Bulacan State University College of Engineering City of Malolos

TYPES AND APPLICATIONS IN DC MACHINES

Submitted by:
Aldrin C. Bernardo Jesus F. Cortez Jr. John Carlo Dizon Angelito R. Gonzales

BSME-4A Submitted to: Engr. Allan Clark H. Timoteo

Macheche/BSME-4A

Table of Contents

Page 1. D.C. Generators............................................................. 2. Series-Wound................................................................ 3. Shunt-Wound................................................................. 4. Permanent-magnet.......................................................... 5. D.C. Servo..................................................................... 6. Printed Circuit motor........................................................ 7. Shell armature................................................................ 8. V.R. stepper................................................................... 9. P.M. stepper................................................................... 10. Hybrid stepper.............................................................. 11. Brushless D.C............................................................... 12. Switched-reluctance.......................................................

Macheche/BSME-4A

if the wiring becomes difficult or complex longer wire Wiring a DC generator can be quite a hassle for larger jobs. Generators Specification: Duty Power Supply Reversibility Speed Start torque Start current Continuous DC Usually unidirectional Advantages: very efficient way to power electrical appliances a DC generator often does not require an inverter Dc used machine Speed control is very precession any RPM we can achieve with controller Disadvantages: you may be required to run a longer wire to transfer electricity from the generator to the specified location to provide power . Macheche/BSME-4A . and it is difficult to run the wire according to code.C.D.

C Generator Modern Steam Turbine water wheel Human power dynamo windmills Macheche/BSME-4A .Application of D.

Disadvantages:   With no load on the motor.C.C. Usually unidirectional Variable withload >175%of rated torque High Advantages:    Good starting and acceleration torque. or D. Efficient Moderate speed control easily obtained with field diverter resistance.Series-Wound Specifications: Duty Power Supply Reversibility Speed Start torque Start current Continuous A. Expensive Macheche/BSME-4A . speed can run away because torque–speed curve rises steeply.

C. Motor From a fire truck si Battery-powered and rectified lunar rover Macheche/BSME-4A . traction application 12V D. Battery-powered vehicles.Application of Series-Wound They are inexpensive to manufacture and are used in variable speed household appliances such as sewing machines and power tools.

Can control by speed varying either field current or armature voltage Brush life is generally good. At rest or rotating Fairly constant 125-200% of rated torque Normal Advantages:         Earliest and most reliable of a D. Speed stability in open-lop mode is quite good. Dynamic braking is severs on brushes.C. motor types Will operate from rectified A. Expensive Macheche/BSME-4A .C. Good starting torque Efficient Fairly load-independent Disadvantages:    Brush life adversely affected by reversing when rotating.Shunt-Wound Specifications: Duty Power Supply Reversibility Speed Start torque Start current Continuous D.C.

simple lathe machine process line tram car motor Macheche/BSME-4A .Application of Shunt-Wound Constant speed at a given setting A simple shunt-wound dc dynamo.

since serious overheating may result Overload may cause partial demagnetization.C. Macheche/BSME-4A . At rest or rotating Adjustable 175% of rated torque High Advantages:          High starting torque enables inertial loads Efficiency moderate to high Simple to reverse and dynamically brake High torque at low speed Linear torque speed curve and ease of electronics control Use of rare earth magnet has reduced overall size and increased scope of applications Low cost Ideal for stop/start No electrical required to generate stator field Disadvatages:      Cannot operate continuously at high torque. Limited to 100 VDC because of field demagnetization Speed regulation good for constant voltage and moderate loads. High voltage produces excess arcing of brushes and commutator.Permanent-Magnet Specifications: Duty Power Supply Reversibility Speed Start torque Start current Continuous D.

Application of Permanent-magnet Computer cooling fan positioning table Powerboat welding wire feeder Macheche/BSME-4A .

000-4000 rev/min Substantial transient overload capability Low rotor inertia Rugged brushes and commutator to handle high powers Low electrical time constant High torque linearity with current input High inertia/torque ratio Fast response at all sped due to rapid current rise in armature. At rest or rotating Variable with load High High Advantages:          Speed from stall to 2.D.C. Requires close-loop electrical control system Special design with particular characteristics-performance can vary widely Macheche/BSME-4A .C. Servo Specifications: Duty Power Supply Reversibility Speed Start torque Start current Continuous D. Excellent low speed characteristics Disadvantages:    Expensive. requires directly mounted tachogenerator.

Application of D. Servo Industrial servomotor simple robotics Servoclass coupling rc car Macheche/BSME-4A .C.

At rest or rotating Adjustable Up to 500% of rated torque High Advantages:            Suitable for intermittent duty(positioning servo) where torque smoothness required Speed control possible within a single revolution High torque/inertia ratio Armature has no “wound” windings Moderately efficient Speed as low as1 rev/min Fast response Excellent power/volume ratio Quiet and simple High torque linearity Reliable.Printed Circuit Motor Specifications: Duty Power Supply Reversibility Speed Start torque Start current Continuous D. high brush life with multiple brushes Disadvantages:    Fragile construction with thin armature Windings arranged across a very large radius Radius factor contributes substantially to the armature inertia Macheche/BSME-4A .C.

Application of Printed-Circuit Motor Small electric water pump vacuum cleaner motor ATX power supply drivers lock actuator Macheche/BSME-4A .

Shell Armature Specifications: Duty Power Supply Reversibility Speed Start torque Start current Continuous D.C. employ only where unique performance characteristic required Macheche/BSME-4A . At rest or rotating Adjustable 175% of rated torque High Advantages:     Very low inertia and high acceleration Low inductance and thus low electrical time constant High torque/inertia ratio Maximum speed 10. Disadvantages:     Low thermal time constant for armature and long thermal time constant for housing Armature can overheat Fragile construction Expensive.000 rev/min.000-15.

Application of Shell Armature GE LAP Wound Mill Motor Armature Coil gear puller dubrow-ts-452-sweep-rotor-and-rf-sweep-capacitor Espresso Coffee Machines Macheche/BSME-4A .

in both performance and cost Can replace mechanical devices. At rest or rotating Adjustable n/a Normal Steppers are excellent positioning drives .VR Stepper Specifications: Duty Power Supply Reversibility Speed Start torque Start current Advantages:       Continuous Switched D.. hence some means of damping usually required When inertial loads are being driven. speed ramping usually required Macheche/BSME-4A . clutches with improve reliability Accuracy Suitable for high speed/high-performance operation Robust rotor Lower-cost stepper Disadvantages:         Use only for light applications Fairly low –torque inertial capability Prone to some resonance problem No detent torque when coils not energized Not efficient Fixed angle devices Tend to “ring” on stopping. e.C.g.

Application of VR Stepper Plotter printer Scanner Xerox machine Macheche/BSME-4A .

in both performance and cost Can replace mechanical devices. At rest or rotating Adjustable n/a Normal Advantages:       Steppers are excellent positioning drives . e.. speed ramping usually required Rough low-speed operation without microstepping Macheche/BSME-4A .C.g.PM Stepper Specifications: Duty Power Supply Reversibility Speed Start torque Start current Continuous Switched D. hence some means of damping usually required When inertial loads are being driven. clutches with improve reliability Accuracy Compact of low-weight low-cost unit Detent torque up to 15% of holding torque available Ideally suitable for up control Disadvantages:       Fairly low –torque inertial capability Not efficient Limited availability to handle large inertial loads Tend to “ring” on stopping.

Application of PM Stepper Stage light fax machine Mri scanner printer Macheche/BSME-4A .

At rest or rotating Adjustable n/a Normal Advantages:       Steppers are excellent positioning drives . speed ramping usually required Macheche/BSME-4A . clutches with improve reliability Accuracy Combines best features of VR and PM types High performance at reasonable cost High resolutions available.Hybrid Stepper Specifications: Duty Power Supply Reversibility Speed Start torque Start current Continuous Switched D.8 steps being common Disadvantages:     Not efficient Fixed angle devices Tend to “ring” on stopping.in both performance and cost Can replace mechanical devices. hence some means of damping usually required When inertial loads are being driven.C.1. e.g..

Applications of Hybrid Stepper Dslr multi-needle quilting machine Projector cam timer Macheche/BSME-4A .

relatively maintenance-free drive Long life motors. special circuits can be added at cost Copper losses are high. not very efficient in low high voltage systems Very expensive compare with PMDC Limited economically to small motor sizes Macheche/BSME-4A . systems Cannot be reversed by simple power source polarity Excess coating. Specifications: Duty Power Supply Reversibility Speed Start torque Start current Advantages:      Continuous 3-Phase At rest or rotating Adjustable >175% of rated High (rotor position feedback required) No brushes or commutator to limit life Reliable.000 rev/min not usually peak torque maintainable up to high speed Disadvantages:       Electronically complex compared with other D.C. operational-life rated power not limited to wear considerations Very low noise Speed up to 60.Brushless D.C.

C. motor Macheche/BSME-4A . Used in long-life application.Applications of Brushless D. The basic construction of a brushless D. robotics.C. office machinery. etc. fan Compressor Brushless Dc Electric A/C Brushless D. motor RESCUER brushless D.C.C.

Macheche/BSME-4A .Switched-Reluctance Specifications: Duty Power Supply Reversibility Speed Start torque Start current Continuous Switched D. which is easily cooled Rotors loses very small. N/A Controllable Up to 200% of rated Low (rotor position feedback required) Advantages:        Simple low-inertia rotor Stator is simple to wind Torque speed characteristics can be tailored to application more easily than many other motors Most losses appear in stator.C.C. hence no rotor cooling problems as with other motors Torque is independent of the polarity of the phase current High starting torque without the problems of surge currents Disadvantages:      Cannot equal the power density of efficiency of PMDC in small frame size Large torque ripple Current ripple No smaller than an induction motor designed to the same specification Shaft positioning sensing required  Cannot start from sinusoidal A.

Applications of Switched-Reluctance 50 ton coal shearer washing machine Chariot lunar rover control rod drive Macheche/BSME-4A .