3.

Relatively quick in early stage of your work till you weigh the mixture sample, since sodium hydroxide can react with carbon dioxide from the air to form sodium carbonate. Or if it is a liquid sample, it is better to do the test in N2 environment.Burette. Titrate very slowly as end-point is approached.Pipette. This is washed first with water, and then with the sodium hydroxide solution. After being emptied, it is ready for use. 2 take readings at eye level to avoid parallax errors -do not over-shoot the volume of the titrant beyond the equivalence point. -make sure your acid/base is pure - no impurities -Accidental dilution of the acid/base because residual water remains after rinsing. -Misjudging the change in color 1. Always add acid to water not water to acid. Same goes for basic reagents. 2. Read from the lower meniscus. 3. Do not let the acid or base level in the burette reach zero. 4. Wear protective equipment: gloves, goggles, lab gown etc. 5. Clean all spills. 6. When chemicals are spilled on skin, wash for at least 15 minutes with running water. 7. Always have an emergency eye wash nearby. 8. Dispose used chemicals properly.usually an air bubble is present in the nozzle of the burette,it must be removed before taking the initial reading. 2)Their should not be any leakage from the burette during titration. 3)Keep your eye in level with the liquid surface while taking the burette reading or while reading the pipette or measuring flask etc. 4)Always read lower meniscus in case of colourless solution and upper meniscus in case of coloured solutions. 5)Do not blow through the pipette tp expel the last drop of solution from it,simply touch the inner surface of the titration flask with the nozzle of the pipette for this purpose. 6)shaking of the titration flask should be continous during adding the solution

. 8)Do not waste your time in bringing the burette reading to zero before each titration. 7)Use your index finger while pipetting the solution. 4 Terminate addition once a drop of base solution turns the sample a faint pink for at least a minute. The pink color should persist in the solution for longer amounts of time as more base is added. 5 Record the final volume of the base in the burette.from the burette. CONSULT YOUR TEXTBOOKS FOR MORE PRECAUTIONS Add base with known concentration dropwise. to avoid dilution with water. to avoid an increase in the volume of the solution in the burette. being sure to swirl as the addition occurs. The burette tap must be tight to avoid leakage. Remove the funnel from the burette before titration. Precautions during titration Rinse the burette and the pipette with the solutions to be used in them.