Design, Development, Testing and Optimization of a Vehicle Suspension Systems accounting the Effect of Road Profile using MATLAB

/SIMULINK. I) Introduction:
Ride comfort is the most important demand in vehicle industry as it directly affects the sales amount. For that reason a lot of effort had been made to improve ride comfort by isolating vehicle from road irregularities as much as possible. The desired objective is proposed as the minimization of a seat suspension deflection, seat body acceleration and human body head acceleration, by choosing optimal vehicle suspension parameters. Ride comfort is subjective to human perception; it’s not a quantitative parameter. Majority of research efforts have been focused on devising a qualitative measure of passenger comfort (also referred to as human response to vibration). Passenger comfort principally depends on magnitude and direction of acceleration and the frequency of vibrations acted on his body. The ISO 2631-1:1997 standard specifies a method of evaluation of the effect exposure to vibration on humans by weighting the root mean square (RMS) acceleration with human vibration-sensitivity.

One important point is that: we cannot change the suspension system stiffness and damping coefficients, to reach desired vibration isolation, without taking into consideration two other aspects of suspension mechanism which are important in its performance: 1.road holding and 2.suspension travel, these parameters are to be considered as constraints in the problem of finding optimum values of suspension damping and stiffness.

Fig. Damping compromise for passive dampers

but can significantly reduce the stability of the vehicle in turns. lane change maneuvers. the comfort boundaries will decrease by rising the vibration durations.From the above diagram it is clearly understood that. It should mention that also the human body is more sensitive in some critical frequencies i. The vehicle operators may find the harsh ride objectionable. but also transfers much of the road input to the vehicle body. 4 to 8 Hz. while during longitudinal vibration i. When the vehicle is travelling at low speed on a rough road or at high speed in a straight line. or it may damage cargo. . or in negotiating an exit ramp.e. this will be perceived as a harsh ride. less than 2 Hz. Good design of a passive suspension can some extent optimize ride and stability. ISO 2631-1:1985 “fatigue–decreased proficiency boundary” :vertical acceleration limits as a function of frequency and exposure time Fatigue decreased proficiency boundaries for various exposure times in vertical direction are represented by above diagram. a heavily damped suspension will yield good vehicle handling.e. but cannot eliminate this compromise Fig. A lightly damped suspension will yield a more comfortable ride. As it is clear in the proposed diagram.

1) is established to optimize the dynamic response of the car and driver system in a way to minimize the force transmitted to the lower back and to minimize the acceleration of head and upper body. a four-dof dynamic model for a car suspension system (Fig. The same exact data can be produced from different models and several sets of model parameters in accordance with the experimental data.. 2003. Wan and Schimmels. one may find a number of different models ranging from several dof (Wei and Griffin.. Cc & Kc :Cushion damping co-eff (Ns/m) and stiffness (N/m) respectively. Kim et al. 1996) systems with linear (Alkhatib et al. 2004) or non-linear (Rakheja et al. mt mp ms mu :Mass of Upper body and Head (kg) :Mass of Lower body and Seat (kg) :Sprung mass (kg) :Sprung mass (kg) Cs & Ks :Suspension damping co-eff (Ns/m) and stiffness (N/m) respectively. In the literature. 1994. Qassem. a simplest form of human body model has been chosen to study with.. 1998) to comparatively higher dof (Arirouche and Ider. Since the aim of this study is to propose an optimization method to the suspension and seat designers and to attract their attention to important metrics of such a design. Ct & Kt : Thorax and Pelvis damping co-eff (Ns/m) and stiffness (N/m) respectively. 1988. 2003) parameters. 2000). In particular. Ky :Tyre stiffness (N/m) Zs & Zu :Displacement of sprung and unsprung mass from static equilibrium positions(m) Zp & Zt :Displacements of the thorax and pelvis from their static equilibrium positions (m) Zr :Displacement of Tire as per Road Profile (m) The dynamic equations of motion for the system can be described by the following differential equations from their static equilibrium positions: .Methodology of Researchwork: II) Model development for Optimization: Construction of human body models for the simulation of vibration exposure characteristics is not a unique process (Tregoubov.

ensuring the best compromise among comfort. c) Input Profile Excitations: The excitation input from the road is transmitted to the vehicle floor. the other excitation inputs can be used as.III) Optimization and Analysis: a) Objective functions of the optimum design: The performance characteristics which are of most interest when designing the vehicle suspension are : ̈̈ 1. Suspension travel.. related to passenger RMS acceleration. The sinusoidal profile is firstly used. For the simplification of the dynamic modeling. related to relative distance between the unsprung and sprung mass . it is assumed that there exists only the vertical motion of the vehicle. related to the tyre displacement ( Zr-Zu ) 3.( Zu – Zs ) b) Design Variables of the optimum design: Equations from 1 to 4 are used in conjunction with multi-objective programming (MOP) to find the optimal suspension design variables symbolically. D is the width of the hump.Passenger ride comfort. are considered as stochastic variables. and Vc is the vehicle velocity. suspension stiffness (Ks) and damping co-efficient (Cs). which is described by: A is the hump height.e. 3) Parabolic Response: Input is proportional to the square of time . road holding and Suspension travel in reference to the design variables. i. 2. 1) Step Response: Input is a constant value. Road holding. 2) Ramp Response: Input is proportional to time (T).

Simulink model of the suspension with human-body system. c) Study of different types of Road Profile model. of India Objectives of Research: a) Develop the mathematical model which includes human bio-mechanical parameters of Quartercar system for calculating the steady-state component of the transmitted vertical acceleration. d) Experimental analysis of suspension characteristics. and acceleration of the model in terms of time domain are obtained by solving equations 1 to 4. which is to be designed and developed or from standard set-up available in various automobile industries in and around Pune or at Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI). or a passenger. Vibration analysis in automotive engineering by evaluating the vibration transmitted from the road profile to a driver.d) Numerical Simulations: Displacement. in a moving vehicle as per ISO 2631 methodology. Impacts or Benefits from Research: a) Understand vehicle behaviors which are affected by suspension parameters. damping coefficient. a research organization under Govt. Verify the mathematical model by comparing updating model with identified parameters from experiments. b) Obtain design and optimization of vehicle suspension. c) Obtain vehicle model for predicting vehicle responses when changing the parameters. dimension of orifice and different types of reinforced materials for improving the performance characteristics. b) c) Scopes of the Study: a) Study of Quarter-car Models under Road Excitation with different road profile b) Mathematical Model is developed with computational techniques. Validation of the mathematical model by experimental data obtained from an experimental set-up. spring stiffness. velocity. Understand experiment method of road testing . using MATLAB software dynamic system simulation software. we can optimized the suspension system for the various design parameter such as.

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