Tourism Development
26.1. Introduction

Pakistan, with the world’s oldest civilization, exotic mountain beauty and splendid seasonal variety, has immense tourist potential. The sacred religious places, which spread throughout the country, make Pakistan an attractive place for a variety of people and religions. The tourism assets of Pakistan include a coastal zone spreading over one thousand kilometers along the Arabian Sea offering long term development potential for beach resorts, diversified natural deserts in the south and beautiful hill stations and valleys in the north. It has also great potential for tourism sports like mountaineering and trekking. The relics of the Indus Civilization in the south, Gandhara Civilization in the north and the great heritage of Mughals in Punjab are exceptional cultural assets of Pakistan. There are also great adventure zones with the high mountains located in the north of the country, where four of the world’s largest ranges meet. The tourism sector investments in the country are dominated by private sector with the role of public sector mainly as a facilitator. Almost the entire hotel, restaurant, travel agency and tour operator business is in the private sector. The Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation (PTDC) is also operating a limited number of hotels and roadside facilities in areas where the private sector has been reluctant. The Department of Tourist Services (DTS) is responsible for maintaining the standard and categorization of hotel industry. The Ministry of Tourism looks after the entire public sector interventions including formulation of policies and overseeing the legal and regulatory framework. The Tourism Master Plan study of 2000 notes that (i) tourism in Pakistan is still in the early stages of development; (ii) the “foreign tourists” represent only about 13 per cent of all visitor arrivals; (iii) true “domestic tourists” represent only about 5-7 per cent of all domestic travelers; (iv) mountain tourism (mountaineering) will not expand much beyond the level attained in 2000, although it may remain depressed for the following few years; and (v) trekking in all areas may grow although the next few years may show a temporary decline. The vision of the sector is to exploit the great potential of cultural and religious tourism of the country to its optimum level for employment generation, foreign exchange earning, poverty reduction and image enhancement of the country. Pakistan presently ranks very low in terms of world tourism income. Out of global tourism income of $ 514 billion, the share of South Asia is $ 5.4 billion including Pakistan’s share of only $ 135 million i.e. 0.03 per cent of global and 2.5 per cent of South Asian share. Out of the total tourists arrivals in the world estimated at 694 million per year, Pakistan receives only 0.5 million tourists annually, a very low figure. Even among South Asian countries, the tourist arrival in Pakistan is very low. 26.2. Issues

Pakistan has been facing problems on policy as well as implementation level to exploit the inherent tourist potential of the country due to social and religious constraints, ineffective promotional policies, lack of infrastructure and inadequate tourist services. Tourism potential of the country has not been realized and harnessed properly during the

the development requirements for new projects will be met from privatization of existing motels . which are considered necessary worldwide. The strategy would be to develop appropriate incentives to promote greater private sector investment in creation of tourist facilities. alleviating poverty. (vi) socio-cultural constraints. promotion and product development. (iii) a review of legislation impacting on tourism to promote the tourist industry. and (v) human resource development and community development. and (v) an emphasis on better marketing of the tourist product. and foreign tourism linked to regional tourism particularly among SAARC and ECO countries and (c) to enhance coordination between public and private sectors and upgrade resources to ensure desired standards of quality service. organization and facilitation. Objectives The sector objectives include: (a) to enhance tourism activities. (ii) investment. The hotel and transport business is in the hands of the private sector. (iii) general image of the country particularly in Europe and USA. and concessions. increase tourist arrivals. (b) to promote affordable. and increasing foreign exchange earnings. While the ongoing projects will be completed as part of federal PSDP. (v) absence of entertainment contents associated with tourism. and (iv) inconsistency in determining hotel standards and categorization. (vii) lack of incentives in the tourism sector.4. which to a large extent is based on fears generated out of media messages. particularly of small hotels. Public sector investment in the development of infrastructure facilities will be made part of overall national development effort. (iv) measures to stimulate private sector involvement in tourism through provision of appropriate incentives. (iv) undeveloped tourist sites and inadequate infrastructure facilities.past because of (i) lack of initiatives on part of the concerned Government Departments. which has not contributed much to meeting the development costs. (iii) lack of coordination and mistrust between concerned government agencies and the private sector. which also include inadequate knowledge and training of relevant personnel in tourism sector. and (viii) lack of projection through media to the outside world.3. funding. conservation and planning. Policy and Strategy Policy support would be provided in implementing the key proposals of the master plan in five broad areas covering (i) legislation. (iii) marketing. (iv) environment. and make tourism an instrument for generating employment. (ii) high taxes on hotels and tourist resorts. accessible and enjoyable domestic tourism and cultural and sports festivals. transport tax. The public sector initiatives in the form of creation of motels and roadside facilities have not been economically viable. (ii) an emphasis on qualitative improvement of tourist services and the tourist product. The Tourism Development Corporations created at the federal and provincial levels have not proved very helpful in the promotion of tourism. 26. (ii) law and order situation in the country particularly in the areas of high tourist attraction. 26. Policy measures for tourism development would include: (i) a paradigm shift from promoting seasonal tourism to year round tourism. Other issues constraining the development of tourism in Pakistan include (i) inadequate funding and international promotion. Promotion of tourism has been predominantly a public sector sponsored activity. tourism of the religious sites and old civilizations. infrastructure. management. and legal framework.

which will have boarding. For foreign tourists secluded/bonded zones will be developed. Details are in Annnex I. Greater financial autonomy will be given to the public sector tourism agencies. The private sector will be involved for tourism development through lease/rent agreements. The involvement of Pakistan embassies/ missions abroad for tourism promotion will be enhanced. The sites to be developed to promote domestic tourism would include the following: i) ii) iii) iv) Murree/Guliat/Nathiagali/Ayubia Kaghan Valley (Shogran. infrastructure and institutional. New market segments will be explored. Tourist arrivals are estimated to grow at an average rate of 10 percent per annum to reach 0.and from credit budget. An emphasis will be placed on provision of physical infrastructure at places of touristic interest complemented by environmental improvement programmes. Marketing efforts for tourism at cultural places will be intensified. The strategies to develop tourism industry would include: i) ii) Formulation of a comprehensive and realistic tourism policy that will support tourism as an industry and create credibility. Babusar) Quetta Valley (Hanna Lake. .85 million by 2009-10. Training in tourism services will be improved in collaboration with international tourism and hotel management institutes. Domestic Tourism The specific locations/ sites frequented by local tourists will be developed by providing them inexpensive and clean accommodation.5. Programme The tourism sector will assume a greater role in stimulating the growth of the economy during the Plan. iii) iv) v) vi) vii) (viii) 26. food. and regulatory framework to build the tourism industry. revision of Hotel and Restaurant Act 1976 and Travel Agency Act of 1976 and the adoption of a pro-investment land lease policy. The emphasis of the programme will be on promoting domestic. including consolidation of various rules and regulations. Tourism receipts are targeted to grow at an average rate of 20 per cent to reach $ 500 million in 2009-10. entertainment activities and transport. and development of tourism. The tourism related legislation would be revised. PTDC will concentrate its activities in the marketing. Ziarat) City Tours Lahore/Karachi/Islamabad/ Peshawar. Saiful Maluk. marketing and promotion. promotion. Naran. Continuous improvements will be made in tourism products and services. religious and regional tourism with development of touristic areas including accommodation and transport facilities. lodging and entertainment facilities.

Marghazar. sanitation (including public toilets). Festivals to be introduced on a regular basis to encourage gatherings for short periods. More youth hostels to be established by Youth Hostel Association. These clusters will have entertainment facilities. Pasni and Jiwani. iii) for Buddhists.v) vi) vii) viii) ix) Swat Valley (Kalam. particularly in SAARC. Madian. The holiday villages will initially be constructed in Northern Areas like Gilgit. Hunza and Chitral. entertainment and shopping for the pilgrims. ii) for Hindus. Gorakh Hills. Bahrain. Basic activities camps to be established on nodal locations for youth groups at economical rates. and beaches of Gwadar (Korekalmat Beach). Infrastructure Development and Environmental Improvement Integrated improvement of physical infrastructure will be undertaken in areas of touristic interest through coordination of federal. The areas proposed to be developed include (i) for Sikhs. accommodation facilities. Religious Tourism Keeping in view the high potential of religious tourism. water supply. Foreign Tourism The foreign tourism promotion will be enhanced by forging strategic alliances. Ranikot Fort) Soft Adventure Tourism for Youth The other activities to be promoted would include: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Arranging Tourist Safaris such as Mountain and Desert Safaris. Takhtbhai and Swat (Stupas). In view of the security concerns and socio economic restraints in the country. Chitral. camping and cruising. solid waste management. Taxila. hiking. Katas Temples (Jehlum). Multan and Sehwan Sharif. it is proposed that only designated/bonded areas Holiday Villages will be developed exclusively for foreign tourists in collaboration with the private sector. National Parks to encourage tours with requisite facilities provided at the fringes of the parks. Lahore. several areas/clusters will be developed including basic infrastructure. drainage. Skardu. Sandspit) Northern Areas (Gilgit. and Awareness campaign to be launched with the media along with well designed publications and pamphlets. Shangrila). The environment of touristic areas will be improved through controlling pollution and taking up river cleaning projects such as Swat River Pollution Control. Sindh (Haleji Lake. and other municipal facilities. Nankana Sahib and Panja Sahib (Hassanabadal). Kafiristan). and iv) for Muslims. provincial and local programmes covering provision of roads. surfing. tourists activities such as skiing. Hawksbay. Satpara. Gaddani. food stalls. enlarging international cooperation and promoting regional tourism activities. . Karachi Beaches and Lakes (Sonmiani. Thatta Necropolis. Hunza.

The hotel management and training institutes in the country are not delivering the desired results due to lack of regulation. Similarly. which provides protection and legal cover to archaeological and historical sites is not being implemented properly. improvement of historic inter-city areas and urban transport. This imbalance is planned to be corrected through concerted private sector training initiatives. Research Studies A comprehensive research programme will be implemented to generate data on the inflow of tourists. While the law stipulates that no tresspassing can be done within 200 meters around a monument. in practice there is tresspassing in the surroundings of most of the monuments. Studies will also be conducted to estimate private sector investment in the tourism sector. provision of necessary equipment and training aids and upgrading of libraries. commercial centers. Training standards would be made mandatory for all categories and the training institutions upgraded to meet these standards. the total output of the existing training institutes is only about 500. Institutional and Human Resource Development The Ministry of Tourism. development of holiday villages and establishment of museums. Based on local plans. Provincial Programmes The Provincial Tourism Development Corporations and agencies will facilitate development of resorts. road/highways. development of urban commercial centers. A strict enforcement of the law is envisaged in MTDF to develop these culturally rich sites for tourists. development and rehabilitation of urban and rural road networks. promotion of tourism activities. railway stations. Due to tresspassing the monuments cannot be developed for attracting tourists. bus stops. This would cover training of faculty members. beaches. and entertainment industry. sites visited and duration of stay. including review of policies and incentive packages. development of theme parks. Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation and Department of Tourist Services will be reorganized and strengthened to play to more dynamic role in tourism development in line with the strategy envisaged in MTDF. This has resulted in pilferage and theft of precious artifacts and relics to other countries. These institutions would be strengthened for efficient regulation and for producing the required skilled manpower. promotion of hotel chains. management and teaching staff.Public Facility Areas A network of public facility areas will be created throughout the country at tourist attraction places like cultural and historical sites. . and hill resorts. The results will be used to review measures for enhancing private sector investment. As against the annual training needs of the tourism industry of about 3000 skilled staff. suitable locations will be identified for construction of these facilities. motels and cultural complexes. expenditures. development of curricula. Antiquity Act The Antiquity Act 1975. syllabi and resource material. the host of private sector institutions providing ticketing and travel courses are not regulated which results in variable standards in the sector.

Details are in Annex II. an emphasis on product development and promotion linked with human resource development and through strategic alliances. Categorization of all hotels will be completed during the MTDF period. The public sector investment will be limited to development of infrastructure and other necessary support to private sector. Chamman. transport and tour operations. 26. The major private sector investment will be in the hotel industry which is expected to grow at a rapid pace. Astak. with a corresponding increase in the number of rooms from 36451 to 39114 rooms by 2010. there is considerable potential for tourism industry to grow during the MTDF period. networking. resorts. During the first year (2005-06) of the MTDF Rs.Private Sector Private sector will play a key role in the development of the tourist industry including hotel accommodation. updation of research Studies. Baran Kalay. clubs. Other areas of major investments will be restaurants. BOT and equity investments. With the adoption of a holistic and integrated approach for tourism development. Measures will be taken to facilitate travel and transport sector investment. Hawks Bay. recreation activities. Private sector will also be given incentives to invest in parks.37 billion. Sector Investment Investments by the private sector for tourism development during MTDF period are estimated in the range of Rs. public facilities and shopping malls. resorts and development of cultural and historical sites.6. development of website and motel at Gorag Hills. 30-40 billion. The investment through the federal PSDP is estimated at Rs 1. 40 million have been allocated to ongoing and new projects which include motels at Bunni. . The number of hotels in all categories will increase from 1469 to 1711 by the end of the MTDF period. The modus operandi could include land leasing for long tenures. Measures will also be taken to increase coordination and communication between private and public sectors and to develop public – private partnerships.

Annex I Physical Targets for 2005-10 S. 3. No. Item Arrivals Unit 000 2004-05 500 40 135 1469 36451 2005-06 605 41 178 1515 36969 2006-07 665 43 234 1562 37494 2007-08 730 44 309 1610 38026 2008-09 800 45 407 1660 38566 2009-10 850 46 537 1711 39114 Domestic travel 000 Income Hotels Rooms $ Mn No. No 1. 4 5. . 2.

Bunni. Baran Kalay.Annex II Tourism Investment Under Federal PSDP (2005-10) (Rs Million) Projects Research Studies On-going projects of PTDC Motels at Astak. Hawks Bay and Chaman PTDC Head Office. Islamabad Motels at Thandiani/ Naltar TFCs on Highways Holiday Village Islamabad Camping Grounds at various Locations Upgradation of ITHM Lahore and Rawalpindi Facilities at Nankana Sahib TFC at Gorakh Hill Motels on coastal highway at Ormara and Pasni Tourist Resorts at Harboi and Zarghun Beach Resort at Gwadar Chairlift at Ziarat Restoration of Sheikh Badin Resort TFCs at various Locations Remodel Ski Resort Ayubia Ski resort at Shogran Cultural heritage Promotion TFCs at four locations in Northern Areas Museums at Gilgit and Skardu Holiday Village at Banjoosa Camping grounds in AJK Total 2005-10 50 20 38 36 116 100 45 10 30 30 60 120 150 70 44 96 15 70 53 8 24 150 30 1367 .