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PROGRAMME

SELF-ACCEPTANCE OF MOTHERS WHO HAVE CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES IN JAPAN: COMPARISON BETWEEN MOTHERS WHO HAVE CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES AND GENERAL MOTHERS BY DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS By Ken Nishinaga, Hideyuki Okuzumi, and Naoji Shimizu Tokyo Gakugei University, Japan

Introduction

Theory of self-acceptance of Rogers

“Self-Acceptance” is one of the most important concepts in the domain of clinical psychology (Ueda, 1996). It is considered as one of the indexes of

psychological health (Itatu, 1995). It is accorded status in that system of major therapeutic goals (Crown & Stephens, 1961).

The researches on self-acceptance have been derived from Rogers’ personality theory (Crown, Stephens & Kelly, 1961). Rogers (1942) considered self -acceptance as being unnecessary to deny one’s feelings that were not in accord

Mitchel. there has been much research about adjustment. the acceptance of self is the direction and effect of “Client-centered therapy”. These researches indicated consistently that there was correlation among the degree of self-acceptance. 1949). anxiety and acceptance of others. et al.g. Rogers (1951) analyzed discrepancy between real self and ideal self by Q-sort to measure the effect of psychotherapy operationally. It is said that self-acceptance is a key term in Client-centered therapy. 1957. Rogers (1953) concluded that the client actually came to like himself in Client-centered therapy. It was found that discrepancy between the real self and the ideal self of clients decreased after Client-centered therapy (Butler & Haigh.. the negative attitudes against self decreased gradually and positive attitudes toward self increased. Sheere. anxiety and acceptance of others (e. . In successful psychotherapy. 1954). adjustment..1st PAGE PROGRAMME with one’s ideal-self. including Rogers. Cowen. According to Rogers (1953). 1959. and acceptance of others increased relatively. Since self-acceptance has developed in clinical psychology domains.

g. . 1979. 1987). 1985. 1980. One is research on the stress of mothers who have children with intellectual disabilities.. Tanaka. 1980. 1980).. et al. 1995).1st PAGE PROGRAMME Research on mothers who have children with intellectual disabilities Mothers are very important for children with intellectual disabilities as their most familiar developmental supporters (Ki & Ohno. 1995. The stress of mothers who have children with intellectual disabilities had tendency to decrease with the advanced age of the mothers (Hashimoto. Kitagawa... et al.. Many researches on the stress of mothers who have children with intellectual disabilities reported that these mothers were under more stress than mothers who have typical children (e. 1996). Inanami. et al. the other is research into mother's attitudes toward their children with intellectual disabilities (Kitagawa. Hougou. It was reported within difference among types of disorders. Niimi & Uemura. The researches on mothers who have children with intellectual disabilities can be classified into two main groups. Inanami.. the mothers whose children had autistic disorders were more stressed than mothers of children with other types of disorders (Uemura & Niimi. 1996). et al. et al.

1978. 1942. Very few attempts. Many researches pointed out the importance of counseling for mothers who have children with intellectual disabilities (e. Kameuchi. however. and showed that there were factors influenced by the child's age and type of disorder in this scale. reported that there was not statistically significant difference in the mother's acceptance of the child's disability among child's age and type of disorder by cluster analysis using the same data. Rogers. however. Sawada. have been made at studies of self-acceptance of mothers of children with intellectual disabilities. however. the more appropriate their attitude towards nurture is. and that there is a high correlation between the degree of this self-acceptance and the degree of the mother's acceptance of the child's disability. 1978).. Kurasige & Kawama (1997). 1996) developed the scale of the mother's acceptance of the child's disability. It is. Eguchi (1987) indicated by questionnaire research that the higher the degree of self-acceptance of mother whose children have intellectual disabilities is.1st PAGE PROGRAMME Kurasige & Kawama (1995. pointed out that there is little research on comparisons between self-acceptance of mothers who have children with intellectual disabilities and the self-acceptance of general mothers. .g.

1st PAGE PROGRAMME For this reason mentioned above. in the same way as Rogers and his colleague did.84). Their age range was between 30 to 60 years old. The average age was 46. Procedure Definition of self-acceptance Self-acceptance was defined operationally as the discrepancy between real self and ideal self in this research. Subject (1) Mothers who have children with intellectual disabilities One hundred nine mothers who lived around Tokyo completed the questionnaire form by mail from October to December 2000. this study's purpose was to analyze the difference between self-acceptance of mothers who have children with intellectual disabilities and self-acceptance of general mothers.D. The number of effective replies was 105. .7 years old (S.= 5. The ratio of replies was 33.1%.

The ratio of replies was 34. Questionnaire The questionnaire was composed of the scale of self-acceptance for mothers (Nishinaga. Table 1 shows the items of the scale of self-acceptance for mothers. et. social self.49).8 years old (S. The scale of self-acceptance for mothers is consisted of same 26 items about each of real self and ideal self. Their age range was between 28 years old and 60 years old. The average age was 45. which are material self. family structure. 2001) and face sheet. working.1st PAGE PROGRAMME (2) General mothers Two hundred one mothers who lived around Tokyo completed the questionnaire form by mail from October to December 2000. It was confirmed that the scale of self-acceptance for mothers had statistically validity and reliability (Nishinaga. The 26 items were selected from the three aspects of self concept. and spiritual self (James. 2001).D.= 6.9%. . In the face sheet.al. The number of effective replies is 195. 1890) and were rated on a 5-point rating scale. participants of this research were questioned about their age.

I worry about my capability. My features are good. .** I am satisfied with my age.** I help others. Table 1. Items of the Scale of Self-Acceptance for Mothers 1 2 4 5 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 21 22 I have a good sense of a dress. Sometimes I feel happy.** I am afraid of my failure. I am selfish. Differences between mothers who have children with intellectual disabilities and general mothers were analyzed by T-test and discriminant analysis.1st PAGE PROGRAMME Statistical methods The score of the self-acceptance was calculated as the absolute value of the score of the difference of actual self score and ideal self score on the scale of self-acceptance for mothers. I am tolerant.** I am passive. I can permit others' failure. I am blessed with friends. ** I hate my self. I am satisfied economically. I am nervous.** I am a hardworking person.** My body shape is good. I regard others as enviable.

173. . Difference between ideal self score of mothers who have children with intellectual disabilities and of general mothers was not statistically significant (t (298)= -. however.1st PAGE PROGRAMME 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 I worry about evaluation from others.319. It was found from the results that although there were differences of self-cognition of actual self between mothers of children with intellectual disabilities and general mothers. I am pessimistic. I enjoy my daily life.** I am needed by others. There was. p<. I am sociable. Note:(**) Reversal item Results and Discussion Table 2 shows the results of the T-test.** I am full of complaints. statistically significant difference between actual self score of mothers who have children with intellectual disabilities and general mothers (t (298)= -2. they were no differences regarding self-acceptance considered as one of the indexes of psychological health. It is inferred that mothers of children with intellectual disabilities have some strategies to keep their self-acceptance healthy despite lower self.cognition of actual self.** I have played a mother's role.05). ns).412. There was no statistically significant difference between the score of the self-acceptance of mothers who have children with intellectual disabilities and of general mothers (t (298)= -1. My aim is high. ns).

805 11.1st PAGE PROGRAMME Table 2. The three items were “ 9. The Results of T-test Mothers who have children with intellectual disabilities M SD General mothers T M SD Significance level of a test Score of the self-acceptance Actual self score 26.05 Table 3 shows the results of discriminant analysis.064 1.065 -2.138 107.501).546). The discriminant function was statistically significant (Wilks’s Lambda= . ” (coefficients of discriminant function = .591).01). and “30.302 -.173 n s 84. df=3.906.220 12.467 9.602 87. I enjoy my daily life. “11.319 * p<. (*)” (coefficients of discriminant function = -.412 * Ideal self score 106. I am afraid of my failure. Significant coefficients of discriminant function were on three items out of 26 items. The difference of mothers who have children with intellectual disabilities and general mothers was analyzed by stepwise discriminant analysis based on Wilks’s Lambda. .346 24.” (coefficients of discriminant function = .390 11. Sometimes I feel happy. p<.359 10.733 13.

30.307 (*) Reversal item These results shows that mothers of children with intellectual disabilities have tendency to feel discrepancies of happiness and enjoying their daily life.927** 0. The Results of Discriminant Analysis Model 1 2 3 Items 9.01 69. Sometimes I feel happy.1st PAGE PROGRAMME Table 3.591 0.501 The ratio of discriminant Canonical Correlation Coefficients Note: ** p•. Subjective well being is one of the most important concept to compose the structure of QOL (Schalock. I am afraid my failure.945** 0.7% . 11.906** Coefficients of discriminant function 0.546 -0. and have tendency to be little afraid of their perceived failures in comparison with general mothers. These items are related to subjective well being. (*) Λ 0. . It is pointed out that the study of QOL is very important for the mothers who have children with intellectual disabilities. 1996). I enjoy my daily life.

Finding positive aspects of disabilities decreases the negative images of disabilities relatively. According to Nagase (1999). Or rather. however. It is considered that the degree of acceptance of these mothers increases gradually with the advanced age in the same way as general mothers do. “the disability studies” is being established now. Generally speaking. there was no significant coefficient of discriminant function on the other 23 items. The statistically result of this research. shows that rearing children with intellectual disabilities is not only negative effects. It can be also said that the difference of self-acceptance between mothers of children with intellectual disabilities and general mothers was small totally. Whether mothers have children with intellectual disabilities or without intellectual disabilities is little significance as a factor influencing self-acceptance among them. rearing children with intellectual disabilities has been thought of as only having negative effects. “the disability studies” focuses on the positive aspects of disabilities such as their original cultures and value of living.1st PAGE PROGRAMME On the other hand. In Japan. and is not just about disabilities as the object of rehabilitation. age was the significant factor influencing self-acceptance of mothers regardless of disabilities (Nishinaga. 2001). Decreasing the negative images of . These thoughts are considered to have been influenced people's unconcern towards persons with disabilities. This view of the disabilities studies is considered very important if we try for inclusion.

1. Finally. The research based on “the disability studies” . The research of subjective well being and QOL 4.1st PAGE PROGRAMME disabilities increases opportunities. which general people are together with persons with disabilities. The research of strategy to keep their self-acceptance healthy 3. The further factor analysis of self acceptance of mothers 2. the results of this research leave room for further research as follows. It can be said that the results of this research are in line with the view of the disability studies.

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