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PBI 1032: ACADEMIC READING AND WRITING
Learning Unit 1a: TYPES OF REFERENCES
By the end of this session, you should be able to: explain why it is important to cite authority in academic writing. differentiate between journals, books and edited books. identify volume and issue number for journals. differentiate between first name and family/surname. identify names of authors and editors on edited books. find relevant information for writing references for journals, books and edited books.
A. The Importance of Citing Authority
Why is it important to cite authority in academic writing? In academic writing, we often refer to authority which may be in the form of books, journals and census reports. For example, we refer to the dictionary and encyclopedia for definitions. We turn to books when we explain the foundations of knowledge (or grounded theory) but we look for journals when we want to know the latest discoveries or trends in research. However, “[a]uthority has shortcomings that one must consider. In the first place, authorities can be wrong; they have no claim to infallibility. Also, one may find that authorities are in disagreement among themselves on issues” (Ary, Jacobs & Razavieh, 1990, p. 6). One of the challenges of academic writing is to make sense of writing of authorities who may be writing on related, but not the same, matter, and then present a coherent explanation of the phenomenon.
Reference: Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., & Razavieh, A. (1990). Introduction to research in education (4th ed.). Fort Worth: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.
B. Looking for Relevant References
You might be overwhelmed with the amount of reference materials available online and offline (e.g. at the library). When searching for relevant references, scan the following types of information: 1. Title – this gives us an idea of the contents and the audience. Predict the likely audience for each of these books: a. Managing the non-profit organization b. An introduction to international political theory c. Language teaching methodology: A textbook for teachers d. A first course in Economics e. The arts management handbook: A guide for administrators
Plagiarism.1-16. The texts 5.1-18. Note the differences in the way contents are listed for a book and a journal as shown in the following examples.16 16.28 ARW-SEM2-2011/2012-LU1a-TYPES-OF-REFERENCES 2 .1-14.17 15. The readers 7. Liddicoat What’s in a name? Degree programs and what they tell us about ‘applied linguistics’ in Australia Neil Murray and Jonathan Crichton Critical and alternative directions in applied linguistics Alastair Pennycook Multiculturalism in Australia: Reflections on current and future research trends Antonio Rubrino Investigating the effect of contextual clues on the processing of unfamiliar words in second language listening comprehension Wei Cai and Benny P.1-17. Learning to write from sources 4. 2010. Lee 14. Number 2 Applied Linguistics in its disciplinary context Anthony J. H. Plagiarism: Why the need for a linguistic analysis? 2. Can you guess why they are listed in such a way? Example 1 from Academic Writing and Plagiarism by Diane Pecorari.CENTRE FOR LANGUAGE STUDIES. or articles in a journal. patchwriting and source use in context Appendix: Research Methods References Author Index Subject Index 1 9 37 56 98 123 142 168 187 207 211 Example 2 from Australian Review of Applied Linguistics.16 17.1-15. UNIMAS PBI 1032: ACADEMIC READING AND WRITING 2. Table of contents – a list of chapters in a book. it is impossible’: The writers’ perspectives 6. published in 2008 by Continuum Press Acknowledgements 1. ‘My position.21 18. Volume 33. Plagiarism in perspective 3.
talk about other differences between a book and a journal. 2. both print journals and books may look the same. Based on the information provided in the table above.CENTRE FOR LANGUAGE STUDIES. Such information can be obtained by referring to the imprint page (the page with publishing details). UNIMAS PBI 1032: ACADEMIC READING AND WRITING C. extra information is needed to differentiate these two types of references. Comparing Books and Journals It is always crucial to remember the saying “don’t judge a book by its cover”.Unique Identifier (not relevant) 2nd edition 2008 Diane Pecorari London Continuum International Standard Book Number (ISBN) Task 1 1. If you were given these two references. how would you write the referencing for both sources? ARW-SEM2-2011/2012-LU1a-TYPES-OF-REFERENCES 3 . Number 2 1992 Eija Ventola (not relevant) (not relevant) International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) Academic Writing and Plagiarism Article title (not relevant) Article pages Edition Year Author(s) Place of publication Publisher ISO. Reference 1 Reference 2 Title International Journal of Applied Linguistics Writing scientific English: Overcoming intercultural problems 191-220 Volume 2. Hence. By looking merely at the cover.
barcode and ISBN An alphabetical list of the topics covered and the page numbers these topics can be found in the book An alphabetical list of specialist terms used in the book and the meanings of these terms An alphabetical list of the sources used by the author(s) Sources of photographs/diagrams used in the book supplementary material which the author(s) want to include in the book Back cover Index Glossary References/ Bibliography Illustration credits Appendices ARW-SEM2-2011/2012-LU1a-TYPES-OF-REFERENCES 4 . 5. author(s). author(s).CENTRE FOR LANGUAGE STUDIES. Copyright © . Publisher (e. Cambridge) vs printer (Biddles Sdn Bhd) 2. the contents are the same. ISBN (International Standard Book Number) . publisher The page immediately before or after the title page which contains publishing details: 1. publisher. Second edition 1993 4.The copyright usually belongs to either the publisher or the author(s). background of authors.The number is unique for that title. Preface/Introduction the author’s/authors’ aims and coverage of the book Foreword Table of contents Dedication Acknowledgements Introductory comments about the book. publisher Title. E.g. Diane Belcher and Malcolm Coulthard who have contributed in important ways to my understanding of plagiarism in academic writing.If a book has several editions.If reprints are made of a book. Place of publication (e. cite the year of the latest edition because the contents of the book have been changed. price. published in 2008.g. 3. This is useful for librarians. the original year (2008) should be used in citation. reprinted in 2010.If many towns are listed. Cite the year for the original version. . E.g. The blurb (short description of book contents). take the name of the first town/city mentioned. Englewood Cliffs. New Jersey) . UNIMAS PBI 1032: ACADEMIC READING AND WRITING Other important information in a book Parts of a book Cover of a book Title page Imprint page Information Title. usually by someone other than the author(s) List of contents Example: For Chiara and Lucia Example: I am grateful to Martin Hewings. Year of publication – reprints vs edition . a list of books by the same author(s).g.
Please note the different ways publishing details are provided in these imprint pages. Book 1 Bibliography Card – Book 1 Book Title Author Publisher Year of Publication Place of Publication :_______________________________________ : (First Name)________________ (Last Name) ________________ : _______________________________________ : _______________________________________ : _______________________________________ ARW-SEM2-2011/2012-LU1a-TYPES-OF-REFERENCES 5 . UNIMAS PBI 1032: ACADEMIC READING AND WRITING Task 2 Look at the following imprint pages of three different books and write down the necessary info in the respective bibliography card.CENTRE FOR LANGUAGE STUDIES.
UNIMAS PBI 1032: ACADEMIC READING AND WRITING Book 2 Bibliography Card – Book 2 Book Title Author Publisher Year of Publication Place of Publication :_______________________________________ : (First Name)________________ (Last Name) ________________ : _______________________________________ : _______________________________________ : _______________________________________ ARW-SEM2-2011/2012-LU1a-TYPES-OF-REFERENCES 6 .CENTRE FOR LANGUAGE STUDIES.
CENTRE FOR LANGUAGE STUDIES. UNIMAS PBI 1032: ACADEMIC READING AND WRITING Book 3 Bibliography Card – Book 3 Book Title Author Publisher Year of Publication Place of Publication :_______________________________________ : (First Name)________________ (Last Name) ________________ : _______________________________________ : _______________________________________ : _______________________________________ ARW-SEM2-2011/2012-LU1a-TYPES-OF-REFERENCES 7 .
These articles are usually reviewed by panel of reviewers consisting of established experts and also fellow researchers in the relevant fields. It can be published either in printed or electronic form.thomsonreuters. With the increasing cost of printing. For example.cgi?PC=K Exploring Journal Cover Page Task 3 By looking at the cover page of these two journals published by Oxford University Press.cgi?PC=J Thomson-Reuters Master Journal List for Social Science http://ip-science. more and more journals are published electronically.com/cgi-bin/jrnlst/jlresults. what are the similarity and differences that can be noted? ARW-SEM2-2011/2012-LU1a-TYPES-OF-REFERENCES 8 . To get a list of established journals you may refer to: Thomson-Reuters Master Journal List for Science http://ip-science. Journal of IT in Asia may be more interested in accepting articles related to IT development in Asian countries.thomsonreuters. UNIMAS PBI 1032: ACADEMIC READING AND WRITING Journals A journal is considered as a compilation of research articles based on the specific themes or scopes required by the journal.com/cgi-bin/jrnlst/jlresults.CENTRE FOR LANGUAGE STUDIES.
only books and journals are used as references in an academic writing. and newsletter). 2. Other Types of References Apart from books and journals. A book may have more than one author. These include other periodicals (e. web sites or e-books. there are other types of reference materials which you can use. Comparing Books and Edited Books The author of the book is the person who writes the contents of that book. The names of authors of the chapters appear in the Table of Contents and the respective chapters. ARW-SEM2-2011/2012-LU1a-TYPES-OF-REFERENCES 9 . Compare these two types of books. High dependency on unreliable websites should be avoided. in academic writing. newspapers. Reference 3 How to teach grammar Reference 4 National Language planning and language shifts in Malaysian minority communities Malay Javanese migrants in Malaysia: Contesting or creating identity? 163-172 2011 Jariah Mohd Jan Dipita Mukherjee and Maya Khemlani David Amsterdam Book Title Chapter title (not relevant) Chapter pages Edition Year Author(s) Editor(s) (not relevant) 1990 Scott Thornbury (not relevant) Place of publication Publisher Task 4 Essex England Pearson Education Limited Amsterdam University Press 1. E. reliability of the materials is crucial. magazine.g. An edited book has both editors and authors. UNIMAS PBI 1032: ACADEMIC READING AND WRITING D. However. Try to provide the referencing for both Reference 3 and Reference 4.CENTRE FOR LANGUAGE STUDIES. The editor assembles and/or modifies the content of the book before it is published and the name(s) appear on the front cover. Oftentimes.