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# Kinematics of Machinery

III SEMESTER MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Department of Mechanical Engineering, .

ME1202 – KINEMATICS OF MACHINERY 3104 UNIT I BASICS OF MECHANISMS 7

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Definitions – Link – Kinematic pair – Kinematic chain – Mechanism – Machine – Degree of Freedom – Mobility – Kutzbach criterion (Gruebler‘s equation) – Grashoff's law – Kinematic Inversions of four-bar chain and slider crank chain – Mechanical Advantage – Transmission angle Description of common Mechanisms – Offset slider mechanism as quick return mechanisms – Pantograph – Straight line generators (Peaucellier and Watt mechanisms) – Steering gear for automobile – Hooke‘s joint – Toggle mechanism – Ratchets – Escapements – Indexing Mechanisms UNIT II KINEMATIC ANALYSIS 10 Analysis of simple mechanisms (Single slider crank mechanism and four bar mechanism) – Graphical Methods for displacement – Velocity and Acceleration – Shaping machine mechanism – Coincident points – Coriolis acceleration – Analytical method of analysis of slider crank mechanism and four bar mechanism – Approximate analytical expression for displacement, velocity and acceleration of piston of reciprocating engine mechanism. UNIT III KINEMATICS OF CAMS 8 Classifications – Displacement diagrams – Parabolic, Simple harmonic and Cycloidal motions – Graphical construction of displacement diagrams and layout of plate cam profiles – Circular arc and tangent cams – Pressure angle and undercutting. UNIT IV GEARS 10 Classification of gears – Gear tooth terminology – Fundamental law of toothed gearing and involute

gearing – Length of path of contact and contact ratio – Interference and undercutting – Gear trains – Simple – Compound – Epicyclic gear trains – Differentials. UNIT V FRICTION 10 Dry friction – Friction in screw jack – Pivot and collar friction – Plate clutches – Belt and rope drives – Block brakes – Band brakes L: 45 T: 15 Total: 60 TEXT BOOKS 1. Ambekar, A.G., ―Mechanism and Machine Theory‖, Prentice Hall of India, 2007. 2. Uicker, J.J., Pennock, G.R. and Shigley, J.E., ―Theory of Machines and Mechanisms‖(Indian Edition), Oxford University Press, 2003. REFERENCES 1. Thomas Bevan, ―Theory of Machines‖, CBS Publishers and Distributors, 1984. 2. Ramamurti, V., Mechanism and Machine Theory‖, 2nd Edition, Narosa Publishing House, 2005. 3. Ghosh, A. and Mallick, A.K., ―Theory of Mechanisms and Machines‖, Affiliated East-West Pvt. Ltd., 1998. BIS Codes of Practice/Useful Websites 1. IS 2458 : 2001, Vocabulary of Gear Terms – Definitions Related to Geometry 2. IS 2467 : 2002 (ISO 701: 1998), International Gear Notation – Symbols for Geometric Data. 3. IS 5267 : 2002 Vocabulary of Gear Terms – Definitions Related to Worm Gear Geometry. 4. IS 5037 : Part 1 : 2004, Straight Bevel Gears for General Engineering and Heavy Engineering - Part 1: Basic Rack. 5. IS 5037 : Part 2 : 2004, Straight Bevel Gears for General Engineering and Heavy Engineering - Part 2: Module and Diametral Pitches. Web site: www.howstuffworks.com

Objective: To study the mechanism, machine and the geometric aspect of motion. Unit I BASICS OF MECHANISMS

Introduction:

The objective of kinematics is to develop various means of transforming motion to achieve a specific kind needed in applications. For example, an object is to be moved from point A to point B along some path. The first question in solving this problem is usually: What kind of a mechanism (if any) can be used to perform this function? And the second question is: How does one design such a mechanism?

The objective of dynamics is analysis of the behavior of a given machine or mechanism when subjected to dynamic forces. For the above example, when the mechanism is already known, then external forces are applied and its motion is studied. The determination of forces induced in machine components by the motion is part of this analysis. As a subject, the kinematics and dynamics of machines and mechanisms is disconnected from other subjects (except statics and dynamics) in the Mechanical Engineering curriculum. This absence of links to other subjects may create the false impression that there are no constraints, apart from the kinematic ones, imposed on the design of mechanisms. Look again at the problem of moving an object from A to B. In designing a mechanism, the size, shape, and weight of the object all constitute input into the design process. All of these will affect the size of the mechanism. There are other considerations as well, such as, for example, what the allowable speed of approaching point B should be. The outcome of this inquiry may affect either the configuration or the type of the mechanism. Within the subject of kinematics and dynamics of machines and mechanisms such requirements cannot be justifiably formulated; they can, however, be posed as a learning exercise.

KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS AS PART OF THE DESIGN PROCESS The role of kinematics is to ensure the functionality of the mechanism, while the role of dynamics is to verify the acceptability of induced forces in parts. The functionality and induced forces are subject to various constraints (specifications) imposed on the design. Look at the example of a cam operating a valve Fundamentals of Kinematics and Dynamics of Machines and Mechanisms The design process starts with meeting the functional requirements of the product. The basic one in this case is the proper opening, dwelling, and closing of the valve as a function of time. To achieve this objective, a corresponding cam profile producing the needed follower motion should be found. The rocker arm, being a lever, serves as a displacement amplifier/reducer. The timing of opening, dwelling, and closing is controlled by the speed of the camshaft. The function of the spring is to keep the roller always in contact with the cam. To meet this requirement the inertial forces developed during the follower–valve system motion should be known, since the spring force must be larger than these forces at any time. Thus, it follows that the determination of component accelerations needed to find inertial forces is important for the choice of the proper spring stiffness. Kinematical analysis allows one to satisfy the functional requirements for valve displacements. Dynamic analysis allows one to find forces in the system as a function of time. These forces are needed to continue the design process. The design process continues with meeting the constraints requirements, which in this case are: 1. Sizes of all parts; 2. Sealing between the valve and its seat; 3. Lubrication; 4. Selection of materials; 5. Manufacturing and maintenance; 6. Safety; 7. Assembly, etc. The forces transmitted through the system during cam rotation allow one to

determine the proper sizes of components, and thus to find the overall assembly dimension. The spring force affects the reliability of the valve sealing. If any of the requirements cannot be met with the given assembly design, then another set of parameters should be chosen, and the kinematic and dynamic analysis repeated for the new version. Thus, kinematic and dynamic analysis is an integral part of the machine design process, which means it uses input from this process and produces output for its continuation. IS IT A MACHINE, A MECHANISM, OR A STRUCTURE? The term machine is usually applied to a complete product. A car is a machine, as is a tractor, a combine, an earthmoving machine, etc. At the same time, each of these machines may have some devices performing specific functions, like a windshield wiper in a car, which are called mechanisms. An internal combustion engine is called neither a machine nor a mechanism. It is clear that there is a historically established terminology and it may not be consistent. What is important, as far as the subject of kinematics and dynamics is concerned, is that the identification of something as a machine or a mechanism has no bearing on the analysis to be done. And thus in the following, the term machine or mechanism in application to a specific device will be used according to the established custom. The distinction between the machine/mechanism and the structure is more fundamental. The former must have moving parts, since it transforms motion, produces work, or transforms energy. The latter does not have moving parts; its function is purely structural, i.e., to maintain its form and shape under given external loads, like a bridge, a building, or an antenna mast. Fundamentals of Kinematics and Dynamics of Machines and Mechanisms chair, or a solar antenna, may be confusing. Before the folding chair can be used as a chair, it must be unfolded. The transformation from a folded to an unfolded state is the transformation of motion. Thus, the folding chair meets two definitions: it is a mechanism during unfolding and a structure when unfolding is completed. Again, the terminology should not affect the understanding of the substance of the matter. Definitions : Link or Element, Pairing of Elements with degrees of freedom, Grubler‘s criterion (without derivation), Kinematic chain, Mechanism, Mobility of Mechanism, Inversions, Machine.

The process of choosing different links in the chain as framesis known as kinematic inversion. Crosshead of a stationary steam engine: piston rod to the left. rather than rotating continuously. connecting rod to the right Steam engines after this are usually double-acting: their internal pressure works on each side of the piston in turn. with twin connecting rods (almost vertical) between the horizontal beam and the flywheel cranks The first steam engines. was single-acting: its piston only did work in one direction. and so these used a chain rather than a connecting rod. for an n-link chain n different mechanisms can be obtained. This requires a seal around the piston rod and so the . Their output rocked back and forth.Kinematic Chains and Inversions : Recall that a kinematic chain becomes a mechanism when one of the links in the chain becomes a frame. Newcomen's atmospheric engine. An example of a four-link slider-crank chain shows how different mechanisms are obtained by fixing different links functionally. Steam engines Beam engine. In this way.

in a large sliding bearing block called a crosshead. the large angled rod being the connecting rod Internal combustion engines Compound rods Articulated connecting rods in a WW1 aero-engine BMW 132 radial engine rods LINKS .hinge between the piston and connecting rod is placed outside the cylinder. Steam locomotive rods.

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This will be the emphasis of this class. iv) Toggle mechanism. vise grips. windshield wiper drive system. Kinetics: The effect of forces on moving bodies. . 1. Mobility Kinematics: The study of motion (position. a simple hinged door does not qualify as a mechanism). Pantograph. car suspension. backhoe. (low forces) Machine: A system designed to transmit motion and energy. (forces involved) Basic Mechanisms: Includes geared systems. etc. piston engine. Mechanism: A system design to transmit motion. iii) Intermittent motion mechanisms – Geneva mechanism and Ratchet & Pawl mechanism.Types Of Mechanisms: i) Quick return motion mechanisms – Drag link mechanism. acceleration). Whitworth mechanism and Crank and slotted lever mechanism ii) Straight line motion mechanisms – Peacelier‘s mechanism and Robert‘s mechanism. Hooke‘s joint and Ackerman Steering gear mechanism. Good kinematic design should produce good kinetics. A major goal of understanding kinematics is to develop the ability to design a system that will satisfy specified motion requirements. Examples of mechanisms: Tin snips. A mechanism has multiple moving parts (for example. folding chair. cam-follower systems and linkages (rigid links connected by sliding or rotating joints). Terminology and Definitions-Degree of Freedom. velocity.

Completely Constrained Motion Partially Constrained Motion Incompletely Constrained Motion The three main types of constrained motion in kinematic pair are. E.C.T Page 15 .Completely constrained motion : If the motion between a pair of links is limited to a definite direction.g.g. Incompletely Constrained motion : If the motion between a pair of links is not confined to a definite direction. then it is completely constrained motion. E.P.R.: Motion of a shaft or rod with collars at each end in a hole as shown in fig.: A spherical ball or circular shaft in a circular hole may either rotate or slide in the hole as shown in fig. 1. then it is incompletely constrained motion. KOM/AJM/MECH/N.E. 2.

then it is known as successfully constrained motion. This figure shows the mechanism of a fly press. Steam Engine.: Foot step Bearing. So the three sliding pairs are.g.E. KOM/AJM/MECH/N. the required fly press mechanism is obtained. sliding and a screw pair. Shaper. Successfully constrained motion or Partially constrained motion: If the motion in a definite direction is not brought about by itself but by some other means. etc. But it is possible to have a chain which consists of three sliding pairs or which consists of a turning. Machine: It is a combination of resistant bodies with successfully constrained motion which is used to transmit or transform motion to do some useful work.: Lathe. wedge C and a sliding rod A. When link A is fixed. one between the wedge C and the frame B.P.g. Kinematic chain with three lower pairs It is impossible to have a kinematic chain consisting of three turning pairs only.C.3. The figure shows a kinematic chain with three sliding pairs. second between wedge C and sliding rod A and the frame B. The element B forms a sliding with A and turning pair with screw rod C which in turn forms a screw pair with A.R. E. E. It consists of a frame B.T Page 16 .

On any small displacement of the mechanism the tracing point ‗C‘ traces the shape of number ‗8‘. It is shown in the figure below the purpose of this mechanism is to convert rotary motion to reciprocating motion and vice versa. Watt’s straight line mechanism or Double lever mechanism: In this mechanism.. This mechanism is shown below. The AB & DE are parallel in the mean position of the mechanism and coupling rod BD is perpendicular to the levers AB & DE. the cylinder and the frame is kept fixed.3. the link 1 i. . a portion of which will be approximately straight. The fig below shows a reciprocating engine.e. Inversions of a Slider crank chain: There are four inversions in a single slider chain mechanism. Slider crank Chain: It is a four bar chain having one sliding pair and three turning pairs. They are: st 1) Reciprocating engine mechanism (1 inversion) nd 2) Oscillating cylinder engine mechanism (2 inversion) nd 3) Crank and slotted lever mechanism (2 inversion) rd 4) Whitworth quick return motion mechanism (3 inversion) rd 5) Rotary engine mechanism (3 inversion) th 6) Bull engine mechanism (4 inversion) th 7) Hand Pump (4 inversion) 1. Reciprocating engine mechanism : In the first inversion. Hence this is also an example for the approximate straight line mechanism. 2. the links AB & DE act as levers at the ends A & E of these levers are fixed.

They are three important inversions of double slider crank chain. Double Slider Crank Chain: A four bar chain having two turning and two sliding pairs such that two pairs of the same kind are adjacent is known as double slider crank chain. It is a rotary cylinder V – type internal combustion engine used as an aero – engine. The crank OA is fixed and all the connecting rods from the pistons are connected to A. Time to cutting = 360 -2θ = 180 – θ Time of return 2θθ = α = α . The end R generates an ellipse with the displacement of sliders P and Q. But now Gnome engine has been replaced by Gas turbines. The Gnome engine has generally seven cylinders in one plane. Inversions of Double slider Crank chain: It consists of two sliding pairs and two turning pairs. Here the slotted link is fixed. the whole assembly of cylinders. 1) Elliptical trammel. 3) Oldham‘s Coupling. cos θ = x. β 360 – α 4. pistons and connecting rods rotate about the axis O. Rotary engine mechanism or Gnome Engine: Rotary engine mechanism or gnome engine is another application of third inversion. In this mechanism when the pistons reciprocate in the cylinders.Therefore. PR and Sin θ = y. 1. This mechanism is shown in the figure below. QR Squaring and adding (i) and (ii) we get x2 + y2 = cos2 θ + sin2 θ 2 2 (PR) (QR) . where the entire mechanical power developed. The sliding block P and Q in vertical and horizontal slots respectively. Elliptical Trammel: This is an instrument for drawing ellipses. 2) Scotch yoke mechanism. The co-ordinates of the point R are x and y. From the fig. is obtained in the form of rotation of the crank shaft.

When flange 1 turns. the frame and the other block will also turn through the same angle. 4 & 3 must have the same angular velocity at every instant. The mechanism is used to convert rotary to reciprocating mechanism. Hence 1. Oldham’s coupling: The third inversion of obtained by fixing the link connecting the 2 blocks P & Q. The maximum sliding speed of each tongue along its slot is given by v=xω where. When PQ rotates above P.x2 2 + y2 = 1 2 (PR) (QR) The equation is that of an ellipse. These flanges form 1 and 3. the flange 3 must turn through the same angle. 2. If the distance between the axis of the shaft is x. secured by forging. it will be the diameter if the circle traced by the centre of the intermediate piece. Scotch yoke mechanism: This mechanism. the slider P is fixed. Hence the instrument traces an ellipse. 3. This coupling is used for connecting two parallel shafts when the distance between the shafts is small. PR = PQ and so x +y =1 (PR) (QR) It is an equation of circle with PR = QR = radius of a circle. The intermediate piece forms the link 4 which slides or reciprocates in flanges 1 & 3. An application of the third inversion of the double slider crank mechanism is Oldham‘s coupling shown in the figure. If one block is turning through an angle. Path traced 2 2 2 2 by mid-point of PQ is a circle. An intermediate disc having tongues at right angles and opposite sides is fitted in between the flanges. The link two is fixed as shown. The two shafts to be connected have flanges at their ends. the intermediate disc 4 must turn through the same angle and whatever angle 4 turns. In this case. the slider Q reciprocates in the vertical slot. ω = angular velocity of each shaft in rad/sec v = linear velocity in m/sec . It is shown in the figure below. Slots are cut in the flanges.

Their motions will be proportional to their distance from the fixed point. Pantograph: Pantograph is used to copy the curves in reduced or enlarged scales. Let ABCD be the initial position. Link BA is extended to fixed pin O. B. It consists of a driving wheel D carrying a pin P which engages in a slot of follower F as shown in figure. Q is a point on the link AD. 3. Hence this mechanism finds its use in copying devices such as engraving or profiling machines. Suppose if point Q moves to Q1 .2. then all the links and the joints will move to the new positions (such as A moves to A1 . Q and P are in a straight line. AB is parallel to DC and AD is parallel to BC. B moves to . Then it can be shown that the points P and Q always move parallel and similar to each other over any path straight or curved. C and D. During the remaining time of one revolution of the driver. If the motion of Q is to be enlarged then the link BC is extended to P such that O. the Pin and follower remain in contact and hence the follower is turned by one quarter of a turn. Geneva mechanism: Geneva mechanism is an intermittent motion mechanism. the follower remains in rest locked in position by the circular arc. This is a simple figure of a Pantograph. During one quarter revolution of the driving plate. The links are pin jointed at A.

The ratio of the crank movement to the slider movement approaching infinity is proportional to the mechanical advantage. Ackermann steering gear mechanism: This mechanism is made of only turning pairs and is made of only turning pairs wear and tear of the parts is less and cheaper in manufacturing. D moves to D1 and P to P1 ) and the new configuration of the mechanism is shown by dotted lines. Hence Hooke‘s joint is a means of connecting two rotating shafts whose axes lie in the same plane and their directions making a small angle with each other. F = P . The cross link KL connects . The movement of Q (Q Q1) will be enlarged to PP1 in a definite ratio. Toggle Mechanism: In slider crank mechanism as the crank approaches one of its dead centre position. Links CD and CE are of same length. (because Sin α/Cos α = Tan α) 2 tan α Thus for the given value of P. It is commonly known as Universal joint. This can also be used for shaft with angular misalignment where flexible coupling does not serve the purpose. 4. Hooke’s joint: Hooke‘s joint used to connect two parallel intersecting shafts as shown in figure. 5. A toggle mechanism is used when large forces act through a short distance is required. In Europe it is called as Cardan joint. 5. the force F rises rapidly. Resolving the forces at C vertically F Sin α =P Cos α 2 Therefore. The figure below shows a toggle mechanism. the slider approaches zero.Q1. This is the principle used in toggle mechanism. as the links CD and CE approaches collinear position (αO). C moves to Q1 .

two short axles AC and BD of the front wheels through the short links AK and BL which forms bell crank levers CAK and DBL respectively as shown in fig. CotΦ–Cosθ = b / l In the above arrangement it is clear that the angle Φ through which AK turns is less than the angle θ through which the BL turns and therefore the left front axle turns through a smaller angle than the right front axle. In all other positions pure rolling is not obtainable.4 and 0. This is done by actually drawing the mechanism to a scale or by calculations. the corresponding value of Φ and (Cot Φ – Cos θ) are noted. The fundamental equation for correct steering is. When the vehicles steer to the right as shown in the figure. The Geneva stop is used to provide intermittent motion. then locks the wheel in place when it is stationary.3l above it. Some Of The Mechanisms Which Are Used In Day To Day Life. where as the link LK causes the other short link AK to turn so as to reduce α. The crescent shaped cut out in dark orange section lets the points of the cross past. Three correct steering positions will be: 1) When moving straight. 3) Similar position when moving to the left. By varying the angle of the crank piece it can be used to change the angle of movement from 1 degree to 180 degrees. a similar shape to the main part of the mechanism. In an Ackermann steering gear mechanism. the short link BL is turned so as to increase α. GENEVA STOP: The Geneva stop is named after the Geneva cross. The Geneva stop mechanism is used commonly in film cameras. Approximate value of b/l for correct steering should be between 0. the longer links AB and KL are parallel and the shorter links AK and BL are inclined at an angle α. For different angle of turn θ. the orange wheel turns continuously. the instantaneous centre I does not lie on the axis of the rear axle but on a line parallel to the rear axle axis at an approximate distance of 0. BELL CRANK: GENEVA STOP: BELL CRANK: The bell crank was originally used in large house to operate the servant‘s bell. 2) When moving one correct angle to the right corresponding to the link ratio AK/AB and angle α. The bell crank is used to convert the direction of reciprocating movement. hence the name. the dark blue pin then turns the blue cross quarter of a turn for each revolution of the drive wheel. Therefore for different value of the corresponding value of and are tabulated. .5.

A similar mechanism is used in ellipse drawing tools. toothed part. By using two pawls simultaneously this intermittent effect can be almost. removed. It reaches maximum speed in the middle of its travel then gradually slows down until it reaches the end of its travel.ELLIPTICAL TRAMMEL PISTON ARRANGEMENT ELLIPTICAL TRAMMEL: This fascinating mechanism converts rotary motion to reciprocating motion in two axis. The rack is the flat. Rack and pinions are commonly used in the steering system of cars to convert the rotary motion of the steering wheel to the side to side motion in the wheels. it works either way. PISTON ARRANGEMENT: This mechanism is used to convert between rotary motion and reciprocating motion. RATCHET: The ratchet can be used to move a toothed wheel one tooth at a time. Notice how the speed of the piston changes. The part used to move the ratchet is known as the pawl. Rack and pinion gears give a positive motion especially compared to the friction drive of a wheel in tarmac. The diameter of the gear determines the speed that the rack moves as the pinion turns. the pinion is the gear. The ratchet can be used as a way of gearing down motion. and increases its speed. Notice that the handle traces out an ellipse rather than a circle. RACK AND PINION RATCHET RACK AND PINION: The rack and pinion is used to convert between rotary and linear motion. Ratchets are also used to ensure that motion only occurs in only one . In the rack and pinion railway a central rack between the two rails engages with a pinion on the engine allowing the train to be pulled up very steep slopes. By its nature motion created by a ratchet is intermittent. but not quite. Rack and pinion can convert from rotary to linear of from linear to rotary. The piston starts from one end.

the axis of rotation is turned by 90 degrees. Worm gears are a compact. The power comes through the escape wheel which gives a small 'kick' to the palettes (purple) at each tick. Also. . For each complete turn of the worm shaft the gear shaft advances only one tooth of the gear. Unlike ordinary gears. As the speed is reduced the power to the drive increases correspondingly. By using none divisible numbers the same teeth mesh only every seventeen turns of the blue gear. WORM GEAR WATCH ESCAPEMENT. efficient means of substantially decreasing speed and increasing power. Notice that as the blue gear turns clockwise the orange gear turns anti-clockwise. WORM GEAR: A worm is used to reduce speed. WATCH ESCAPEMENT: The watch escapement is the centre of the time piece. Ratchets are also used in the freewheel mechanism of a bicycle. In the above example the number of teeth on the orange gear is not divisible by the number of teeth on the blue gear. the gold wheel. with a twelve tooth gear.2727r turns. oscillates backwards and forwards on a hairspring (not shown) as the balance wheel moves the lever is moved allowing the escape wheel (green) to rotate by one tooth. a worm can drive a gear to reduce speed but a gear cannot drive a worm to increase it. GEARS CAM FOLLOWER. If the orange gear had thirty three teeth then every three turns of the blue gear the same teeth would mesh together which could cause excessive wear. This is deliberate. GEARS: Gears are used to change speed in rotational movement. The balance wheel.direction. In the example above the blue gear has eleven teeth and the orange gear has twenty five. the motion is not reversible. Ideal for use with small electric motors. the speed is reduced by a factor of twelve. To turn the orange gear one full turn the blue gear must turn 25/11 or 2. useful for winding gear which must not be allowed to drop. It is the escapement which divides the time into equal segments. In this case.

AB-BP= AF-FP=(AF–FP)(AF+FP) = AQ x AP . Straight line generators. The reciprocating motion of the piston is converted to useful rotary motion using a crank.CAMS: Cams are used to convert rotary motion into reciprocating motion. i. In this common design high pressure steam is pumped alternately into one side of the piston. c. c. then the other forcing it back and forth. 7. Subtracting. from the right angled triangles AFB. b. Scott Russell mechanism 2. Design of Crank-rocker Mechanisms: Straight Line Motion Mechanisms: The easiest way to generate a straight line motion is by using a sliding pair but in precision machines sliding pairs are not preferred because of wear and tear. STEAM ENGINE. The pins P and Q are on opposite corners of a four bar chain which has all four links QC. Therefore the point P traces out a straight path normal to AR. then. The link OQ and the fixed link are equal in length. In this animation the oval crank has been made transparent so that you can see how the control valve crank is attached.e. Steam engines were the backbone of the industrial revolution. the cam follower traces the surface of the cam transmitting its motion to the required mechanism. Hart mechanism. Robert‘s mechanism. link AB = link AC. Peaucellier mechanism. driven by the circular motion. a. This more accurate movement is at the expense of the strength of the cam follower. Since AB and BP are links of a constant length. the product AQ x AP is constant. b. The product AQ x AP remain constant as the link OQ rotates may be proved as follows: Join BC to bisect PQ at F. The motion created can be simple and regular or complex and irregular. BFP. Peaucillier mechanism : The pin Q is constrained to move long the circumference of a circle by means of the link OQ. CP. Approximate straight line motion mechanisms a. As the large wheel (the fly wheel) turns a small crank or cam is used to move the small red control valve back and forth controlling where the steam flows. Grasshopper‘s mechanism. Cam follower design is important in the way the profile of the cam is followed. we have AB=AF+FB and BP=BF+FP.. Exact straight line motion mechanism. Hence in such cases different methods are used to generate straight line motion mechanisms: 1. Watt mechanism. A fine pointed follower will more accurately trace the outline of the cam. . PB and BQ of equal length to the fixed pin A. Tchebicheff‘s mechanism a. As the cam turns. d.

a. The best position for O may be found by making use of the instantaneous centre of QR. . Hart mechanism Oldham Coupling.b. Robert’s mechanism: This is also a four bar chain. Peaucillier mechanism b. The path of O is clearly approximately horizontal in the Robert‘s mechanism. The link PQ and RS are of equal length and the tracing pint ‗O‘ is rigidly attached to the link QR on a line which bisects QR at right angles. Below is exploded view of an Oldham Coupling.

one coupled to the input. The coupler is named for John Oldham who invented it in Ireland. one coupled to the output. 3. around the midpoint between input and output shafts. Velocity and acceleration analysis by complex numbers: Analysis of single slider crank mechanism and four bar mechanism by loop closure equations and complex numbers. Its center traces a circular orbit. Unit II KINEMATICS Velocity and Acceleration analysis of mechanisms (Graphical Methods): Velocity and acceleration analysis by vector polygons: Relative velocity and accelerations of particles in a common link. twice per rotation.An Oldham coupler is a method to transfer torque between two parallel but not collinear shafts. In the direction of sliding. In a direction perpendicular to the link Sliding Acceleration: As = d2r/dt2. The coupler is much more compact than. velocity and acceleration analysis in simple mechanisms: Important Concepts in Velocity Analysis 1. It has three discs. two universal joints. 2. Coriolis component of acceleration. Relative velocity describes how one point on a mechanism moves relative to another point on the mechanism. The middle disc rotates around its center at the same speed as the input and output shafts. Acceleration Components 2 Normal Acceleration: An =  r. Displacement. Often springs are used to reduce backlash of the mechanism. relative velocity and accelerations of coincident particles on separate link. 8. . and a middle disc that is joined to the first two by tongue and groove. to solve a paddle placement problem in a steamship design. The velocity of a point on a moving link relative to the pivot of the link is given by the equation: V = r. where = angular velocity of the link and r = distance from pivot. In a direction perpendicular to the link Coriolis Acceleration: Ac = 2(dr/dt). Points toward the center of rotation Tangential Acceleration: At = r. in 1820. The tongue and groove on one side is perpendicular to the tongue and groove on the other. The absolute velocity of any point on a mechanism is the velocity of that point with reference to ground. for example.

Unit III KINEMATICS OF CAM Camshaft For the fictional characters of the same name, see Camshaft (Transformers).

Computer animation of a camshaft operating valves A camshaft is a shaft to which a cam is fastened or of which a cam forms an integral part. CAMPROFILE

Displacement diagrams Cam Terminology: . Velocity and acceleration time curves for cam profiles. Disc cam with reciprocating follower having knife edge. Uniform acceleration and retardation and Cycloidal motion. The motion created can be simple and regular or complex and irregular. Cam follower design is important in the way the profile of the cam is followed. driven by the circular motion. This more accurate movement is at the expense of the strength of the cam follower. the cam follower traces the surface of the cam transmitting its motion to the required mechanism. As the cam turns.Cams: Type of cams. Classifications . Displacement. A fine pointed follower will more accurately trace the outline of the cam. Type of followers. 18. roller follower. Cams are used to convert rotary motion into reciprocating motion. Uniform velocity. Follower motions including SHM.

form closed Types of followers: Flat-faced. This motion is specified through the use of SVAJ diagrams (diagrams that describe the desired displacement-velocity-acceleration and jerk of the follower motion) 20. 19. Flat-faced and Mushroom followers.Physical components: Cam. velocity. follower. Types of motion: rise. dwell Geometric and Kinematic parameters: follower displacement. base circle. plate (a special class of radial cams). follower radius. Uniform acceleration and retardation and Cycloidal motions Knife-edge. translating Types of joint closure: Force closed. 22. eccentricity. 21. roller. prime circle. Pressure angle and undercutting: Pressure angle . Critical path motion – The path by which the follower satisfies a given motion is of interest in addition to the extreme positions. radius of curvature. Parabolic. Calculation of Velocity and acceleration of the followers for various types of motions. axial. Derivatives of Follower motion: Velocity and acceleration of the followers for various types of motions. This is the motion constraint type that we will focus upon. pressure angle. Simple harmonic and Cycloidal motions: Describing the motion: A cam is designed by considering the desired motion of the follower. Roller. Uniform velocity. SHM. acceleration. and jerk. This is a more difficult (and less common) design problem. High speed cams: High speed cams 23. Layout of plate cam profiles: Drawing the displacement diagrams for the different kinds of the motions and the plate cam profiles for these different motions and different followers. with considerable freedom as to design the cam to move the follower between these positions. Standard cam motion: Simple Harmonic Motion Uniform velocity motion Uniform acceleration and retardation motion Cycloidal motion 25. Circular arc and Tangent cams: Circular arc Tangent cam 24. mushroom Types of cams: radial. fall. spring Types of cam systems: Oscilllating (rotating). Types of motion constraints: Critical extreme position – the positions of the follower that are of primary concern are the extreme positions.

Some General Motors vehicles also have the power steering pump driven by the camshaft. In some designs the camshaft also drives the distributor and the oil and fuel pumps. For this reason. . Also on early fuel injection systems. or indirectly via a belt or chain called a timing belt or timing chain. cams on the camshaft would operate the fuel injectors. Since the valves control the flow of air/fuel mixture intake and exhaust gases. they must be opened and closed at the appropriate time during the stroke of the piston. via a gear mechanism. the camshaft is connected to the crankshaft either directly.A camshaft The relationship between the rotation of the camshaft and the rotation of the crankshaft is of critical importance.

In a two-stroke engine that uses a camshaft.200" number gives an estimate of the power potential. each valve is opened once for each rotation of the crankshaft. Duration can often be confusing because manufacturers may select any lift point to advertise a camshaft's duration and sometimes will manipulate these numbers.020" number determines how responsive the motor will be and how much low end torque the motor will make. The RPM at which peak horsepower occurs is typically increased as duration increases at the expense of lower rpm efficiency (torque). which is the number of crankshaft degrees during which both intake and exhaust valves are off their seats.020". in these engines. and is greatest during low RPM operation.200". .050" and . It is overlap which most affects idle quality.002". thus.006" will be much different than one rated the same at . the valves are opened only half as often. the camshaft rotates at the same rate as the crankshaft. Many performance engine builders gauge a race profile's aggressiveness by looking at the duration at . In a four-stroke engine. As a generality. The timing of the camshaft can be advanced to produce better low end torque or it can be retarded to produce better high end torque. increasing a camshaft's duration typically increases the overlap event. inasmuch as the "blow-through" of the intake charge which occurs during overlap reduces engine efficiency. The power and idle characteristics of a camshaft rated at . . unless one spreads lobe centers between intake and exhaust valve lobe profiles. and the .050" number is used to estimate where peak power will occur. Duration Duration is the number of crankshaft degrees of engine rotation during which the valve is off the seat. The . two full rotations of the crankshaft occur for each rotation of the camshaft. In reality. The . A secondary effect of increase duration is increasing overlap. greater duration results in more horsepower.

Higher lift allows accurate timing of airflow. Position Depending on the location of the camshaft. where the valve is effectively shot off the end of the cam rather than have the valve follow the cams‘ profile. The further the valve rises from its seat the more airflow can be realised. Cams that have too high a resultant valve lift. particularly on the intake side. Notably though. This is typically what happens on a motor over rev. all else being equal. Greater lift has some limitations. Sometimes an over rev can cause engine failure where the valve stems become bent as a result of colliding with the piston crowns. the cams operate the valves either directly or through a linkage of pushrods and rockers. Increased lift can also be limited by lobe clearance in the cylinder head construction. which is generally more beneficial. Higher valve lift can have the same effect as increased duration where valve overlap is less desirable. The valve train is typically the limiting factor in determining the maximum rpm the engine can maintain either for a prolonged period or temporarily. This could also be as a result of a very steep rise of the lobe and short duration. Direct operation involves a simpler mechanism and leads to fewer failures. where the valve spring tension is insufficient to keep the valve following the cam at its apex. although even by allowing a larger volume of air to pass in the relatively larger opening. but requires the camshaft to be positioned at . On forced induction motors this higher lift could yield better results than longer duration. the lift is limited by the increased proximity of the valve head to the piston crown and secondly greater effort is required to move the valve's springs to higher state of compression. so higher lobes may not necessarily clear the framework of the cylinder head casing. the brevity of the typical duration with a higher lift cam results in less airflow than with a cam with lower lift but more duration. and at high rpm.Lift The camshaft "lift" is the resultant net rise of the valve from its seat. can result in what is called "valve bounce". in particular as valve train rpm rises which can result in more inefficient running or loss or torque. higher lift has more potential problems than increased duration. This is an occasion where the engine rpm exceeds the engine maximum design speed. Firstly.

the valvetrain wears, and in particular the valves and valve seats in the combustion chamber. Sliding friction between the surface of the cam and the cam follower which rides upon it is considerable. In order to reduce wear at this point, the cam and follower are both surface hardened, and modern lubricant motor oils contain additives specifically to reduce sliding friction. The lobes of the camshaft are usually slightly tapered, causing the cam followers or valve lifters to rotate slightly with each depression, and helping to distribute wear on the parts. The surfaces of the cam and follower are designed to "wear in" together, and therefore when either is replaced, the other should be as well to prevent excessive rapid wear. In some engines, the flat contact surfaces are replaced with rollers, which eliminate the sliding friction and wear but adds mass to the valvetrain.

Alternatives
In addition to mechanical friction, considerable force is required to overcome the valve springs used to close the engine's valves. This can amount to an estimated 25% of an engine's total output at idle, reducing overall efficiency. Some approaches to reclaiming this "wasted" energy include: Springless valves, like the desmodromic system employed today by Ducati Camless valvetrains using solenoids or magnetic systems have long been investigated by BMW and Fiat, and are currently being prototyped by Valeo and Ricardo The Wankel engine, a rotary engine which uses neither pistons nor valves, best known for being used by Mazda in the RX-7 and RX-8 sports cars.

Gallery

Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. (E) Exhaust camshaft, (I) Intake camshaft, (S) Spark plug, (V) Valves, (P) Piston, (R) Connecting rod, (C) Crankshaft, (W) Water jacket for coolant flow.

Double overhead cams control the opening and closing of a cylinder's valves. 1. Intake 2. Compression 3. Power 4. Exhaust

Valve timing gears on a Ford Taurus V6 engine — the small gear is on the crankshaft, the larger gear is on the camshaft. The gear ratio causes the camshaft to run at half the RPM of the crankshaft.

Unit IV GEARS

Two meshing gears transmitting rotational motion. Note that the smaller gear is rotating faster. Although the larger gear is rotating less quickly, its torque is proportionally greater.

A gear is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or cogs, which mesh with another toothed part in order to transmit torque. Two or more gears working in tandem are called a transmission and can produce a mechanical advantage through a gear ratio and thus may be considered a simple machine. Geared devices can change the speed, magnitude, and direction of a power source. The most common situation is for a gear to mesh with another gear, however a gear can also mesh a non-rotating toothed part, called a rack, thereby producing translation instead of rotation. The gears in a transmission are analogous to the wheels in a pulley. An advantage of gears is that the teeth of a gear prevent slipping. When two gears of unequal number of teeth are combined a mechanical advantage is produced, with both the rotational speeds and the torques of the two gears differing in a simple relationship. In transmissions which offer multiple gear ratios, such as bicycles and cars, the term gear, as in first gear, refers to a gear ratio rather than an actual physical gear. The term is used to describe similar devices even when gear ratio is continuous rather than discrete, or when the device does not actually contain any gears, as in a continuously variable transmission.

Spur Gears

Miter Gears Helical Gears .

Miter Gears-Helical Worm Gears .

Planetary Gears Non-Metal Gears GEAR TRAINS .

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To turn the orange gear one full turn the blue gear must turn 25/11 or 2. Fundamental Law of toothed gearing and Involute gearing: Law of gearing Involutometry and Characteristics of involute action . 26. Notice that as the blue gear turns clockwise the orange gear turns anticlockwise. By using none divisible numbers the same teeth mesh only every seventeen turns of the blue gear.2727r turns. This is deliberate. In the above example the number of teeth on the orange gear is not divisible by the number of teeth on the blue gear.Gears are used to change speed in rotational movement. If the orange gear had thirty three teeth then every three turns of the blue gear the same teeth would mesh together which could cause excessive wear. Spur gear Terminology and definitions: Spur Gears: External Internal Definitions 27. In the example above the blue gear has eleven teeth and the orange gear has twenty five.

disk-shaped gear.Path of Contact and Arc of Contact Contact Ratio Comparison of involute and cycloidal teeth 28. Worm-and-gear sets are a simple and compact way to achieve a high torque. Worm gears can be considered a species of helical gear. A worm gear is usually meshed with an ordinary looking. Terminology: Inter changeable gears Gear tooth action Terminology 29. but its helix angle is usually somewhat large (close to 90 degrees) and its body is usually fairly long in the axial . Rack and Pinion gears (Basics only) Helical Bevel Worm Rack and Pinion gears Worm Worm gear Worm gears resemble screws. Non standard gear teeth: Helical. helical gears are normally limited to gear ratios of less than 10:1 while worm-and-gear sets vary from 10:1 to 500:1. low speed gear ratio. Bevel. Inter changeable gears. which is called the gear. Worm. gear tooth action. For example. or worm wheel. Interference and undercutting: Interference in involute gears Methods of avoiding interference Back lash 30. wheel. leading to low efficiency.[ A disadvantage is the potential for considerable sliding action.

This is done by making both concave and joining them at a saddle point. The distinction between a worm and a helical gear is made when at least one tooth persists for a full rotation around the helix. Instead. but what one in fact sees is the same tooth reappearing at intervals along the length of the worm. the gear's teeth may simply lock against the worm's teeth. superficially. as for instance when it is desired to set the position of a mechanism by turning the worm and then have the mechanism hold that position. However. is given. to have more than one tooth. this is called a cone-drive. The helix angle of a worm is not usually specified. it may or may not succeed.C. In a worm-and-gear set. if not. The usual screw nomenclature applies: a one-toothed worm is called single thread or single start. a worm with more than one tooth is called multiple thread or multiple start. if the gear attempts to drive the worm. If this occurs.R. because the force component circumferential to the worm is not sufficient to overcome friction. which is equal to 90 degrees minus the helix angle. If the gear in a worm-and-gear set is an ordinary helical gear only a single point of contact will be achieved. An example is the machine head found on some types of stringed instruments.P. Wormand-gear sets that do lock are called self locking. it is a 'worm'. which can be used to advantage. RACK AND PINION KOM/AJM/MECH/N. Particularly if the lead angle is small.direction. it is a 'helical gear'. the worm will appear. the lead angle. If medium to high power transmission is desired. If that tooth persists for several turns around the helix.T WORM GEAR Page 53 . and it is these attributes which give it its screw like qualities. A worm may have as few as one tooth. the tooth shape of the gear is modified to achieve more intimate contact by making both gears partially envelop each other. the worm can always drive the gear.E.

determine . WORM GEAR: A worm is used to reduce speed. Rack and pinions are commonly used in the steering system of cars to convert the rotary motion of the steering wheel to the side to side motion in the wheels. The rack is the flat. For each complete turn of the worm shaft the gear shaft advances only one tooth of the gear. the axis of rotation is turned by 90 degrees.RACK AND PINION: The rack and pinion is used to convert between rotary and linear motion. Worm gears are a compact. with a twelve tooth gear. Rack and pinion gears give a positive motion especially compared to the friction drive of a wheel in tarmac. Parallel axis gear trains: Simple Gear Trains – A simple gear train is a collection of meshing gears where each gear is on its own axis. Rack and pinion can convert from rotary to linear of from linear to rotary. Unlike ordinary gears. the intermediate gear has no numerical effect on the train ratio except to change the direction of the output gear. For example. In this case. 31. Gear trains: Gear Train Basics The velocity ratio. If the train has 3 gears. of a gear train relates the output velocity to the input velocity. the pinion is the gear. the motion is not reversible. a gear train ratio of 5:1 means that the output gear velocity is 5 times the input gear velocity. A simple gear train will typically have 2 or 3 gears and a gear ratio of 10:1 or less. The train ratio is given by the ratio m V = (product of number of teeth on driver gears)/(product of number of teeth on driven gears). A common approach to the design of compound gear trains is to first determine the number of gear reduction steps needed (each step is typically smaller than 10:1 for size purposes). 32. efficient means of substantially decreasing speed and increasing power. Compound Gear Trains – A compound gear train is a train where at least one shaft carries more than one gear. The train ratio for a simple gear train is the ratio of the number of teeth on the input gear to the number of teeth on the output gear. The diameter of the gear determines the speed that the rack moves as the pinion turns. a worm can drive a gear to reduce speed but a gear cannot drive a worm to increase it. Ideal for use with small electric motors. In the rack and pinion railway a central rack between the two rails engages with a pinion on the engine allowing the train to be pulled up very steep slopes. toothed part. the speed is reduced by a factor of twelve. mV. Once this is done. As the speed is reduced the power to the drive increases correspondingly. Also.

the gear train is called the epicyclic gear train. Racks also feature in the theory of gear geometry. a reverted gear train can be realized only if the number of teeth on the input side of the train adds up to the same as the number of teeth on the output side of the train. 33. . 34. where. The rack and pinion gear type is employed in a rack railway. and the tooth shapes for gears of particular actual radii then derived from that. Reverted Gear Trains – A reverted gear train is a special case of a compound gear train. Such a mechanism is used in automobiles to convert the rotation of the steering wheel into the left-to-right motion of the tie rod(s). Problems in epicyclic gear trains.the desired ratio for each step. A reverted gear train has the input and output shafts in –line with one another. the tooth shape of an interchangeable set of gears may be specified for the rack (infinite radius). and then calculate the gear size. Torque can be converted to linear force by meshing a rack with a pinion: the pinion turns. To enable the rear wheels to revolve at the same speeds when going straight. Rack and pinion Rack and pinion gearing A rack is a toothed bar or rod that can be thought of as a sector gear with an infinitely large radius of curvature. Differentials: Used in the rear axle of an automobile. for instance. Epicyclic gear trains: If the axis of the shafts over which the gears are mounted are moving relative to a fixed axis . the rack moves in a straight line. Assuming no idler gears are used. select a pinion size. To enable the rear wheels to revolve at different speeds when negotiating a curve.

the planet red. It played an important role in the Industrial Revolution. . The Sun is yellow. the reciprocating crank is blue. Examples are sun and planet gearing (see below) and mechanical differentials. Sun and planet Sun (yellow) and planet (red) gearing Main article: Sun and planet gear Sun and planet gearing was a method of converting reciprocal motion into rotary motion in steam engines. the flywheel is green and the driveshaft is grey.Epicyclic Epicyclic gearing In epicyclic gearing one or more of the gear axes moves.

Cage gear A cage gear. also called a lantern gear or lantern pinion has cylindrical rods for teeth. The assembly is held together by disks at either end into which the tooth rods and axle are set. Angular frequency.Harmonic drive Harmonic drive gearing A harmonic drive is a specialized proprietary gearing mechanism. In the case of worms. 1RPM Number of teeth. ω Measured in radians per second. Nomenclature General nomenclature Rotational frequency. such as RPM. much as the bars on a round bird cage or lantern. it is the number of thread starts that the worm has. Gear. = π / 30 rad/second . parallel to the axle and arranged in a circle around it. n Measured in rotation over time. wheel The larger of two interacting gears. Pinion The smaller of two interacting gears. an integer. N How many teeth a gear has.

p Point where the line of action crosses a line joining the two gear axes. Pitch circle. the tooth-to-tooth force is always directed along the same line—that is. d A predefined diametral position on the gear where the circular tooth thickness. A predefined diametral position on the gear where the circular tooth thickness. m A scaling factor used in metric gears with units in millimeters who's effect is to enlarge the gear tooth size as the module increases and reduce the size as the module decreases. the line of action changes from moment to moment during the period of engagement of a pair of teeth. The standard pitch diameter is a basic dimension and cannot be measured. Pitch diameter. or the axial planes (ma) depending on the design approach employed and the type of gear being designed. In general. pitch line Circle centered on and perpendicular to the axis.Path of contact Path followed by the point of contact between two meshing gear teeth. center line of the shaft. coincident with the line of action—as is indeed the case.[15] Module. Its value is based on the number of teeth. Module can be defined in the normal (mn). pressure angle and helix angles are defined. but is a location where other measurements are made. Pitch point. It has the same direction as the force vector.[15] Module is typically an input value into the gear design and is seldom calculated. and passing through the pitch point. the transverse (mt). pressure angle and helix angles are defined. For involute gears. This implies that for involute gears the path of contact is also a straight line. It is calculated as: in metric units or in imperial units. Axis Axis of revolution of the gear. the line of action is constant. Operating pitch diameters . however. Line of action. and the helix angle. pressure line Line along which the force between two meshing gear teeth is directed. the normal module (or normal diametral pitch).

Diameters determined from the number of teeth and the center distance at which gears operate. which. cylinder formed by projecting a pitch circle in the axial direction. Clearance Distance between the root circle of a gear and the addendum circle of its mate. ht The distance from the top of the tooth to the root. measured from the tops of the teeth. . the other leg on the point where they disengage. the pressure angle is constant. for involute gears. Do Diameter of the gear. Root diameter Diameter of the gear. it is equal to addendum plus dedendum or to working depth plus clearance. b= (D − rootdiameter) / 2 Whole depth. θ The complement of the angle between the direction that the teeth exert force on each other. a Radial distance from the pitch surface to the outermost point of the tooth. for involute gears. More generally. a = (Do − D) / 2 Dedendum. is a straight line. Outside diameter. b Radial distance from the depth of the tooth trough to the pitch surface. measured at the base of the tooth. Angle of action Angle with vertex at the gear center. For involute gears. the teeth always exert force along the line of action. the surface formed by the sum of all the pitch circles as one moves along the axis. Pressure angle. Arc of action Segment of a pitch circle subtended by the angle of action. and the line joining the centers of the two gears.[4] Example for pinion: Pitch surface In cylindrical gears. and thus. Addendum. one leg on the point where mating teeth first make contact. For bevel gears it is a cone.

distance from one face of a tooth to the corresponding face of an adjacent tooth on the same gear. p Distance from one face of a tooth to the corresponding face of an adjacent tooth on the same gear. The subscript n usually indicates the normal. Normal circular pitch. Base pitch. Transverse circular pitch. pb In involute gears. Interference Contact between teeth other than at the intended parts of their surfaces. where the tooth profile is the involute of the base circle. p Circular pitch in the plane of rotation of the gear. ψ Angle between a tangent to the helix and the gear axis. pn Circular pitch in the plane normal to the teeth. The radius of the base circle is somewhat smaller than that of the pitch circle. pd Ratio of the number of teeth to the pitch diameter. the sum of their operating addendums. measured along the base circle. any of which will mate properly with any other. Diametral pitch. Base circle In involute gears. .Working depth Depth of engagement of two gears. Could be measured in teeth per inch or teeth per centimeter. measured along the pitch circle. Sometimes just called "circular pitch". Is zero in the limiting case of a spur gear. that is. pn = pcos(ψ) Several other helix parameters can be viewed either in the normal or transverse planes. Helical gear nomenclature Helix angle. Circular pitch. normal pitch. Interchangeable set A set of gears.

Pitch diameter. For a single-thread worm. Lead angle. Note that for a worm it is still measured in a plane perpendicular to the gear axis. dw Same as described earlier in this list.Worm gear nomenclature Lead Distance from any point on a thread to the corresponding point on the next turn of the same thread. Tooth contact nomenclature Line of contact Path of action Line of action Plane of action Lines of contact (helical gear) Arc of action Length of action Limit diameter . not a tilted plane. measured parallel to the axis. λ Angle between a tangent to the helix and a plane perpendicular to the axis. lead and linear pitch are the same. subscript g denotes the gear. p Distance from any point on a thread to the corresponding point on the adjacent thread. Note that it is the complement of the helix angle which is usually given for helical gears. Subscript w denotes the worm. measured parallel to the axis. Linear pitch.

parallel-axis gears with either spur or helical teeth. It is tangent to the base cylinders.Face advance Zone of action Point of contact Any point at which two tooth profiles touch each other. Line of contact A line or curve along which two tooth surfaces are tangent to each other. the path of action passes through the pitch point. Plane of action The surface of action for involute. Path of contact The curve on either tooth surface along which theoretical single point contact occurs during the engagement of gears with crowned tooth surfaces or gears that normally engage with only single point contact. parallel axis gears with either spur or helical teeth. Zone of action (contact zone) For involute. For conjugate gear teeth. It is the trace of the surface of action in the plane of rotation. Surface of action The imaginary surface in which contact occurs between two engaging tooth surfaces. Line of action The path of action for involute gears. It is the straight line passing through the pitch point and tangent to both base circles. is the rectangular area in the plane of action bounded by the length of action and the effective face width. Path of action The locus of successive contact points between a pair of gear teeth. Length of action . It is the summation of the paths of action in all sections of the engaging teeth. during the phase of engagement.

In a simple way. Arc of approach. mo For bevel gears. εβ The contact ratio in an axial plane. Transverse contact ratio. εα The contact ratio in a transverse plane. Arc of action. It is the ratio of the angle of action to the angular pitch. εγ The sum of the transverse contact ratio and the face contact ratio. Contact ratio. the square root of the sum of the squares of the transverse and face contact ratios. Qa The arc of the pitch circle through which a tooth profile moves from its beginning of contact until the point of contact arrives at the pitch point. Qr The arc of the pitch circle through which a tooth profile moves from contact at the pitch point until contact ends. Qt The arc of the pitch circle through which a tooth profile moves from the beginning to the end of contact with a mating profile. ε The number of angular pitches through which a tooth surface rotates from the beginning to the end of contact. or the ratio of the face width to the axial pitch. Arc of recess. Limit diameter . mt. For involute gears it is most directly obtained as the ratio of the length of action to the base pitch. Total contact ratio. it can be defined as a measure of the average number of teeth in contact during the period in which a tooth comes and goes out of contact with the mating gear.The distance on the line of action through which the point of contact moves during the action of the tooth profile. For bevel and hypoid gears it is the ratio of face advance to circular pitch. Face contact ratio. mF. εγ = εα + εβ mt = mp + mF Modified contact ratio. mc. mp.

Normal circular thickness Long and short addendum teeth .Diameter on a gear at which the line of action intersects the maximum (or minimum for internal pinion) addendum circle of the mating gear. This is also referred to as the start of active profile. Transverse circular thickness Circular thickness in the transverse plane. on the specified datum circle. Face advance Distance on a pitch circle through which a helical or spiral tooth moves from the position at which contact begins at one end of the tooth trace on the pitch surface to the position where contact ceases at the other end. or the end of active profile. Start of active profile (SAP) Intersection of the limit diameter and the involute profile. the end of contact. the start of contact. Tooth thickness nomeclature Chordal Tooth thickness Thickness relationships thickness Tooth thickness measurement over pins Span measurement Circular thickness Length of arc between the two sides of a gear tooth.

Axial thickness In helical gears and worms. not necessarily the standard pitch diameter. It is used to specify the tooth thickness. Profile shift Displacement of the basic rack datum line from the reference cylinder. Chordal addendum (chordal height) Height from the top of the tooth to the chord subtending the circular thickness arc. made nondimensional by dividing by the normal module. Span measurement Measurement of the distance across several teeth in a normal plane. Any convenient measuring diameter may be selected. It is used to specify the tooth thickness. tooth thickness in an axial cross section at the standard pitch diameter. made non-dimensional by dividing by the normal module. This measurement is used to determine tooth thickness. often for zero backlash. a datum surface or either one or two pins positioned in the tooth space or spaces opposite the first.Circular thickness in the normal plane. Rack shift Displacement of the tool datum line from the reference cylinder. As long as the measuring device has parallel measuring surfaces that contact on an . not necessarily the standard pitch diameter. Normal chordal thickness Length of the chord that subtends a circular thickness arc in the plane normal to the pitch helix. length of arc on the base circle between the two involute curves forming the profile of a tooth. Base circular thickness In involute teeth. The reference surface may be the reference axis of the gear. Any convenient measuring diameter may be selected. In a helical gear it may be considered as the length of arc along a normal helix. Measurement over pins Measurement of the distance taken over a pin positioned in a tooth space and a reference surface.

or axial directions. It is used to determine tooth thickness.[4] It is a dimension measured along a line or curve in the transverse. and for this reason it is preferable to use specific designations such as transverse circular pitch. p Tooth pitch Base pitch relationshipsPrincipal pitches Arc distance along a specified pitch circle or pitch line between corresponding profiles of adjacent teeth. pn.000 divided by the normal diametral pitch.000 divided by the normal diametral pitch.unmodified portion of the involute. Full-depth teeth Teeth in which the working depth equals 2. one or both of which have non-standard addendum. Modified addendum teeth Teeth of engaging gears. normal. Pitch nomenclature Pitch is the distance between a point on one tooth and the corresponding point on an adjacent tooth. the measurement will be along a line tangent to the base cylinder. normal base pitch. Normal circular pitch. pt Circular pitch in the transverse plane. Equal addendum teeth Teeth in which two engaging gears have equal addendums. Long and short-addendum teeth Teeth in which the addendums of two engaging gears are unequal. Pitch Circular pitch. The use of the single word pitch without qualification may be ambiguous. Transverse circular pitch. pe . Stub teeth Teeth in which the working depth is less than 2. axial pitch.

Diametral pitch (transverse). In gearing of other types. usually expressed in radians. and the base pitch is the constant and fundamental distance between them along a common normal in a transverse plane. It exists because there is always some gap between the trailing face of the driving tooth and the leading face of the tooth behind it on the driven gear. px Linear pitch in an axial plane and in a pitch surface. θN. axial pitch has the same value at all diameters. and also the length of the arc along the normal pitch helix between helical teeth or threads. It is the normal distance between parallel helical involute surfaces on the plane of action in the normal plane. one could . pbt In an involute gear. pb. Pd Ratio of the number of teeth to the standard pitch diameter in inches. Pnd Value of diametral pitch in a normal plane of a helical gear or worm. The term "backlash" can also be used to refer to the size of the gap. The term axial pitch is preferred to the term linear pitch. thus. not just the phenomenon it causes. or is the length of arc on the normal base helix.Circular pitch in the normal plane. Normal base pitch. Normal diametral pitch. degrees or radians Backlash Main article: Backlash (engineering) Backlash is the error in motion that occurs when gears change direction. pN. Angular pitch. In helical gears and worms. It is a constant distance in any helical involute gear. The axial pitch of a helical worm and the circular pitch of its worm gear are the same. Corresponding sides of involute gear teeth are parallel curves. Transverse base pitch. τ Angle subtended by the circular pitch. pbn An involute helical gear is the base pitch in the normal plane. and that gap must be closed before force can be transferred in the new direction. the pitch on the base circle or along the line of action. axial pitch may be confined to the pitch surface and may be a circular measurement. Axial pitch.

automobiles) it is necessary to alter the gear ratio to suit the task. for example.g. the other half placed alongside it. This fact has been utilized in analyzing vehicle generated sound since the late 1960s. and has been incorporated into the simulation of . backlash can be minimised through one of several techniques." A pair of gears could be designed to have zero backlash.speak of a pair of gears as having. Shifting of gears In some machines (e. the gear can be split along a plane perpendicular to the axis. but with springs between the two halves providing relative torque between them. For example: Manual transmission Automatic gearbox Derailleur gears which are actually sprockets in combination with a roller chain Hub gears (also called epicyclic gearing or sun-and-planet gears) There are several outcomes of gear shifting in motor vehicles. but this would presuppose perfection in manufacturing. such as instrumentation and control.. For situations. in effect. there are higher pollutant emissions generated in the lower gears. "0. a single gear with expanding teeth. Therefore. There are several methods of accomplishing this. where precision is important.1 mm of backlash. however. Another method involves tapering the teeth in the axial direction and providing for the gear to be slid in the axial direction to take up slack. the backlash is usually taken entirely off the gear and the pinion is given full sized teeth. uniform thermal expansion characteristics throughout the system. In the case of air pollution emissions. For instance. one half fixed to the shaft in the usual manner. there are higher sound levels emitted when the vehicle is engaged in lower gears. when the engine is working harder than when higher gears have been attained. free to rotate about the shaft. It is usually provided by reducing the tooth thickness of each gear by half the desired gap distance. In the case of vehicle noise emissions. Backlash can also be provided by moving the gears farther apart. gear pairs are designed to have some backlash. so that one achieves. In the case of a large gear and a small pinion. and no lubricant.

it is possible to develop a tooth profile for the mating gear that will give a constant velocity ratio. normal. They are the cycloid and the involute. Cycloidal gears are still used in mechanical clocks.urban roadway noise and corresponding design of urban noise barriers along roadways. Cycloidal gears only work properly if the center spacing is exactly right. and it permits the center to center spacing of the gears to vary over some range without ruining the constancy of the velocity ratio. and in many cases. two constant velocity tooth profiles have been by far the most commonly used in modern times. such as the transverse. however the involute has two advantages: it is easier to manufacture. Usually a profile is the curve of intersection of a tooth surface and a plane or surface normal to the pitch surface. The cycloid was more common until the late 1800s.2 As mentioned near the beginning of the article. particularly in drive train applications. The fillet curve (root fillet) is the concave portion of the tooth profile where it joins the bottom of the tooth space. or axial plane. There are a great many tooth profiles that will give a constant velocity ratio. the attainment of a non fluctuating velocity ratio is dependent on the profile of the teeth. . since then the involute has largely superseded it. The cycloid is in some ways the more interesting and flexible shape. However. given an arbitrary tooth shape. Friction and wear between two gears is also dependent on the tooth profile. Tooth profile Undercut Profile of a spur gear A profile is one side of a tooth in a cross section between the outside circle and the root circle.

Undercut may be deliberately introduced to facilitate finishing operations. With undercut the fillet curve intersects the working profile.RA =R+Addendum v)Length of path of contact .An undercut is a condition in generated gear teeth when any part of the fillet curve lies inside of a line drawn tangent to the working profile at its point of juncture with the fillet. Without undercut the fillet curve and the working profile have a common tangent. Formulae used: i)Addendum = πm/4 ii)Pitch circle radius of pinion .r = m Tp/2 iii)Pitch circle radii of Gear wheel .KL = KP+ PL vi) Length of arc of contact = KL / cos Φ vii) Number of teeth in contact = length of arc of contact / Circular pitch (P c) .R= mTA/2 iv)Addendum radius of gear wheel .

let's take a close look at one of the blocks and the table: Because friction exists at the microscopic level. Friction force versus weight To understand why this is. and some of them may actually weld together. When you set the block down on the table. but one is heavier. they are actually quite rough at the microscopic level. the little peaks and valleys get squished together. Even though the blocks look smooth to the naked eye. the amount of force it takes to move a given block is proportional to that block's weight. Both of the blocks are made from the same material. Take a look at the figure below. I think we all know which one will be harder for the bulldozer to push. The .Unit V FRICTION Friction Friction is a measure of how hard it is to slide one object over another.

0 in our example. the greater the stopping force. where a pad is pressed against a spinning disc. The type of material determines the coefficient of friction. it is harder to slide rubber against rubber than it is to slide steel against steel. for instance. then it would take 10 pounds of force to slide to the 100-pound block or 40 pounds of force to slide the 400pound block. the ratio of the force required to slide the block to the block's weight. with no gaps. see Clutch (disambiguation). To disengage. This concept applies for devices like brakes and clutches.1. The more force that presses on the pad. causing a white pressure plate (right) to disengage the green clutch disc from turning the drive shaft. Never will all 3 rings connect. the more force required. the lever is pulled (black arrow). If the coefficient were 0. Clutch for a drive shaft: The clutch disc (center) spins with the flywheel (left). then it would take 100 pounds of force to slide the 100-pound (45 kg) block. so it is even harder to slide. So the amount of force it takes to move a given block is proportional to that block's weight. which turns within the thrust-bearing ring of the lever. The more weight. .weight of the heavier block causes it to squish together more. Different materials have different microscopic structures. or 400 pounds (180 kg) of force to slide the 400-pound block. If the coefficient were 1. Clutch For other uses.

In these devices. one shaft is typically attached to a motor or other power unit (the driving member). Clutches are useful in devices that have two rotating shafts. typically by connecting the driven mechanism to the driving mechanism. . looking at the clutch housing on the flywheel Single. A clutch is a mechanical device. The splined hub is attached to the disc with springs to damp chatter. Clutches and brakes are similar. dry. by convention understood to be rotating. which provides driving force to another mechanism when required. In a drill. and the other shaft (the driven member) provides output power for work to be done. it serves as a brake. clutch friction disc. if the driven member of a clutch is fixed to the mechanism frame.Rear side of a Ford V6 engine.

This kind of start is necessary and desirable in drag racing and other competitions. and on other considerations. and the other drives a drill chuck.for instance. motorcycles. jerky start. Clutches found in heavy duty applications such as trucks and competition cars use ceramic clutches that have a greatly increased friction coefficient. automatic transmissions and in some diesel locomotives with mechanical transmissions. where speed is more important than comfort. World rally and even most club racing. However. Wet clutches. tend to lose some energy to the liquid. Indy car. Friction discs once contained asbestos. pressed tightly together or against a flywheel using springs. raising the engine speed too high while engaging the clutch will cause excessive clutch plate wear. Engaging the clutch abruptly when the engine is turning at high speed causes a harsh. It is also used in some electronically controlled allwheel drive systems. The clutch connects the two shafts so that they can either be locked together and spin at the same speed (engaged). Multiple plate clutch This type of clutch has several driving members interleaved with several driven members. A "dry clutch". The spring pressure is released when the clutch pedal is depressed thus either pushing or pulling the diaphragm of the pressure plate. depending on type. Since the surfaces of a wet clutch can be slippery (as with a . which also keeps the surfaces clean and gives smoother performance and longer life. It is used in race cars including F1. However. dry A "wet clutch" is immersed in a cooling lubricating fluid. as the name implies. one shaft is driven by a motor. The friction material varies in composition depending on whether the clutch is dry or wet. however. but most are based on one or more friction discs. these have a "grabby" action and are unsuitable for road cars. but this has been largely eliminated. Vehicular There are different designs of vehicle clutch. or be decoupled and spin at different speeds (disengaged). Wet vs. is not bathed in fluid.

called dog teeth. smooth engagement would be nearimpossible. stacking multiple clutch disks can compensate for the lower coefficient of friction and so eliminate slippage under power when fully engaged. rather than on friction. Push/Pull . Even though the clutch may physically be located very close to the pedal. such remote means of actuation are necessary to eliminate the effect of vibrations and slight engine movement. which means that the rotation speeds of the two parts have a synchronizer. A manual transmission contains cogs for selecting gears. a device that uses frictional contact to bring the two parts to the same speed. and a locking mechanism called a blocker ring to prevent engagement of the teeth (full movement of the shift lever into gear) until the speeds are synchronized. engine mountings being flexible by design. Automobiles This plastic pilot shaft guide tool is used to align the clutch disk as the spring-loaded pressure plate is installed." No pressure on the pedal means that the clutch plates are engaged (driving). These cogs have matching teeth. The Hele-Shaw clutch was a wet clutch that relied entirely on viscous effects. With a rigid mechanical linkage. The transmission's drive splines and pilot shaft have an identical shape.motorcycle clutch bathed in engine oil). because engine movement inevitably occurs as the drive is "taken up. A number of such devices fit various makes and models of drivetrains In a car the clutch is operated by the left-most pedal using a hydraulic or cable connection from the pedal to the clutch mechanism. On older cars the clutch would be operated by a mechanical linkage. while pressing the pedal disengages the clutch plates. allowing the driver to shift gears or coast.

Ceramic materials can be used in heavy applications such as trucks carrying large loads or racing however. Nowadays. Modern clutch development focuses its attention on the simplification of the overall assembly and/or manufacturing methods for example drive straps are now commonly employed to transfer torque as well as lift the pressure plate upon disengagement of vehicle drive.000rpm with the weakest point being the facing rivet. an organic resin and copper wire facing or a Ceramic material. the action of pressing the pedal pulls the release bearing. pulling on the diaphragm spring and disengaging the vehicle drive. which reduce driveline vibration. Bursts speeds are typically around 5.35ų for an organic and 0.25 for ceramic. For trucks. They are fully compressed and no longer in use once drive is taken up by the main dampener springs. predampeners are used to reduce gear rattle at idle due to changing the natural frequency of the disc. The opposite is true with a push type. With regards to the manufacture of diaphragm springs. the release bearing can be known as a thrust bearing (as per the image above).Clutches can be classified as Push Type Or Pull Type depending on the location of the pressure plate fulcrum points. In this instance. heat treatment is crucial. Drive straps are the smaller [Design Experience 2008–present] . FACTS Various materials have been used for the disc friction facings. A clamp load of 33Kn is normal for a single plate 430 whereas a 400 Twin for the Mercedes application offers a clamp load of a mere 23. As well as the dampened disc centres. including asbestos in the past. In a pull type clutch. These are weaker springs which will be compressed solely by the radial vibrations from an idling engine. however.000N. since the material is harder than the organic material it increases flywheel and pressure plate wear. the release bearing is pushed into the clutch disengaging the vehicle drive. Laser welding is becoming more common as a method of attaching the drive plate to the disc ring with the laser typically being between 2-3KW and a feed rate 1m/minute. A typical coefficient of friction used on a disc friction surface is 0.

When the temperature is low. One type of plate has lugs on its inner diameter that key it to the engine crankshaft. No pressure on the lever means that the clutch plates are engaged (driving). The plates are forced together by a set of coil springs or a diaphragm spring plate when the clutch is engaged. As the temperature of the spring rises.Non-powertrain in automobiles There are other clutches found in a car. it unwinds and opens the valve. while pulling the lever back towards the rider will disengage the clutch plates through cable or hydraulic actuation. the clutch is operated by the clutch lever. the spring winds and closes the valve. can lead to instability. a belt-driven engine cooling fan may have a clutch that is heat-activated. which. The driving and driven elements are separated by a silicone-based fluid and a valve controlled by a bimetallic spring. There are also electronically engaged clutches (such as for an air conditioning compressor) that use magnetic force to lock the driving and driven shafts together. allowing the rider to shift gears. when the engine is accelerated above certain rpm. using centrifugal effects to automatically engage the clutch. which allows the fan to spin at about 20% to 30% of the shaft speed. while the other type of plate has lugs on its outer diameter that key it to a basket that turns the transmission input shaft. allowing fluid past the valve which allows the fan to spin at about 60% to 90% of shaft speed depending on whether it's a regular or heavy-duty clutch. Racing motorcycles often use slipper clutches to eliminate the effects of engine braking. see Saxomat and Variomatic. located on the left handlebar. Motorcycle clutches are usually made up of a stack of alternating plain steel and friction plates. For example. . Motorcycles On most motorcycles. being applied only to the rear wheel. Centrifugal Some cars and mopeds have a centrifugal clutch.

or Safety clutch:: This device allows a rotating shaft to "slip" when higher than normal resistance is encountered on a machine. the clutch effectively disengages. As well. Positive engagement. The cone's taper meant that a given amount of movement of the actuator made the surfaces approach (or recede) much more slowly than in a disc clutch. Torque limiter. Such a clutch was an essential part of the Borg-Warner Overdrive in cars. this type converts that motion into intermittent rotary motion. stump. Centrifugal clutch and semi-centrifugal clutch: When the driving shaft is running slowly. on approaching a hill the engine speed is increased. a given amount of actuating force created more pressure on the mating surfaces. Typical bicycles have these. Other clutches Dog clutches: Described above. Some types are ratchets with the pawl mounted on a moving member. non-slip. Partial engagement under any significant load is destructive. Overrunning clutch or freewheel: If some external torque makes the driven member rotate faster than the driver.) Carefully-designed types disengage (but continue to transmit torque) in such tools as controlled-torque screwdrivers. it engages when the driven member speeds up. . slip clutch. between the drive motor and gear train. or other immobile object. Cone clutches: Friction clutches. Motor-driven mechanical calculators had these. The clutch will "slip" or "give" if the blades hit a rock.Mopeds also use centrifugal clutches. If one member oscillates. to limit damage when the mechanism jammed. engaging the clutch to assist with the climb. One example is in engine-driven radio-controlled model cars. among others are (silent) wrap-spring types. On the flat they may be pedalled manually. such as the brake for a film camera's winding knob that keeps it from being turned backwards. (Motors had high stall torque. so that the rider can stop pedaling and coast. the clutch is disengaged. distinguished by conical friction surfaces. An example of a safety clutch is the one mounted on the driving shaft of a large grass mower.

although with some drag. coupling is hydrodynamic. When "tripped". Rotating the driving member the other way makes the spring wrap itself tightly around the driving surface. magnetic particle clutches have a space between driving and driven members that also serve as pole pieces of an electromagnet. The spring fits closely around a cylindrical driving member. such as the Teletype page printers. Double Dry Clutch Single-revolution clutch: When inactive. Single-revolution clutches in teleprinters were of this type. and the driven member is stationary. it is disengaged. Typically. Applying DC causes the particles to clump together and adhere to the operating surfaces. Variants include half-revolution (and other fractional-revolution) types. notably the IBM Selectric. and the clutch locks up. the spring expands minutely and slips. The other end of the spring was attached to the driven member. Wrap-spring clutches: These have a helical spring wound with square-crosssection wire. the clutch remains engaged. the Marchant had several of them. but nevertheless close to it. One end of the spring was attached to a sleeve surrounding the spring. like a ratchet tooth. Engagement and slippage are notably smooth. If the driving member rotates in the direction that would unwind the spring. Electromagnetic clutch: Typically. as well as electric typewriters. The sleeve had a projecting tooth. They are also used in farm machinery and industry. If the trip mechanism is operated when the clutch would otherwise disengage. it locks up solidly (typically in milliseconds or tens of ms) and rotates the driven member just one full turn. the spring is fastened at one end to the driven member. the spring was kept expanded (details below) and mostly out of contact with the driving sleeve. They were also found in motor-driven mechanical calculators. However.Hydraulic clutch: The driving and driven members are not in physical contact. Basically. a clutch that is engaged by an electromagnet that is usually an integral part of the clutch assembly. A spring-loaded pawl pressed . In simple form. these were a variety of dog clutch. inside which the drive shaft could rotate freely. its other end is unattached. These were an essential part of printing telegraphs.

These clutches had long operating lives. and the pawl moved close to the sleeve. but the wrap was so effective that the lubricant did not defeat the grip. the driven mechanism coasted. Together with the restraint at the other end of the spring. When the clutch locked up. when the clutch was tripped. cycling for tens. As well. created by the trip pawl and sleeve tooth. this kept the spring expanded to minimize contact with the driving cylinder. "Cascaded-Pawl" single-revolution clutches: These superseded wrap-spring single-revolution clutches in page printers (such as teleprinters). the sleeve and the load's inertia unwrapped the spring to disengage the clutch. wear would be excessive. These clutches were lubricated with conventional oil. and its inertia rotated the disc until a tooth on it engaged a pawl that kept it from reversing. the load torque on the first pawl . so it didn't slip once engaged. maybe hundreds of millions of cycles without need of maintenance other than occasional lubrication with recommended oil. the spring could not be allowed to stay in close contact with the driving cylinder. Inside the hollow disc-shaped housing were two or three freely-floating pawls arranged so that. Considering that the drive motors in some of these (such as teleprinters for news wire services) ran 24 hours a day for years. The wrap spring's torque kept the sleeve's tooth pressing against the pawl. If the pawl were held away from the sleeve. When the clutch was to disengage.against the sleeve and kept it from rotating. which permitted the spring to contract and wrap tightly around the driving sleeve. Load torque tightened the wrap. The wrap spring's torque rotated the sleeve. The other end of the spring was fastened to a thick disc attached to the driven member. power was disconnected from the electromagnet. including the Model 28 Teletype (and its successors using the same design principles). To engage the clutch. When the sleeve's tooth contacted the pawl. the IBM Selectric typewriter had several of them. These were typically disc-shaped assemblies mounted on the drive shaft. an electromagnet attracted the pawl away from the sleeve. the clutch would continue to drive the load without slipping.

Many different types of synchronous clock motors were used. "Kickback" clutch-brakes: These mechanisms were found in some types of synchronous-motor-driven electric clocks. Surface contacts: Basic laws of friction Pivot and collar. but also had some spring action. the first pawl engaged. Problems on conical pivot. The spring did not rotate. the clutch was disengaged. introduction and types. in detail. wear did not seem to be a problem. the other free. it would quickly unlock the clutch. it would stay locked up if the trip lever were out of the way. The clutch-brake locked up when rotated backwards. it was simply a compliant mechanism. but. it re-started the motor in the correct direction. Coupled to the rotor by one (or possibly two) stages of reduction gearing was a wrap-spring clutch-brake. which in turn kept the third one engaged. This sequence happened quite fast. Some designs had no explicit spring as such. Problem on flat pivot. One end was fixed. Some types of self-starting synchronous motors always started when power was applied. As it "unwound". but if it engaged. once locked up. The inertia of the rotor going backwards engaged the clutch and "wound" the spring. As the clutch rotated. The mechanism was lubricated. Sliding and Rolling friction: Sliding contact bearings Rolling contact bearings Problems in bearings . on the order of milliseconds. including the pre-World War II Hammond manual-start clocks. It rode freely but closely on the rotating member. 35. creating the cascaded lockup just described. part of the clock's gear train. and they were equally likely to start rotating in the wrong direction. The first pawl had a projection that engaged a trip lever.to engage created force to keep the second pawl engaged. 36. their behavior was chaotic. When the trip lever moved out of the way. The clutch did not slip. If the lever engaged the pawl.

Friction drives: .37.

Friction in screw threads: Friction in screw and nut Friction in screw jack Problems in screw jack 39. Friction clutches: CLUTCH FRICTION .Friction drives Positive drives and Slip drives Speed ratio 38.

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Single plate clutches and Multi-plate clutches Uniform wear theory and Uniform pressure theory Problems in clutches 40. Belt and rope drives: Pulleys .

BELT DRIVES V Belt Drives .

Timing Belts Poly V Belt Drives .

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ROPE DRIVES .

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Belt drives. Friction aspects in Brakes: BRAKES . Open belt drives and Crossed belt drives Length of the belt and Angle of lap Power transmitted by a belt drive Problems in belt drives 41.

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Brakes. Types Mechanical brakes. Friction in vehicle propulsion and braking: Vehicle dynamics Vehicle propulsions Braking aspects in vehicles . band brakes Braking torque calculations Self locking brakes Problems in brakes 42.

6. (8) b) Classify and explain the Kinematic pair. What is ‗mechanical advantage‘ in a mechanism? 9. (16) . With the help of a neat sketch explain the working of Whitworth quick return mechanism. Define degree of freedom (or) what is mean by mobility? 2. (8) 3. (16) 7. 10. State the Kutzback criterion. a) Explain different types of Link. (8) 2. With the help of a neat sketch explain the working of Single slider and double slider crank chain mechanism. PART-B (16 Marks) 1. (8) b) Explain the first inversion of Single Slider Crank Chain. Compare machine and structure? 5. (8) 4. (8) b) Explain Straight line mechanism with neat sketch (8) 5. 11. How to determine the given assemblies of links forms the kinamatic chain or not? 3. Give some examples for kinamatic pairs. a) Explain first inversion of Double Slider crank chain. a)With the help of a neat sketch explain the working of Oldham‘s coupling.QUESTION BANK Subject Name: Kinematics of Machinery UNIT. 7. What is meant by ‗Transmission angle‘? 8.I (Basics of Mechanism) PART-A (2 Marks) 1. (8) b) Explain steering gear mechanism with neat sketch (8) 6. (8) b) Explain third inversion of double slider crank chain. Difference between mechanism and machine. a) Explain any two inversion of four bar chain. Write down the grashof‘s law for four bar mechanism. What is pantograph? 4. Discuss ‗Elliptical trammel‘. a) Explain the offset slider crank mechanism.

The crank speed is 600 rpm clockwise. A cam is to give the following motion to a knife edged follower: .blocks B and D. (16) UNIT III (Kinematics of Cam) PART-A (2 Marks) 1. Determine (i)velocity of . the crank shaft speed is 600 r. In a slider crank mechanism. the length of crank OB and Connecting rod AB are 125 mm and 500 mm respectively. Define pressure angle with respect to cams./ The crank [position is 45° from IDC. Define Lift (or) Stroke in cam. How it occurs? 9. (2) Angular velocity of CD (3) Linear acceleration of D and (4) angular acceleration of CD. What do you know about gravity cam? PART-B (16 Marks) 1. the length of the crank and the connecting rod are 100 mm and 400 mm respectively.m. When the crank has turned 45° from the IDC. Define undercutting in cam. clockwise. slider‘ A‘ (ii)Angular Velocity of connecting rod ‗AB‘. and (2) Angular velocity and angular acceleration of the connecting rod. Give some examples for cams 3. 8. find. What do you know about Nomogram? 11. What is the maximum acceleration of a follower moving with cycloidal motion? 4.(16) 6. Where are the roller follower extensively used? 7. What is a cam? 2. (16) 4 a)Derive the expressions for Velocity and acceleration of piston in reciprocating steam engine mechanism with neat sketch (8) b).p. for given configuration: (1) Velocity of sliding at B and D. Define tangent cam? 5. What are the different motions of the follower? 6. Locate all instantaneous centers of the slider crank mechanism. Using analytical method Determine (1)Velocity and acceleration of the slider. How can you prevent undercutting in cam ? 12. 10.Derive the expression for Coriolis component of acceleration with neat sketch (8) 5.

determine the maximum velocity and acceleration of the follower during the outward stroke and return stroke.m. (16) 2. Then the follower lowers down during 150° of cam rotation with uniform acceleration and retardation followed by a dwell period.p. with a minimum radius of 50 mm. followed by a dwell period of 30°. The cam lifts the follower for 120° with SHM.. The displacement of the follower is to take place with simple harmonic motion during both the outward and return strokes. If the cam rotates at 300 r. Draw the profile of a cam operating a Knife-edged follower from the following data: (a) Follower to move outward through 40 mm during 60° of a cam rotation. rotating clockwise at a uniform speed. (16) 3. lift=30mm. and (b) the axis of the follower is offset by 20 mm from the axis of the cam shaft. (b) Follower to dwell for the next 45° (c) Follower to return its original position during next 90° (d)Follower to dwell for the rest of cam rotation. (b) to dwell for next 80° (c) To return to its starting position during next 90 ° and (d) To dwell for the rest period of revolution. The least radius of the cam is 50mm. is required to giver a knife-edged follower the motion as described below: (a) To move outwards through 40 mm during 100° rotation of the cam. . Roller diameter= 15mm.(a) Outstroke during 60° of cam rotation (b) Dwell for the next 45° of cam rotation (c) Return stroke during next 90° of cam rotation and (d) Dwell for the remaining of cam rotation The stroke of the follower is 40 mm and the minimum radius of the cam is 50 mm. (16) 4.m. A cam. The follower moves with uniform velocity during both the outstroke and return strokes.p. If the cam rotates at a uniform speed of 150 RPM. Draw the profile of a cam operating a roller reciprocating follower and with the following data: Minimum radius of cam =25 mm. Draw the profile of the cam when (a) the axis of the follower passes through the axis of the cam shaft. Determine the maximum velocity and acceleration of the follower when the cam shaft rotates at 900 r. Draw the profile of the cam (i) When the line of stroke of the follower passes through the centre of the cam shaft and (ii) When the line of stroke of the follower is to take place with Uniform acceleration and uniform retardation.

2. 7.The cam speed is 600 rpm . (iii) Follower to return to its initial position during 120° of cam rotation.5 mm for a cam rotation of 75°. Mention two methods to transmit power between two wheels when the distance between them Is great? 9.Calculate the maximum velocity and acceleration of follower during the descent period. (16) UNIT-IV (Gears) PART-A (2 Marks) 1.Where the epicyclic gear trains are used? PART-B (16 Marks) 1. Define circular pitch and diametral pitch in spur gears. State the methods to find the velocity ratio of epicyclic gear train.5 mm addendum. A tangent cam to drive a roller follower through a total lift of 12. The out stroke of the follower is performed with SHM and return stroke with equal uniform acceleration and retardation. Define cycloidal tooth profile and involute tooth profile. The distance between cam centre and follower centre at full lift is 45 mm and the roller is 20 mm in diameter. 8.5 mm have 19 ad 47 teeth of 20° pressure angle and 6. velocity and acceleration for one full cycle. a) Two mating spur gear with module pitch of 6. 5. What you meant by non-standard gear teeth? 4. What are the standard interchangeable tooth profiles. (16) 5. (ii) Follower to dwell for 30° of cam rotation. What are the methods to avoid interference? 3. Determine the number of pair of teeth and angle turned through by the larger wheel for one pair of teeth in contact. Determine . Find the cam proportions and plot displacement. (iv) Follower to dwell for remaining 90° of cam rotation. It is required to set out the profile of a cam to give the following motion to the reciprocating follower with a flat mushroom contact surface: (i) Follower to have a stroke of 20 mm during 120° of cam rotation. What are the externally applied torques used to keep the gear train in equilibrium ? 10. (16) 6. The minimum radius of the cam is 25 mm. 6. Define Backlash.

also the sliding velocity at the instant (i)engagement commences (ii) engagement terminates. The arc of approach is not be less than the circular pitch and the smaller wheel is the driver. When the pitch line velocity is 1. Assume pinion to be driver. Does the interference occur? If it occurs. In an epicyclic gear train the internal wheels A and B and compound wheels C and D rotate independently about axis O. Determine (a) Sliding velocities at engagement and disengagement of a pair of teeth and (b) Contact ratio. E gears with . The teeth have 20° involute profile and the module is 6mm. (8) 3. Find the addendum. the number of teeth on the pinion is 20 and its speed is 250 rpm. the smaller gear rotates at 1000 rpm. (8) 3. if the addendum on each wheel wheel recess on each side are half the maximum possible length each. (8) b) The number of teeth on each of the two spur gears in mesh is 40. The angle of pressure is 14.5 What is the least number of teeth can be used on each wheel? What is the addendum of the wheel in terms of circular pitch? (8) b).2 m/s. A pair 20° full depth involute spur gear having 30 and 50 teeth respectively module 4 mm arc in mesh. The larger gear has 50 teeth and pinion 13 teeth. to what value should the pressure angle be changed to eliminate interference? (8) b) Two mating involute spur gears 20° pressure angle have a gear ratio of 2.75 times the circular pitch. a) Two 20° involute spur gears have a module of 10 mm.a) A pair of spur gear with involute teeth is to give a gear ratio of 4:1. The wheels E and F rotate on pins fixed to the arm G. (8) 2. The addendum is one module. find (1) the addendum for pinion and gear wheel (2) the length of arc of contact (3 the maximum velocity of sliding during approach and recess. The module pitch of the teeth is 12 mm. If the arc of contact is 1.

An epicyclic train is composed of a fixed annular wheel A having 150 teeth. The teeth are of involute form. Ther number of teeth on wheel A. (16) 7. pressure angle= 20°. The arm carries two wheels A and B having 36 and 45 teeth respectively. 48. Meshing with A is a wheel B which drives wheel D through an idle wheel C. TE = TF=18. the arm F carries two wheels A and D and a compound wheel B-C. D and C are 80. when wheel A is fixed and arm F makes 200 rpm clockwise. and (4) If the arm G makes 100 rpm clockwise and wheel A makes 10 rpm counter clockwise. addendum=one module. (2) The length of path and arc of contact. Wheel A meshes with wheel B and Wheel D meshes with wheel C. (16) 4. The wheel A is fixed and the arm rotates about the centre of wheel A. All the wheels have the same module and the number of teeth are: TC =28 TD=26. (16) 6. The arm of an epicyclic gear train rotates at 100 rpm in the anticlock wise direction. Find the speed of wheel B. D being concentric with A. makes 200 rpm (clockwise). Find the speed of wheel B. Determine (1) the number of teeth on the pinion to avoid interference on it and the corresponding number of teeth on the wheel. What will be the speed of B. find the speed of B . In a reverted epicyclic train. Wheel F gear with B and D. module=6mm. (16) 5. Two gear wheels mesh externally and are to give a velocity ratio of 3 to 1. (1) Sketch the arrangement. if the wheel A instead of being fixed. Wheels B and C are carried on arm which revolves clockwise at 100 rpm about the axis of A or D. (3)If the arm G makes 100 rpm clockwise and A is fixed. If the wheels B and D are having 25 teeth and 40 . Find the speed and direction of wheel D . The pinion rotates at 90 rpm. (2) Find the number of teeth on A and B.A and C . (3) the number of pairs of teeth in contact. and 72.

Axial intensity at pressure is not to exceed 160 KN/m2. What are the disadvantage of V-belt drive over flat belt ? 5. The gear B is carried on arm E.5 m and 1.0 m diameters connects two parallel shafts 4. If the gear D is fixed and arm rotates at 20 rpm. What is the centrifugal effect on belts? 4.(8) 2. (16) UNIT-V (Friction) PART-A (2 Marks) 1. Find (1) the exact length of the belt required (2) the power transmitted taking c. What is the condition of transmission of optimum or maximum power in belt drive? 6. The safe pull in each rope is 800 N and the mass of the rope is 0. the sun gear A has 50 external teeth and planet gear B has 25 external teeth.7 times the external radius. a) For a flat belt. The gear B meshes with gear D and gear A.teeth respectively. The mass of belt is 0. then find the speeds of gear A and B.4 kg per . _= Angle of contact between the belt and the pulley.6703 kg/m length.3. which rotates about the centre of annular gear D. What is the difference between cone clutch and centrifugal clutch. What is the efficiency of inclined plane ? 2. and μ= Coefficient of friction between the belt and the pulley. prove that T1/T2=eμ_ Where T1 and T2= Tension in the tight and slack sides of the belt.8 m apart. The internal radius is 80 mm and is 0. The smaller pulley is rotating at 600 rpm. (8) b) An open belt running over two pulley of 1. 7. (16) 8.a) A multiplate disc clutch transmits 55 KW of power at 1800 rpm. The initial ten in the belt is 3000 N. The sun planet gear of an epicyclic gear train. Coefficient of friction for the friction surfaces is 0. What do you mean by a brake ? 8. the annular D has 100 internal teeth. When is the Intensity of pressure acting brake shoe is assumed to be uniform? 10. 3. List out the commonly used breaks. Find the number of plates needed to transmit the required torque (8) b) A rope drive is required to transmit 230 KW from a pulley of 1m diameter running at 450 rpm. Explain self energizing 9. The coefficient of friction between the belt and pulleys is 0.1. find the number of teeth of C and the speed and sense of rotation of C. Why self-locking screw have lesser efficiency ? PART-B (16 Marks) 1.f tension into account.

Two pulley one 450 mm diameter and other 200mm dia are on parallel shaft 2.28.Two shaft whose centers are 1m apart are connected by a V belt drive. Find the work done in lifting the load and efficiency of the screw jack when (i) the load rotates with the screw. The density of the belt is 1100 kg/ mm3 coefficient of friction is 0. The external and internal diameter of the bearing surface of the loose head is 60 mm and 10mm respectively.1 m apart and are connected by a cross belt. The coefficient of friction for the screw as well as the bearing surface may be taken as 0. find the number of ropes required. If coefficient of friction is 0.25. Estimate number of belts required. density of leather is 1 kg/ m3 end thickness of belt is 10 mm.5 MPa. Find the length of the belt required and the power can be transmitted. (8) 5.A leather belt is required to transmit 7.meter length. The larger pulley rotates at 225 rpm. (8) 3. (8) b). It runs at 375 rpm. The driving pulley is supplied with 100 KW and has an effective diameter of 300 mm. A load of 20 KN is lifted through a distance of 170 mm. The angle of lap and groove angle 1600 and 450 respectively. (16) .5 kw from a pulley 1. and (ii) the load rests on the loose head which does not rotate with screw.2 m in diameter.3. The angle of groove on the pulley is 400 The permissible tension in 400 mm2 cross sectional area of the belt is 2.3. The angle entranced is 1650 and the coefficient of friction between the belt6 and the pulley is 0. running at 250 rpm.08. (16) 4.1 MPa. The maximum permissible tension in the belt is 1 KN and the coefficient of friction between the belt and the pulley is 0.The mean diameter of the screw jack having pitch of 10 mm is 50 mm. Determine the width of the belt taking C. If safe working stress for the leather belt is 1.F tension into account.a).

5. 2. Use both sides of the drawing sheet. Symbols used in the solutions should be explained at least once for each answer. Answer ALL questions. What is under cutting of gears? 9. Write down Kutzhback criterion to find the mobility of a planar mechanism. 2. List the classifications of cam followers based on shape. What is Kutzbach criterion for planar mechanism? . Answers without substituting the data in the equations will carry zero marks 7. 3. Define transmission angle and its significance. 6. 4. A3 size drawing sheet will be supplied on request. Sketches should be drawn neatly. T8248. Fold the drawing sheet to the size of the answer sheet and attach it. NOVEMBER 2006 1. 3. State the condition for transmission of maximum power in belt drives. 8. 10. What are the essential design features of high speed cams? 7. Differentiate between machine and mechanism.University Question Bank Instructions: (Given by University Examination question paper) 1. 8. Distinguish between sliding and rolling friction. 6. How will you determine the magnitude and direction of coriolis component of acceleration? 5. if necessary. Define (a) Module (b) Diametral Pitch of gears. 4. NOVEMBER 2006 11. 2 Marks Questions T8247. Give brief procedure for graphical constructions. Answers without units and with wrong units will carry less marks.

NOVEMBER 2007 31. 38. What is prime circle of a cam? What is the radial distance between the prime circle and base circle for a cam with knife edge follower? 27. State the Freudenstein's equation for a four-bar mechanism.12. MAY 2007 21. What are the classifications of cams based on contact surfaces? 16. 15. Explain briefly the use of differential in an automobile. 18. State the basic requirements for high speed cams. 22. 35. 17. Define Corioli's component of acceleration. Explain normal component of acceleration. Enumerate the difference between a Machine and a Structure. What is reverted gear train? . Explain briefly significance of friction in braking. What are the advantages of wire ropes over fabric ropes? R3456. State the expressions for maximum velocity and acceleration of a follower moves with Cycloidal motion. Define module of gears and its relation to circular pitch. Define Degree of Freedom and give the DOF for a shaft in a circular hole. 19. Differentiate diametral pitch and circular pitch of a friction wheel. What is axial pitch of a helical gear? 28. 13. 14. State the expressions for maximum velocity and acceleration of a follower moves with cycloidal motion. 24. State Corioli's law. What are timing belts? 20. List out the inversions of a double slider crank chain. List out the applications of epicyclic gear train. Sketch an exact straight line mechanism. What is Corioli's component of acceleration? 34. 25. with link proportions. 29. 32. 33. 23. 26. What is the condition of maximum efficiency of a Screw jack? 30. Define rubbing velocity. C3298. What is a circular arc cam? 36. 37. State Grashof‘s law for a four bar linkage.

47. 43. APRIL 2008 41. Determine maximum speed of sliding of tongue of intermediate piece in the slot in the flange if driving shaft is run at 250 rpm. 49. (ii) Sketch and explain oldham‘s coupling. Which type of screw thread is preferable in power transmission? 16 Marks Questions T8247. What is creep in the case of belt? 50. (6) (ii) Distance between two parallel shafts connected by oldham‘s coupling is 25 mm. Define degree of freedom. NOVEMBER 2006 1. 40. List out any four desirable characteristics of brake lining material. Define undercutting in Gears. Define interference in Gears. 42. 44. . Assume the output link (rocker) length as 50 mm and in the left extreme position it is vertical. What is higher pair? 45. (i) Define and explain inversion of mechanisms.25 with rocker swing angle as 75° clockwise. Define Grashoffs law. (4) (iii) Discuss the application of Grashoff‘s law in identifying the input and output motions of four-bar mechanism. 48. Define pitch curve of the cam. T3348. 46. Explain the coriolis component of acceleration. (6) 2. Diagrammatically represent the forces acting on a body when it slides either up or down on an inclined plane with out considering the effect of friction. (i) Describe Whitworth's quick return mechanism. Define pressure angle and explain the effect of different pressure angle.39. (6) (4) (iii) Design a four-bar crank rocker quick return mechanism to give a time ratio of 1.

(12) 5. (4) (ii) Crank of a slider crank mechanism rotates clockwise at a constant speed of 300 rpm. State the use of instantaneous centre method in kinematic analysis. Assume that the axis of knife edge follower passes through cam axis. (4) (ii) Draw the profile of a disc cam to give uniform motion and uniform velocity during outstroke of 25 mm to a knife edge follower during first half revolution. DC = 600 mm. Minimum radius of the cam is 25 mm. Return of cam is also of similar uniform motion with uniform velocity during remaining half revolution. Constant driving torque is 50 N-m. (12) (ii) Sketch a four-bar crank rocker mechanism in (1) Maximum transmission angle position and (2) toggle position where mechanical advantage is infinity. (4) (ii) Draw the profile of a cam to give following motion to a flat faced reciprocating . Determine the following. (i) Find the number of instantaneous centres for a six link mechanism. Determine the following: (1) Velocity of point B (2) Angular velocity of driven link CB (3) Mechanical advantage of mechanism in this position (4) Resisting torque. (i) Explain the following terms : (1) Prime circle (2) Pressure Angle related to cams. at a crank angle of 45° from inner dead centre position (1) Linear velocity and acceleration of the midpoint of connecting rod (2) Angular velocity and angular acceleration of the connecting rod. (i) Briefly explain the features of mushroom followers. crank and connecting rod are of lengths 150 mm and 600 respectively. (12) 6.(6) 3. CB = AB = 360 mm. (4) 4. Link DC is fixed and angle ADC is Driving link DA turns clockwise at 100 rpm. (i) A four bar mechanism DABC has the following dimensions : DA = 300 mm.

(i) Discuss the advantages of involute gear tooth profile. If the arm rotates at 150 rpm counter clockwise about center of A which is fixed.28. (4) Follower to dwell for remaining 90° of cam rotation. which runs at 90 rpm. (2) Follower to dwell for 30° of cam rotation (3) Follower to return to initial position during 120° of cam rotation. Also sketch the arrangement. Determine the number of ropes required. bevel and worm gears. (12) 7. (6) (ii) A rope drive transmits 600 kW from a pulley of effective diameter 4 m.follower. Determine: (1) Length of path of contact (2) Length of arc of contact and (3)contact ratio. The base circle radius is 40 mm and the follower axis coincides with cam axis of rotation. (4) (ii) Describe the advantages and applications of helical. (6) (iii) Discuss the necessity of differentials in automobiles. co-efficient of friction is 0. mass of rope is 1. determine speed of gear B. Minimum teeth on any gear shall be 12 to avoid interference and Maximum gear ratio in any one stage is 10 : 1. (1) Follower to have a stroke of 20 mm during 120° of cam rotation. Angle of lap is 160°. (6) (iii) In an epicyclic gear train.5 kg/m and allowable tension per rope is 2400 N. module of 8 mm and addendum of 1 module. (i) A pinion having 25 teeth drives a gear of 60 teeth. angle of groove is 45°. (4) 9. (6) (ii) Design a compound gear train for an exact train ratio of 180 : 1. (i) Discuss the advantages of V belts. the sum gear A and the planet gear B are having 36 and 45 teeth respectively. If the arm is locked and gear A rotates at 300 rpm what is the speed of gear B? (6) 8. Tooth profile is involute with pressure angle of 20°. (6) .

length of the path of contact. (12) 12. Another gear B having 20 teeth is gearing with A and also with annular fixed wheel D. Determine the addendum height for each gear wheel. (i) What is meant by interference in gears? What are the measures to eliminate the same? (4) (ii) An epicyclic train has a pinion A having 15 teeth. (i) Following data are for a screw jack. (6) T8248. Gear C is integral with B and meshes with another annular wheel E which is keyed to the shaft of driven unit. (6) (ii) Discuss the functions of clutches in automobiles. co-efficient of friction is 0.13. mean diameter of screw is 50 mm. with neat sketches. Determine torques to raise and lower 20 kN load and efficiency of jack.5 mm. Two mating gears have 20 and 40 involute teeth of module 10 mm and 20° pressure angle. NOVEMBER 2006 11. . (4) (iii) Derive the expression to determine the ratio of tensions in a flat belt drive. Sketch the arrangement and determine speed of machine for a motor speed of 1000 rpm. The arm rotates about driving shaft and carries compound gear B. Also determine torque on machine shaft for a motor torque of 100 N-m.(iii) Describe the features of internal expanding brakes used in automobiles. Screw pitch is 12. centrally located and rigidly connected to shaft of driving motor. The addendum on each wheel is to be made of such a length that the line of contact on each side of the pitch point has half the maximum possible length. arc of contact and contact ratio. (4) 10. C. (8) (ii) Explain with neat sketches the following: (1) Offset slider mechanism. (i) Explain the inversions of four bar chain. 13. (2) An indexing mechanism.

Axial pressure is not to exceed 0. External diameter of friction plate is 1.follower are simple harmonic. Angle of overlap 140° and coefficient of friction between pulley and rope is 0. MAY 2007 21. (8) C3298. Also find the torque required to lower the load and efficiency of screw jack. find the following: (i) Number of ropes required. (i) Define transmission angle of a four bar linkage.10. (ii) Initial tension in the rope. (4) . (12) 20. (i) Pitch of 50 mm diameter threaded screw of a screw jack is 12. Determine dimension of friction plate and axial force exerted by the springs.85 bar. Coefficient of friction between screw and nut is 0.25. Determine the torque to raise a load of 25 kN rotating with the screw. 19. Mass of rope is 0.7 kg/m and it can withstand a tension of 800 N. (4) (ii) 100 kW is to be transmitted by a rope drive through a 160 cm diameter 45° grooved pulley running at 200 rpm.5 mm. Assume uniform wear and co-efficient of friction = 0. (2) (ii) A 10 kW engine develops a maximum torque of 100 N-m and is driving a car having a single plate clutch of two active surfaces. Considering centrifugal tension.3.25 times internal diameter. (i) Explain the following: (1) Crowning of pulleys (3) (2) Self-locking of brakes (3) (3) Uses of brakes in automobiles. What is the effect of transmission angle on mechanical advantage? (4) (ii) Briefly explain various types of constrained motions.

p. in the position shown. CB = 240 mm. The crank rotates at 180 rpm. Also determine the linear acceleration of the slider D. revolves at a uniform speed of 200 r. Analytically perform the displacement analysis of a four bar mechanism. the slider D is constrained to move along horizontal direction.m. Deduce an expression for length of stroke in terms of link lengths. OA = 180 mm . BC and BD. AB = 360 mm. when the crank makes an angle of 60°with the vertical line of centers PA. What is the acceleration of sliding of the block at B along the slotted lever PQ? 24. 23. Find the velocity and acceleration of the tool-box R.(iii) Illustrate a crank and slotted lever mechanism as an inversion of single slider crank chain. For the toggle mechanism as shown in figure. The driving crank AD of the quick-return mechanism. (8) 22. The dimensions of various links are as follows. as shown in figure. . For the given configuration determine the velocity of the slider and angular velocities of links AB. BD = 540 mm.

(i) To raise through 50 mm during 120° rotation of cam with SHM. determine (1) addenda .75. (iii) To lower during next 60° with UAUR. (6) 28. rotating in clockwise direction with a uniform speed of 100 rpm is to be designed to give the motion for a roller follower as follows. Also derive the expressions for displacement. velocity. (10) (ii) What is reverted gear train? Explain the arrangement of various gears in a reverted gear train and express the characteristic equations used to define their operation. The gear ratio is 1. (1) when A makes one revolution in clockwise and D makes ½ a revolution in the opposite sense (2) when A makes one revolution in clockwise and D remains stationary. How many revolutions does the arm makes. A cam with a minimum radius of 25 mm. 26. (iv) Dwell for the remaining period. The number of teeth in gears A and D are 40 and 90 respectively. The number of teeth in pinion is 16 and its rotational speed is 240 rpm. Draw the profile of the cam when the line of stroke of the follower is offset by 15 mm from the axis of the camshaft. In order to avoid the interference. (i) An epicyclic gear train is shown in the figure. acceleration of a reciprocating roller follower when the roller has contact with the nose. (i) State and prove law of gearing (4) (ii) A pair of involute spur gears with 16° pressure angle and pitch of module 6 mm is in mesh. 27. Construct a tangent cam and mention the important terminologies on it. (ii) Fully raised through next 30°.25.

(i) Derive the expression for Frictional torque on cone clutch based on uniform pressure theory. (8) 30. (12) 29. Determine the dimensions of the contact surfaces to transmit 22.5 kW at 2000 rpm.5 mm and pitch 5 mm is tightened by screwing a nut whose mean diameter of bearing surface is 50 mm.1 and nut and bearing surface is 0. determine the face width of the Shoes (both shoes have same width) and (2) What torque will the brake absorb? (10) . (i) A square threaded bolt of root diameter 22.on pinion and wheel (2) length of path of contact (3) maximum velocity of sliding on either side of pitch point. If the coefficient of friction between nut and bolt is 0.16. (1) Using an actuating force of 1750 N.35 N/mm2 and the breadth of the conical surface is not to exceed of the mean radius. determine the force required at the end of spanner 500 mm long when the load on the bolt is 10 kN.3 and is to have a maximum pressure of 1000 kPa against the friction material. (8) (ii) A leather faced conical clutch has a cone angle of 30°. If the intensity of pressure between the contact surfaces is limited to 0. Assume uniform wear rate and μ = 0. (6) (ii) The brake whose dimensions are shown in figure has a co-efficient of friction of 0.15.

velocity and acceleration equation of a slider crank mechanism. NOVEMBER 2007 31. BC and BD. Determine the acceleration of the sliding block R and the angular acceleration of the slotted lever BD. Cam with knife edge follower. The crank rotates at 180 rpm. CB = 240 mm. For the toggle mechanism as shown in figure. the slider D is constrained to move along horizontal direction. OA = 180 mm. (i) Define transmission angle of a four bar linkage. The dimensions of various links are OA = 150 mm. 34. For the given configuration determine (i) the velocity and acceleration of the slider (ii) angular velocity and angular acceleration of links AB. 33. (6) (iii) Explain any two inversions of a four bar kinematic chain. OC = 100 mm. (6) 32. BD = 540 mm. The dimensions of various links are as follows. CD = 125 mm and DR = 500 mm. AB = 360 mm. What is the effect of transmission angle on mechanical advantage? (4) (ii) State and prove Kutchbach criterion for the following kinematic chains: Three bar chain. Derive the displacement. Four bar chain. . crank OA rotates at 30 rpm in clockwise direction. In a Whitworth quick return mechanism.R3456. as shown in figure.

Construct a tangent cam and mention the important terminologies on it. If the pitch expressed in module is 5 mm. (ii) Follower dwells during next 30° of cam rotation. acceleration of a reciprocating roller follower when the roller has contact with the nose. A cam drives a flat reciprocating follower in the following manner: (i) Follower moves outwards through a distance of 20 mm with simple harmonic motion during the first 120° rotation of the cam. Take addendum as one module. 36. The number of teeth on pinion is 20 and the gear ratio is 2.5 kW. If the motor transmits 1. (8) (ii) Derive an expression for the minimum number of teeth required on the pinion in order to avoid interference in involute gear teeth. (iv) The follower dwells for the remaining period.2 m/s. velocity.35. Also derive the expression for displacement. (i) What are the special advantages of an epicyclic gear train? (4) (ii) An epicyclic gear train for electric motor is shown in figure. determine the angle turned through by pinion. Draw the profile of the cam. Also calculate the maximum velocity of sliding. Also calculate the maximum velocity and acceleration during outward and inward motion of the follower when the cam rotates with 200 rpm. (i) Two involute gears of 20° pressure angle are in mesh. when one pair of teeth is in mesh. when the minimum radius of cam is 25 mm. (8) 38. determine the torque . The planet P has 45 teeth. gears with fixed annulus E and rotates on a spindle carried by an arm A which is fixed to the output shaft. and the pitch line speed is 1. (iii) Follower moves inwards with simple harmonic motion for the next 120° of cam rotation. The wheel S has 15 teeth and is fixed to the motor shaft running at 1450 rpm. 37.

If the coefficient of friction between nut and bolt is 0. If the operating force is applied at 500 mm from the fulcrum and the coefficient of friction is 0. (12) 39. The density of the leather can be taken as 1000 kg/mm3.75 mm thick leather belt required to transmit 15 kW from a motor running at 900 rpm. The driven pulley runs at 300 rpm and the distance between the centers of two pulleys is 3 m. (i) Determine the width of a 9. (8) (ii) From the first principles. (i) A square threaded bolt of root diameter 22. Take μ = 0. determine the force required at the end of spanner 500 mm long when the load on the bolt is 10 kN. One end of the band is attached to a fulcrum pin of the lever and the other end to a pin 100 mm from the fulcrum. The band brake provides a braking torque of 225 N-m. find the operating force when the drum rotates in anticlockwise direction. The diameter of the driving pulley is 300 mm.5 MPa and the drive is open type. T3348.5 mm and pitch 5 mm is tightened by screwing a nut whose mean diameter of bearing surface is 50 mm. (8) 40. (8) (ii) A band brake acts on the 3/4th of circumference of a drum of 450 mm diameter which is keyed to the shaft. derive an expression for the frictional torque of a cone clutch under uniform wear consideration.3 and maximum allowable shear in the leather = 2. APRIL 2008 41. The crank of a slider crank mechanism is 15 cm and the connecting rod is 60 cm long.16.1 and nut and bearing surface is 0.required to fix the annulus. The crank makes 300 rpm in the clockwise direction. When it has turned 45° (8) .25.