • The resistance of stiffened plate structures is dependent on imperfections in several elements.Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201.2 L to each side of the web (bulkhead).
In the ultimate limit state a continuos stiffened panel will carry the load in the axis giving the maximum load.50) and (7.53) are likewise interaction checks at the midspan of the stiffener. Figure 102 Definition of z*.5 Utilisation ratio 1. Positive value shown The maximum capacity will be found for the value of z* when the largest utilisation ratio found for the four equations is at its minimum. DET NORSKE VERITAS . 2.4 Resistance of plate between stiffeners If secondary stiffeners are used to stabilise the plate field between ordinary stiffeners the secondary stiffeners need to be checked as a plate stiffener and the ordinary stiffeners as girders according to sec.7 Interaction equations for axial compression and lateral pressure The equations (7.0 Maximum capacity 1. The sections to be checked remain the same.0 0.54) to (7. For calculation of the forces and moments in the total structure. See also Figure 102. See Figure 103. Commentary to 7. If the girder is checked according to method 1. the working point for the stiffened panel should correspond to the assumed value of z*. Figure 103 Utilisation ratios for the four interaction equations with varying z* Commentary to 8 Buckling of girders When a stiffened panel supported by girders is subjected to lateral loads the moments from this load should be included in the check of the girder. 7. of which the stiffened panel is a part.51) may be seen as interaction formulas for the stiffener and plate side respectively for a section at the support. the stiffener and plate should also be checked for the σy stresses imposed by the bending of the girder.0 Check point 1 Check point 2 Check point 3 Check point 4 l/2 l/2 80 60 40 20 0 z* (mm) 20 40 60 80 Figure 101 Check points for interaction equations With the lateral load on the stiffener side.Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201. The eccentricity z* is introduced in the equations to find the maximum resistance of the stiffened panel. October 2010 Page 28 Commentary to 7. the σy stresses imposed by the bending of the girder can be neglected when checking plate and stiffener.52) and (7.5 1.0 0. the stresses change sign and the equations (7.5 0. See also Figure 101. In most cases the influence of variations in z* on global forces and moments will be negligible.57) shall be used. Equations (7. respectively. In method 2.5 and Chapter 8.
October 2010 Page 29 DET NORSKE VERITAS .Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201.
heat affected zone effects etc.3 The code can be used for both steel and aluminium material.1. October 2010 Page 30 Part 2.1.PULS Buckling Code 1 1.7 The PULS code is implemented into other user interface applications and as postprocessors in different DNV software.1. improved solutions. Special care is needed with respect to welding effects. 1.2 The PULS code assess the buckling strength of different types of elements classified according to their structural action and position in large plated constructions. Global hull sections Stiffened panels Figure 1 Ship hulls with stiffened panels as main building block DET NORSKE VERITAS . Figure 1. 1.Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201.6 The PULS VB program will be revised and updated with respect to new element types. 1. 1. Buckling Strength of Plated Structures ..1 Introduction General 1.g.6.5 The PULS code is programmed in a Visual basic (VB) environment. e. 1.1. offshore platforms etc. Special criteria are introduced for aluminium alloys with respect to Heat affected zone effects (HAZ). Two separate user interfaces are available using the same input/output file format.1. The latest official program version with corresponding documentation is available by contacting the authorised unit within DNV.1 This part describes an accepted computerised semianalytical model for ultimate and buckling strength assessment of thinwalled unstiffened or stiffened flat plates. see Sec. new features etc. in ship hulls.1.4 Application to other metallic materials than steel and aluminium is possible. 1. 1.1. The code has the name PULS as a shortcut for Panel Ultimate Limit State. whenever appropriate.
can carry loads far beyond the ideal elastic buckling load (over critical strength). The elastic local buckling. This will limit extensive damages and permanent sets.e. 1.4. using the default settings for imperfections. It is a parameter used in DNV Ship Rule contexts. The option of anisotropic/orthotropic material models in standard FE programs can be used. 1. large elastic displacements are accepted as long as the consequences are controlled and accounted for. DET NORSKE VERITAS . are consistent with the IACS Shipbuilding and Quality Repair Manual and DNVOSC401 fabrication standard. The usage factor represents the ratio between the applied combined loads and the corresponding ultimate strength values (ULS).4. deck. Integrated thin plates in a ship deck.7 The PULS ultimate capacity values.g.3.1 The present computerised buckling code is introduced as an alternative to the more standard buckling code format given in the first part of the present document.e.4 In the Puls code the redistributed stress field is used for identifying the critical positions (“hard corners”) where material yielding starts. [2]. 1. The goal with such applications is to improve the assessment of the nominal stress flow in ship hulls etc. 1. for load conditions and structural parts in which elastic buckling and thereby large elastic displacements are not acceptable (SLS philosophy). Details of such applications are not described here. [1]. accepting and accounting for local elastic plate buckling between stiffeners. October 2010 Page 31 1. 1. 1.2 The code also facilitate reduced orthotropic stiffness parameters of elastically deformed/buckled plates. i. Required safety margins are given in respective Ship rules and Offshore standards. The purpose is to assess the ultimate and buckling strength limits with greater consistency than available with more empirical curve fitting approaches.2.8 Required safety margin against ULS element failure depends on type of construction. For stiffened panels the largest redistributed stresses will typically be along supported edges or along platestiffener junction lines. The values of the external loads. 1. the strength evaluation of the stiffened panel is selfcontained with no need for buckling check of the individual plate elements of which it is composed. while plates with free membrane stress support has limited overcritical strength.4 The yield stress to be used in a code strength prediction is to be the characteristic value as specified for each material type in the rules.4. i. These stress categories add together forming a redistributed stress field across the panel.4. typically FE plate and shell models with one element between stiffeners.1 The PULS code calculates the usage factor η as a measure of the available safety margin.3.5 The PULS ULS capacity assessment is based on the redistributed stress distribution and local material yield criterion in highly stressed positions (“hard corners”) along plate edges and stiffener plate junction lines.6 There is no coupling between strength assessments of different element types. Ref.2. These reduced orthotropic coefficients are used for assessing the upper bound global elastic buckling limit. stringer decks etc.4 1. A harmonic RayleighRitz discretization of deflections is used together with energy principles for establishing the nonlinear elastic equilibrium equations. Ideal elastic buckling stresses is also acceptable as the upper limits for web girder design.3 Ideal elastic buckling stresses (eigenvalues) are independent of the inplane (membrane stiffness) support from neighbouring elements.e. 1. Code principles 1.4.2 For integrated elements and extreme load design (ULS design).Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201.3 Theoretical background 1. 1.3.4. elastic buckling is accepted. The equilibrium equations are solved using incremental numerical procedures. are used as indicators for the ULS strength (limit state formulations). The latter stress field is due to the nonlinear geometrical effect.4.2 Purpose 1. ship side or bulkhead construction or whether they are a part of a girder web with free membrane boundary conditions.1 The PULS models are based on a recognized nonlinear thinwalled plate theory according to Marguerre and von Karman see e. 1. the direct external applied stresses and a second order stress field due to the combined effect of buckling and geometrical imperfections. postbuckling and imperfection effects of each component plate in the crosssection are lumped into a set of reduced orthotropic stiffness coefficients.4.e. 1. global redundancy.5.1 The ultimate load bearing capacity of plates will depend on whether the considered plate and/or stiffened panel constitute an integrated part of a bottom. probability of loads and consequence of failure.5 Safety formats 1. They are useful as reference values and can be used as upper limits in case of functional considerations i.3. bottom or ship sides etc. at which the redistributed membrane stresses reaches the yield condition. 1. 1. These properties are meant for application on large plated structures analysed using linear finite elements programs and coarse meshing.3 In nonlinear elastic buckling theory the internal stress distribution is split in two categories i.2 For stiffened panels the models are based on an orthotropic version of Marguerre’s plate theory in which the stiffeners are smeared out over the plate surface.
Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201.2 For combined loads the usage factor is defined as the ratio between the radius vector to the applied load point in load space and the corresponding radius vector to the ULS collapse boundary. consequence of failure and global redundancy of the construction. It will vary depending on the probability level of the loads.5.view 2D . The usage factor is defined as 1.5. October 2010 Page 32 1.3 For a single load cases the definition of usage factor 1. Figure 2.5. 1.2 becomes η = σ i 0 / σ iu i = axial load. transverse load etc. L 0 = (σ10 + σ 20 + + σ i 0 + + σ K 0 ) L u = (σ1u + σ 2 u + + σ iu + + σ Ku ) K is the maximum number of simultaneously acting independent inplane load components. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3D . example for biaxial loading on a plate DET NORSKE VERITAS .4 The ULS acceptance criterion is η = L0 / Lu where the radius vectors L0 and Lu in load space are defined as η < η allow η allow (= η max ) is the acceptable usage factor specified in the rules.5.view Figure 2 Definition of safety margin/usage factor.
com The following definitions for Sd and Rk in case of combined loads apply: Load effect inclusive load factors) Characteristic resistance exclusive safety factors) The ratio S d / R k is the same as the usage factor η.7 /1/ References Washizu. Rd is the design resistance.1 The PULS code is supported by two separate standalone user interfaces applying the same input/output file format (pbp): − Rd = Rk / γm The factor γm is the material parameter given in the respective offshore standards. i.O.[3]. July 2007. /2/ /3/ safety margin relative to the required strength margin. DNV Software. 1.e. October 2010 Page 33 1. 1. publications. is available. “Buckling of Bars. Excel spread sheet: Simple data input and output line by line. “Variational methods in elasticity and plasticity”. can be found on the DNV internet site www. Bath.D. η < η allow where η= Sd and Rk η allow = 1 γm 1.3 The software features and basic theoretical background is found in Ref. K. A special option for systematic variation of main design parameters such as stiffener height etc.O.2 The PULS code is also available in a dll format (PulsComClasses) for implementation as a postprocessor in linear FE codes or similar analyses tools. B. Plates and Shells”.6 PULS software features Sd < R d Sd is the load effect including relevant problem dependent load factors.6.6. capacity curves for combined loads etc.5. papers etc. 1.6 The LRFD offshore strength format in the PULS terminology is − Advanced Viewer (AV): Simple cell input of data with basic result presentation. The material factor γm is the inverse of the acceptable usage factor ηallow.5.Recommended Practice DNV–RPC201. This implies that the acceptance criterion is on the form 1.6.7 The ratio ( η / η allow ) can be used as a measure of the Sd ≡ L 0 (design load effect R k ≡ Lu (ultimate strength 1.dnv.8 The offshore WSD format in PULS terminology implies that η < ηp where ηp is permissible usage factor given in the offshore standard DNVOSC201 and η is the actual usage factor as calculated by the PULS code. It gives a consistent measure of the safety margin.5 In the DNV Offshore Standards the LRFD format is used. Brush. User Manual – PULS. McGrawHill 1975 NAUTICUS HULL. redistributed stresses.5. Second Edition.5. Pergamon Press. Great Britain. η η allow <1 1. which is related to the characteristic resistance as 1. More results available such as 3D graphics of buckling deflections. DET NORSKE VERITAS . (1975). More details. and Almroth.
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