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law@loc.gov Than you for your inquiry.

Our response is eyed to (1) Joint Stoc Trust Act of 1873, (2) Federal Reserve System, (3) National Ban Acts, and (4) Canon law.

We were unable to find a public law on formation of a joint stoc trust. We sear ched in the 1873 Revised Statutes and consulted the Congressional Record Index f or 1873 for any laws or bills introduced on joint stoc trusts. (2) Federal Reserve System The Federal Reserve Act, Public Law 63-43, ch. 6, 38 Stat. 251, December 23, 191 3, created the Federal Reserve System, the central ban ing system of the United States of America, and granted it the legal authority to issue Federal Reserve N otes (now commonly nown as the U.S. Dollar) and Federal Reserve Ban Notes as l egal tender. You may access the text of the law here: < http://www.llsdc.org/attachments/file s/105/FRA-LH-PL63-43.pdf >.This lin provides the federal legislative history o f the Federal Reserve Act: < http://www.llsdc.org/FRA-LH/ >. Here is a wor , wri tten by Roger T. Johnson, Public Services Department of the Federal Reserve Ban of Boston, 1999, entitled Historical Beginnings: The Federal Reserve, at < http:/ /www.bos.frb.org/about/pubs/begin.pdf >. The Federal Reserve Act is classified to Title 12 of the United States Code, Ban s and Ban ing, in 221-522, which you may view here: < http://www.law.cornell.edu /uscode/html/uscode12/usc_sup_01_12_10_3.html > and < http://www.federalreserve. gov/aboutthefed/fract.htm >.

The Aldrich-Vreeland Act, Public Law 60-169, ch. 229, 35 Stat. 546, May 30, 1908 , provided for the issuance of emergency currency and created a bipartisan Natio nal Monetary Commission to study central ban ing and other alternatives for mone tary and ban ing reform. The Commissions Report is here: < http://llsdc.org/attac hments/files/124/FRA-LH_S-Doc-62-243.pdf >. You may also be interested in reading Money Trust Investigation: Investigation of Financial and Monetary Conditions in the United States under House Resolutions Nos. 429 and 504: < http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/publication/?pid=80 >. (3) National Ban Acts An Act to provide a national Currency, secured by a Pledge of United States Stoc , and to provide for the Circulation and Redemption thereof, nown today as the N ational Currency Act of 1863, ch. 58, 12 Stat. 665; February 25, 1863, created a single national currency and established national ban s that could issue notes which were bac ed by the United States Treasury and printed by the government. The Act may be accessed from the Library of Congress website, Century of Lawma i ng for a New Nation 1774-1875, at < http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/lawhome.htm l >. The collection provides online access to the records and acts of Congress f rom the Continental Congress and Constitutional Convention through the 43rd Cong ress. You may access this Act from volume 12 of the United States Statutes at Large, 3 6th-37th [Congress], 1859-1863 from this page: < http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aml aw/lwsllin .html >. Clic on Title Page for Volume 12. When the volume opens, typ e 665 in the Turn to image search box and hit the enter ey. Scroll down the page to find chapter LVIII. Clic on Next Image to continue reading through page 682.]

1) Joint Stoc

Trust Act of 1873

There is also a related act, referred to as the National Ban s Extension Act [a a Currency Acts]: An Act: To provide a national currency, secured by a pledge of United States bonds, and to provide for the circulation and redemption thereof, c h. 106, 13 Stat. 99, June 3, 1864. The National Ban ing Act of 1864 established a currency bureau to regulate the n ational currency secured by U.S. bonds. Section 5 of the Act authorized the form ation of ban ing associations by any number of persons, not less in any case than five, and specified articles of association. To access this act, please duplicate the instructions for opening volume 13 of t he U.S. Statutes at Large from < http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/lwsllin .html >. [Enter 99 in the Turn to image search box.] (4) Canon law Canon Law is defined in Blac s Law Dictionary, 9th edition (Minneapolis, MN: West , 2009) thus: (1) body of western ecclesiastical law that was first compiled from the 12th to t he 14th centuries. It has grown steadily since that time, and is now codified in the Codex Juris Canonici of 1983, replacing that of 1918. Also termed corpus juri s canonici, papal law, jus canonicum. (2) body of law developed within a particu lar religious tradition. Also termed church law, canonical law. We hope this information has been helpful. Best wishes. MKR Public Services Division Law Library of Congress Library of Congress 101 Independence Ave., SE Washington, D.C. 20540-3120 URL: < http://www.loc.gov/law/visit/readingroom/ > E-Mail: < http://www.loc.gov/rr/as alib/as -law.html > ----------------------Please ta e a moment to fill out a survey at: < http://www.questionpoint.org/crs /servlet/org.oclc.as .PatronSurveyForm?&language=1&type=as &qid=7344461 > ----------------------Question History: Patron: To General Inquiries: I am loo ing for validation, and verification that The U.S. Congress had passed a law ma ing it illegal for any legal "person" to form a "Joint Stoc Trust" in 1873 Also, Is The Federal Reserve System is based on Canon law" If so please provide that Canon Law Was The Federal Reserve Act legislated post-facto (to 1870) ? Than you

Librarian 2: Than

you for your inquiry.

Our response is eyed to (1) Joint Stoc Trust Act of 1873, (2) Federal Reserve System, (3) National Ban Acts, and (4) Canon law.

We were unable to find a public law on formation of a joint stoc trust. We sear ched in the 1873 Revised Statutes and consulted the Congressional Record Index f or 1873 for any laws or bills introduced on joint stoc trusts. (2) Federal Reserve System The Federal Reserve Act, Public Law 63-43, ch. 6, 38 Stat. 251, December 23, 191 3, created the Federal Reserve System, the central ban ing system of the United States of America, and granted it the legal authority to issue Federal Reserve N otes (now commonly nown as the U.S. Dollar) and Federal Reserve Ban Notes as l egal tender. You may access the text of the law here: < http://www.llsdc.org/attachments/file s/105/FRA-LH-PL63-43.pdf >.This lin provides the federal legislative history o f the Federal Reserve Act: < http://www.llsdc.org/FRA-LH/ >. Here is a wor , wri tten by Roger T. Johnson, Public Services Department of the Federal Reserve Ban of Boston, 1999, entitled Historical Beginnings: The Federal Reserve, at < http:/ /www.bos.frb.org/about/pubs/begin.pdf >. The Federal Reserve Act is classified to Title 12 of the United States Code, Ban s and Ban ing, in 221-522, which you may view here: < http://www.law.cornell.edu /uscode/html/uscode12/usc_sup_01_12_10_3.html > and < http://www.federalreserve. gov/aboutthefed/fract.htm >.

The Aldrich-Vreeland Act, Public Law 60-169, ch. 229, 35 Stat. 546, May 30, 1908 , provided for the issuance of emergency currency and created a bipartisan Natio nal Monetary Commission to study central ban ing and other alternatives for mone tary and ban ing reform. The Commissions Report is here: < http://llsdc.org/attac hments/files/124/FRA-LH_S-Doc-62-243.pdf >. You may also be interested in reading Money Trust Investigation: Investigation of Financial and Monetary Conditions in the United States under House Resolutions Nos. 429 and 504: < http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/publication/?pid=80 >. (3) National Ban Acts An Act to provide a national Currency, secured by a Pledge of United States Stoc , and to provide for the Circulation and Redemption thereof, nown today as the N ational Currency Act of 1863, ch. 58, 12 Stat. 665; February 25, 1863, created a single national currency and established national ban s that could issue notes which were bac ed by the United States Treasury and printed by the government. The Act may be accessed from the Library of Congress website, Century of Lawma i ng for a New Nation 1774-1875, at < http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/lawhome.htm l >. The collection provides online access to the records and acts of Congress f rom the Continental Congress and Constitutional Convention through the 43rd Cong ress. You may access this Act from volume 12 of the United States Statutes at Large, 3 6th-37th [Congress], 1859-1863 from this page: < http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aml aw/lwsllin .html >. Clic on Title Page for Volume 12. When the volume opens, typ e 665 in the Turn to image search box and hit the enter ey. Scroll down the page to find chapter LVIII. Clic on Next Image to continue reading through page 682.]

There is also a related act, referred to as the National Ban s Extension Act [a

1) Joint Stoc

Trust Act of 1873

a Currency Acts]: An Act: To provide a national currency, secured by a pledge of United States bonds, and to provide for the circulation and redemption thereof, c h. 106, 13 Stat. 99, June 3, 1864. The National Ban ing Act of 1864 established a currency bureau to regulate the n ational currency secured by U.S. bonds. Section 5 of the Act authorized the form ation of ban ing associations by any number of persons, not less in any case than five, and specified articles of association. To access this act, please duplicate the instructions for opening volume 13 of t he U.S. Statutes at Large from < http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/lwsllin .html >. [Enter 99 in the Turn to image search box.] (4) Canon law Canon Law is defined in Blac s Law Dictionary, 9th edition (Minneapolis, MN: West , 2009) thus: (1) body of western ecclesiastical law that was first compiled from the 12th to t he 14th centuries. It has grown steadily since that time, and is now codified in the Codex Juris Canonici of 1983, replacing that of 1918. Also termed corpus juri s canonici, papal law, jus canonicum. (2) body of law developed within a particu lar religious tradition. Also termed church law, canonical law. We hope this information has been helpful. Best wishes. MKR Public Services Division Law Library of Congress Library of Congress 101 Independence Ave., SE Washington, D.C. 20540-3120 URL: < http://www.loc.gov/law/visit/readingroom/ > E-Mail: < http://www.loc.gov/rr/as alib/as -law.html >