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Common Names Greater one-horned rhinoceros: referring to the single large horn Scientific Name and Origin Rhinoceros

unicornis Rhinoceros: from the Greek rhino, meaning "nose" and ceros, meaning "horn" and unicornis from the Latin uni, meaning "one" and cornis, meaning "horn" 3. Other Features The period of gestation is about 16 months Brownish-gray. Mothers give birth to one calf every 1-3 years. hairless, with folds of skin that resemble plates The young at birth in length is around 105 cm of armor with rivets. and weighs up to 60kg The upper lip is semi-prehensile, well-adapted C. THE WAY TO SURVIVE to grasping branches and leaves. In the wild life about 30 - 45 years 4. Unique Characteristics The animal is solitary as a rule, though several It is an excellent swimmer may occupy the same patch of forest or water Can run at speeds up to 55km/hr for short hole periods of time Life near water, such as subtropical areas near Has an excellent sense of hearing and smell floodplains and rivers Uses horn to make scrape, mud away in Herbivorous and eats diverse plant wallows, to pull down plants for eating, and to They can spend 60% of their day in the water. open paths through thick vegetation Actually, the most advantagous part of Very timid Rhinoceros is not its horn, but the rhinoceros B. THE WAY TO BREED itself The female attains sexual maturity in 5 years Conserving rhinoceros means conserving and the male between 7-10 years old forest Breeding takes place at all times of the year Mangrove forest is a forest that grows in estuaries, tidal areas or the sea. Extensive mangrove forests Indonesia between 2.5 to 4.5 million hectares, is the largest mangrove in the world. Around the shallow Sunda. On the east coast of Sumatra, and southern and western coast of Borneo. On the edge of the shallow Sahul, on the southwest coast of Papua, especially around Bintuni. > Natural barrier of the most powerful and practical for the beach erosion.> Provide a variety of forestry outcomes such as firewood, alcohol, sugar, leather tanning materials, roofing materials, boat materials, etc.. > As a place to live and breed fish, shrimps, birds, monkeys, crocodiles and other wildlife including endemic Bats are the only mammals that have wings and can fly. Bats are difficult to study because of their secretive, nighttime habits (and their crazy flight patterns). Even so, over 1000 species have been identified and more are still being found, primarily in South American forests. New ones are being discovered, and the classification of the 1000 plus species, is being improved. Bats are the most widely distributed terrestrial mammal. They are found in Alaska, to the bottom of Argentina and from near the Arctic Circle to South Africa. They really enjoy the tropical region sand temperate zones. The finger bones of bats are much more flexible than those of other mammals, owing to their flattened cross-section and to low levels of minerals such as calcium near their tips. The skin on their wing membranes has more elasticity, so can stretch much more than other mammals. The wings of bats are much thinner than those of birds, allowing bats to maneuver more quickly and more accurately than birds. It is also delicate, ripping easily. However, the tissue of the bat's membrane is able to regrow, such that small tears can heal quicklyBats are found in almost every habitat available on Earth. Different species select different habitats during different seasons, ranging from sea sides to mountains and even deserts, but bat habitats have two basic requirements: roosts, where they spend the day or hibernate, and places for foraging. Bat roosts can be found in hollows, crevices, foliage, and even human-made structures, and include "tents" the bats construct by biting leaves. Most bats are nocturnal creatures. Their daylight hours are spent grooming, sleeping, and resting; they hunt during the nighttime

hours. The means by which bats navigate while finding and catching their prey in the dark, when Lazzaro Spallanzani conducted a series of experiments on a group of blind bats. These bats were placed in a room in total darkness, with silk threads strung across the room. Even then, the bats were able to navigate their way through the room. Spallanzani concluded the bats were not using their eyes to fly through complete darkness, but something else. There is by sonar. The hoary bat is the largest bat found in the northern part of North America and lives among the evergreen trees in the mountains. It is a fairly common bat in North America and can also be found in South America and the Hawaiian islands. It stands out among the other of bats by its large size, pointed wings and irregular flight. The wings spread out to about 15 inches (38 cm). The term "hoary" refers to the white frosting on its coat. The Honduran White Bats also known as tent-making bats are a very rare sight indeed. Besides Honduras, they also live in other Central American countries - Panama, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. There are only 15 species of bats in the Americas (and another 3 species in Asia) known to make their roosts underneath the leaves of plants. Since the bats are tiny the home inside of the leaves gives good protection from the rain and possible predators and they look quite comfy in there.coming from Europe and Northern Africa the longer-eared bat has ears that are not just long but humongous. The bat's fuzzy little body is only about 2 inches long while the ears can be about an inch and a half. The bat uses its ears to good effect to catch its favorite food - moths and other insects. The vampire bat is a mammal that lives on blood and blood alone. These stealthy, quiet creatures are truly one of a kind. When it comes to hunting for food, it has an approach that isnt like any other mammal. At night, the it comes out of its lair to hunt for sleeping animals. Bats are the only mammals that have wings and can fly. Bats are found in almost every habitat available on Earth. The finger bones of bats are much more flexible than those of other mammals. The skin on their wing membranes has more elasticity. Most bats are nocturnal creatures. And the kind of bat, there are flying fox, hoary bat, Honduran white bat, long eared bat, and vampire bat. Termite include in Blattodea order, in insecta class. Termite also called as white ant. In tropical country, termite live in dry season and rain season, in rain season it called as laron.Termite consist of 4000 species and 10% of them are pests.Termite habitat is in the nest which made from soil, mud, chewed wood/cellulose, saliva, and feces. Nest build under the ground, in large piece of timber, inside fallen trees, the other nest can develop into mounds. Termite has social organization which divided into 3 part. The first is reproductive group, second is workers group, third is soldiers group.Reproductive groups divided into two categories, A female that has flown, mated, and is producing eggs is called a "queen and a male that has flown, mated, and is in proximity to a queen is termed a "king.Worker termites undertake the labors of foraging, food storage, brood and nest maintenance, and some defense duties in certain species.The soldier caste has anatomical and behavioral specializations, providing strength and armor which are primarily useful against ant attackTheres so many bad impact that produce by termite, termite is a pest which can damage unprotected building and other wooden structure. In agriculture, termite improved water infiltration, it allow rainwater to soak in deeply which can make soil erosion, etc.In the other side, some species of termites is used as food. It has a good store of fat and protein. Termites also developed as a source of energy.So, we can conclude that termite has so many bad impact and also the good ones. Dr. Joseph Arnold discovered Rafflesia arnoldii when he was following the expedition at Sumatra on 1818 which Thomas Stamford Raffles as the leader of expedition. So, this flower called by Rafflesia arnoldii based on the union name from Thomas Stamford Raffles as the leader of expedition and Dr. Joseph Arnold as a discoverer. It is an endemic plant that occur only in the rainforest of Sumatra island, Indonesia.It lives as parasite on the vine stem from genus Tetrastigma because Rafflesia arnoldii doesnt have a leaf so it cant photosynthesis. This plant produces no stems or roots. Perhaps the only part of Rafflesia that is identifiable as distinctly plantlike are the flowers The flower of Rafflesia arnoldii have 5 petals. When this plant blossom, the flower reach 70 110 cm in diameter, 50 cm tall and 11kg weight. In the center of flower base which have shape like jug, there are bud or stamen, depend the gender. Rafflesia arnoldii is rare and fairly hard to locate. The flowers are unisexual and thus proximity of male and female flowers is vital for successful pollination. These factors make successful pollination of Rafflesia arnoldii is a rare event.You can see them in some location such as Taman Nasional Kerinci Seblat (TNKS), Taman Nasional Bukit Barisan Selatan (TNBBS), Pusat Pelatihan Gajah (PLG)

Seblat (kabupaten Bengkulu Utara), and Padang Guci Kabupaten Kaur. Rafflesia arnoldii is an endemic plant from rainforest of Sumatra island. It produces no leaf, stem or root and cant photosyntesis so it lives as parasite plant on stem from genus Tetrastigma When this plant blossom, the flower reach 70 110 cm in diameter, 50 cm tall and 11kg weight. Rafflesia arnoldii is an endemic plant from rainforest of Sumatra island. It produces no leaf, stem or root and cant photosyntesis so it lives as parasite plant on stem from genus Tetrastigma When this plant blossom, the flower reach 70 110 cm in diameter, 50 cm tall and 11kg weight. The successful pollination of Rafflesia arnoldii is a rare event because the Rafflesia arnoldii is rare and fairly hard to locate. Sugar cane belongs to Poaceae family, Saccharum. It lives in tropical area. Native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South Asia. It can live up to 12-14 months. Sugar cane can grow up to 2 until 4 meters high. It has fibrous root and parallel leaves.This creature is very unique in the way of its planting, it can be also used as electric source, besides, it has many advantages for our health. Sugar cane is a special plant because it is very easy to plant. Although sugarcanes produce seeds, modern stem cutting has become the most common reproduction method. Each cutting must contain at least one bud We can just put its stem horizontally on the soil and wait for a few weeks until the shoot appearThe function and advantages of sugar cane are:The main material to make sugar,Become ethanol that is used for fuel,To produce electricity ,To cure diabetes and cancer,To strengthen the teeth and gums,To prevent us from dehydration and stroke.. Ethanol is generally available as a byproduct of sugar production. It can be used as a biofuel alternative to gasoline, and is widely used in cars in Brazil. It is an alternative to gasoline, and may become the primary product of sugarcane processing, rather than sugar.In Brazil, gasoline is required to contain at least 22 percent bio ethanol. This bio ethanol is sourced from Brazil's large sugarcane crop.The production of ethanol from sugar cane is more energy efficient than from corn or sugar beets or palm/vegetable oils, particularly if cane bagasse is used to produce heat and power for the process. Furthermore, if bio fuels are used for crop production and transport, the fossil energy input needed for each ethanol energy unit can be very low. In the energy conversion of sugar factories, cane leaves and sugar cane pulp is also used for boiler fuel, which is used for process steam production and power generation.because sugarcane juice can be used by diabetics as a sweetener because of low blood sugar. Besides that, being alkaline in nature, sugarcane juice helps the body fight cancer, especially prostate and breast cancer. In India people mixed the juices of sugar cane with the salt and lemon juices, people believe that the mixed can strengthen the teeth and the gums. Based on the research, the juices of the sugar cane also cure throat disease and prevent us from influenza. Sugar cane also can prevent us from dehydration and stroke because it has a lot of juices in it so it will prevent us from the dehydration. Sugar cane also prevent us from stroke because it juices can activated the body organ such as brain, kidney, liver, heart, and soon. Lotus is the water plant. It has broad floating leaves and bright fragrant flowers. The leaves and flowers float and has hollow long stems that contain air spaces. It has many petals overlapping in the symmetrical pattern. The round leaves are upto 50 cm in diameter. The seeds are hard and dark brown in colour. They can vary in shape from round or oval to oblong. The Lotus flower opens in the morning and the petals fall in the afternoon. The seeds of the Lotus are edible. Its called Phool Mukhana are used in the Indian cooking. The leaves are eaten as vegetable in India. The taste of tubers like the sweet potato. The petals are used for garnish . Lotus is the sacred flower for the Buddhists and Hindus in India. It occupies a special position in the art and mythology of ancient India. It is also the National Flower of India. It symbolizes divinity, fertility, wealth and knowledge. In India it is considered as the symbol of triumph. It is rooted in the mud but it can survive to regerminate for thousand of years. It represents long life, honour and good fortune. For Hindus it has special significance as it used in their religious practices.

Nigella sativa seed-Fennel flower-Nutmeg flower-Roman coriander-Habbatussauda-Black carawayBlack cuminBlack Seed, the Seed of Blessing Black Seed which has botanical name is Nigella sativa, is a kind of spice that is also used as medical or herbal plant. This plant is an annual flowering plant that can be found in Asia, especially in south and southwest Asia, like in India, Pakistan, Indonesia, and many others. It has many other names, depend on the places. Some people call it as black caraway, habbat al barakah , and habbat sawda , others call it black cumin (kalounji), onion seeds or even coriander seeds. In English, the black seed plant is commonly referred to black cumin, even though it has no relation to the common kitchen herb, cumin.This spice is unique for its physical appearance that is different from the other herbal plant. It is also believed has many benefits for our health, from relief the chronic diseases up to the usual ones. Besides, it can be used as the soap to keep our skin health.Black seed grows up to 2030 cm or 7.912 inch in tall. The leaves are unique, they shaped like splayfoot. Its lower leaves are small and the upper leaves are long (6-The flowers are delicateUsually colored pale blue and white Five to ten petals each flower The flowers grow on its branches The leaves grow opposite each other in pairs, on each side of the stem. 10cm). The fruit is a large and composed of inflated capsule of three to seven united follicles, each containing numerous seeds. It is bisexual and each fruit capsule consists of many white trigonal seeds. Once the fruit capsule has matured, it opens up and the seeds in it will expose to the air and become black in color. It has a pungent bitter taste and smell. In the first time Islam was developed, this plant was believed as the herbal plant that could recover many kinds of diseases. According to a hadith narrated by Abu Hurairah, he says, "I have heard the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, saying that the black granules (kalonji) is the remedy for all diseases except death." Black seed can strengthen the body immune system from virus, germ, and bacteria, maintain the body from cancer and HIV, increase the brain function also recover any respiration-diseases, heal any sleep-disorder and stress can work as anti-Histamine and anti-Allergy for human body, heal rheumatism and related inflammatory diseases, to increase milk production in nursing mothers, to treat digestive disturbances. Strengthen the body immune system from virus, germ, and bacteriaBased on research of Dr. Ahmad Al Qadhy, on 1986, and others that was written in Pakistan Pharmacys JournalMaintain the body from cancer and HIV Based on research of Prof. G Reitmuller; University of Munich, Dr. Basil Ali; King Faisal University, and also research of Immono Biology Laboratory USAIncrease the brain functionAs the nutrition for brain cell that can increase the memory power. Reform the blood circulatory to brain because it contains Linoleat Acid (Omega 6) andLinolenat Acid (Omega 3)Increase the brain functionAs the nutrition for brain cell that can increase the memory power. Reform the blood circulatory to brain because it contains Linoleat Acid (Omega 6) and Linolenat Acid (Omega 3)Heal any sleeping-disorder and stressThe sapion in black seed work like chorticosteroid that can influence the carbohidrat, protein, fat, heart, kidney, muscle, and nerve. Sapions function is to protect ourselves from the changing of lifeenvironment As anti-Histamine and anti-AllergyAs the research of Nirmal Chakravaty MD, on 1993 and by Dr. Med. Peter Schleincher; an immology expert of Munich University Nowadays, there are so many instant black seed herbal medicines that are sold in a packed bottle or jar. Black seeds oil is also used to treat skin conditions such as eczema and boils and is used topically to treat cold symptoms. To treat the skin conditions, black seed is usually mix with honey or some oils, such as jojoba oil and apricot oil. Black seed Soap has powerful anti-aging properties,it also can softer our skin, and make our skin be glowing. It can protect and clean our skin while the aroma can refresh our mind and body. In conclusion, Black seed is a kind of herbal plant which has unique appearance and is believed has many benefits, especially for our body healthiness. Lichens are composite organisms consisting of a symbiotic organism composed of a fungus (the mycobiont) with a photosynthetic partner (the photobiont or phycobiont), usually either a green alga (commonly Trebouxia) or cyanobacterium (commonly Nostoc)The morphology, physiology and biochemistry of lichens are very different from those of the isolated fungus and alga in cultureLichens occur in some of the most extreme environments on Eartharctic tundra, hot deserts, rocky coasts, and toxic slag heaps The body (thallus) of most lichens is quite different from those of either the fungus or alga growing separately, and may strikingly resemble simple plants in form and growthLichens are poikilohydric, capable of surviving extremely low levels

of water contentLichen associations may be considered as examples of mutualism, commensalism or even parasitism, depending on the speciesLichens are informally classified by growth form into:crustose (paint-like, flat), e.g., Caloplaca flavescens filamentous (hair-like), e.g., Ephebe lanata foliose (leafy), e.g., Hypogymnia physodes fruticose (branched), e.g.,Cladonia evansii, C. subtenuis, and Usnea australis leprose (powdery), e.g., Lepraria incana squamulose (consisting of small scale-like structures, lacking a lower cortex), e.g., Normandina pulchella gelatinous lichens, in which the cyanobacteria produce a polysaccharide that absorbs and retains water.Many lichens reproduce asexually, either by vegetative reproduction, lichens break up into fragments when they dry, dispersing themselves by wind action, to resume growth when moisture returnsMany lichens fungi appear to reproduce sexually in a manner typical of fungi, producing spores that are presumably the result of sexual fusion and meiosis, following dispersal, such fungal spores must meet with a compatible algal partner before a functional lichen can formMany lichens reproduce asexually, either by vegetative reproduction, lichens break up into fragments when they dry, dispersing themselves by wind action, to resume growth when moisture returns Many lichens fungi appear to reproduce sexually in a manner typical of fungi, producing spores that are presumably the result of sexual fusion and meiosis, following dispersal, such fungal spores must meet with a compatible algal partner before a functional lichen can formLichens are exposed to air pollutants at all times and, they are unable to avoid the accumulation of pollutantsLichens may be eaten by some animals, such as reindeer, living in arctic regionsLichens are eaten by many different cultures across the world Lichens have also been used in making dyes and perfumes, as well as in traditional medicines Komodo (Varanus komodoensis) is the world heaviest lizard. Komodo is a native animal of Indonesia. It is one of the types of reptiles It lives on the Island of Komodo in Nusa Tenggara. This creature is very unique in term of : physical appearanceThe wayto get foodhow to defend themselves. PHYSICAL APPEARANCE An adult Komodo usually weighs around 70 kilograms or sometimes even more.Komodo has gray scaly skin, a pointed snout, powerful limbs and a muscular tail. Komodo also has strong claw that usually uses to climb the trees and as a weapon.The Komodo is carnivorous and it has a prodigious appetite. Komodo have very poor eyesight. That is why they use their super tongue ability to detect prey. Komodo can detect dead animal and blood from 4 9 kilometers away. Komodo eat by tearing large chunks of flesh and swallowing them whole while holding the carcass with their forelegs. Usually they eat deer, wild pigs and other komodo. They also hunt other lizards as well as large mammals and are sometimes cannibalistic. Komodo has a unique way to defend their selves. They will bite enemies and prey. Komodo's mouth is full of virulent bacteria and it can make their prey die because of infection from the bacteria. In addition, recent research suggests that the Komodo have a venom gland, that is important in disabling their prey.Although komodo include in dangerous animals, but we have to preserve them. So that their population will not decrease and extinct. Chameleons (family Chamaeleonidae) are a distinctive and highly specialized clade of lizards. This creature is very unique in term of physical appearance. They are distinguished by their parrot-like feet, stereoscopic eyes, their very long, highly modified, and rapidly moving tongues, their swaying gait (style of walking), their prehensile tail, crests or horns on their distinctively shaped heads, and the ability of some to change color. Chameleon is uniquely adapted for climbing and visual hunting, the approximately 160 species of chameleon range from Africa, Madagascar, Spain and Portugal, across south Asia, to Sri Lanka, have been introduced to Hawaii, California and Florida, and are found in warm habitats that vary from rain forest to desert conditions. Chameleons can run up to 35km/h (21mph). Chameleons are often kept as household pets. Chameleons vary greatly in size and body structure, with maximum total length varying from 15 millimetres (0.6 in) in male Brookesia micra (one of the world's smallest reptiles) to 68.5 centimetres (30 in) in the male Furcifer oustaleti (the biggest species of chameleon). Chameleons vary greatly in size and body structure, with maximum total length varying from 15 millimetres (0.6 in) in male Brookesia micra (one of the world's smallest reptiles) to 68.5 centimetres (30 in) in the male Furcifer oustaleti (the biggest species of chameleon). The stereoscopic eyes can look all around, up and down, so they dont have to move their heads to keep an eye, or

both eyes, on their prey his tongue is really an impressive hunting tool. It not only shoots out at blinding speed but it is sticky and has a suction cup at the end of it. The tongue hits the prey in about 30 thousandths of a second( second or 30 millisecond). They can snatch some insects or drink water with their tongues. Chameleons generally eat insects, but larger species may also take/eat other lizards and young birds.Their tails and pincers are well adapted for climbing and balance. The prehensile tail can be used to grab large and small twigs and branches. The tail is also quite heavy and is used to give them great balance.. Some chameleon species are able to change their skin colors. Different chameleon species are able to change different colors which can include pink, blue, red, orange, green, black, brown, light blue, yellow, turquoise and purple.The primary purpose of color change in chameleons is social signaling, with camouflage secondary. Color change signals a chameleon's physiological condition and intentions to other chameleons. Chameleons tend to show darker colors when angered, or attempting to scare or intimidate others, while males show lighter, multi-colored patterns when courting or attracting females.Some species, such as Smith's dwarf chameleon, adjust their colors for camouflage in accordance with the vision of the specific predator species (bird or snake) that they are being threatened by.Chameleons are generally solitary and territorial animals, coming together only for breeding. Males that come across each other may lock horns, hiss and spar a bit. Males display colors, puff and do head bobbing dances to attract females. Females that are not pleased may hiss and bite. Some chameleons have small spikes going from the end of the tail to the head, others also have them on the neck. Their lifespan is estimated to 9-10 years or possibly longer. Chameleons are categorized a distinctive and highly specialized clade of lizards. This creature is very unique in term of physical appearance for example their parrot-like feet, stereoscopic eyes, their very long, highly modified tongues, their swaying gait (style of walking), their prehensile tail (that can hold the branch by circling it), crests or horns on their distinctively shaped heads, and the ability of some to change color. They can change into pink, blue, red, orange, turquoise, yellow, and green. Chameleons have specialized cells, chromatophores, which contain pigments in their cytoplasm, in three layers below their transparent outer skin:The cells in the upper layer, called xanthophores and erythrophores, contain yellow and red pigments respectively.Below these is a second layer of cells called iridophores or guanophores; these contain guanine, appearing blue or white.The deepest layer of cells, melanophores, contain the dark pigment melanin, controlling how much light is reflected.Dispersion of the pigment granules in the chromatophores sets the intensity of each color. When the pigment is equally distributed in a chromatophore, the whole cell is intensively colored. When the pigment is located only in the centre of the cell, the cell appears mainly transparent. Chromatophores can rapidly relocate their particles of pigment, thereby influencing the animal's color. Chromatophores change because the cells get a message from the brain Orangutan or pogo pygmaeus belongs to primate order. The orangutan spends most of its time in trees. Each evening it builds a new treetop nest. It is endangered because of its habitat lost and poachers keep on killing, owning, and exporting orangutan. It only lives on the island of Borneo and in the northern corner of the island of Sumatra. This creature is very unique in terms of its food, species, intelligence and the way it moves. Half of the orangutans diet consists of fruit, but they also eat young leaves, soft inner bark, termites, eggs, and occasionally monkeys. Fruit is the First ChoiceFruit is the orangutans favorite food. But it eats different parts of a plant depending on the time of year. In the dry season, it eats a diet of bark and tropical fruits like jackfruit, durian, and figs. It also eats birds eggs, insects, and small lizards.Leaves and Bamboo Will Also Do During the rainy season, orangutan munch mostly on the leaves and new shoots of bamboo. In captivity, orangutan is fed mostly fruits and leafy plants like lettuce.Orangutan have two species, there are Pongo pygmaeus which lives in Borneo and Pongo abelii which lives in the nothern corner Sumatra.Male orangutan is about 95 cm (37 in) in length and about 77 kg in weight. The female is smaller, reaching about 78 cm (31 in) in height and weighing only about 37 kg. Orangutan have two species, there are Pongo pygmaeus which lives in Borneo and Pongo abelii which lives in the nothern corner Sumatra.Male orangutan is about 95 cm (37 in) in length and about 77 kg in weight. The female is smaller, reaching about 78 cm (31 in) in height and weighing only about 37 kg. Orangutan is among the most intelligent primate. Experiments suggest that it can figure out some invisible displacement problems with a representational

strategy. In addition, Zoo Atlanta has a touch screen computer where their two Sumatran orangutans play games. Scientists hope that the data they collect from this will help researchers learn about socializing patterns, such as whether it mimic others or learn behavior from trial and error, and hope the data can point to new conservation strategies. Orangutan can move quickly from tree to tree by swinging on the branches of a tree, or so-called brachiating. It also can walk on two feet, but rarely found. Orangutan can not swim. Orangutan is very unique for its foods because it has different food in different season, it is also unique for its species that are Sumatran orangutan (pongo abelii) and Bornean (pongo pygmaeus),also for its intelligence because it is the smartest primate in the world, and also for the way it moves. The Olive (Olive europaea) is species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin as well as northern Iraq, and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. Its fruit, also called the olive, is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. The tree and its fruit give its name to the plant family, which also includes species such as lilacs, jasmine, Forsythia and the true ash trees (Fraxinus). The olive tree, Olea europaea, is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean, Asia and Africa. It is short and squat, and rarely exceeds 815 meters in height. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape, measuring 410 centimeters long and 13 centimeters wide. The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted. The small white, feathery flowers, with ten-cleft calyx and corolla, two stamens and bifid stigma, are borne generally on the previous year's wood, in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves.The fruit is a small drupe 12.5 centimeters long, thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars. Olives are harvested in the green to purple stage. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. Olea europaea contains a seed commonly referred to as a pit or a rock. A fungus, Cycloconium oleaginum, can infect the trees for several successive seasons, causing great damage to plantations. A species of bacterium, Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. Oleae, induces tumour growth in the shoots. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers. More serious damage is caused by olive fly attacks to the fruit.A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug, a small black scale insect that resembles a small black spot. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit; their main predators are wasps. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves, leaving saw tooth damage.Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage, especially to young trees. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die.At the northern edge of their cultivation zone, for instance in Southern France and north-central Italy, olive trees suffer occasionally from frost. Gales and long-continued rains during the gathering season also cause damage.Olives are one of the most extensively cultivated fruit crops in the world. In 2009 there were 9.9 million hectares planted with olive trees, which is more than twice the amount of land devoted to apples, bananas or mangoes. Only coconut trees and oil palms command more space. Cultivation area tripled from 2,600,000 to 8,500,000 hectares between 1960 and 2004 and in 2008 reached 10.8 million Ha. The ten largest producing countries, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization, are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives.