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Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners.
Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners. in Guides and Tutorials; Introduction: Hey guys, been a forum member for some time now and had a lot to learn from you guys. This is just my feeble ... LinkBack Thread Tools



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#1 Nov 2008 431

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Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners.


Hey guys, been a forum member for some time now and had a lot to learn from you guys. This is just my feeble attempt at trying to write my first “Walkthrough†. I have written about Accelerator Capacitors motherboards because there many online guides which tell you about specific things on the board Pulse power low ESR film caps for accelerators, to but having all the info at one page is sometimes difficult to find. 100kV 250kJ/pulse High Voltage Capacitors I have tried to focus some of the more discussed features of the motherboard like layout, main components, functioning of each component and other features which are less frequently covered 500V to 30kV high voltage ceramic disc capacitors such as form factors, capacitors, jumpers etc. Buy Electronic Components ISO 9001:2008, ESD Compliant, Free Shipping Please remember that I am a absolute newbie and do not think myself as some sort of know-it-all. Orders Over $1K There are definitely going to be mistakes which you can feel free to point out. As this is my first time, I have tried to do my best and your comments are critiques are welcome.

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So Here it goes:
The Motherboard is considered to be the most under-rated component while building a new system. Most new enthusiast buyers concentrate on other important components like CPU and Graphics cards but give little thought to the motherboard, which is equally important and is one of the critical components of a system. Motherboard, also called as Mainboard, (board, mb or mobo) is the core mechanism of a modern computer system. It is a PCB (Printed Circuit Board) which is designed to control and co-ordinate between all other system components like CPU, RAM,I/O, Graphics Cards, Sound etc.[7/19/2012 9:40:28 PM]

It also http://www.techenclave. DIMM channels etc. [BREAK=Form Factors] Form Factor: Modern motherboards can be broadly classified on the basis of their form factors.PCI Slots. The form factor defines the size and the physical design of the motherboard. it specifies the arrangement of different system components such as the CPU socket .com/guides-tutorials/motherboard-walkthrough-beginners-66102/[7/19/2012 9:40:28 PM] .Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners.

two motherboards can offer same features and perform same functions but can be of different form factors. Some of the main form factors are ATX . Mini-ITX etc. Processor sockets use a Pin Grid Array (PGA) where pins on the underside of the processor connect to holes in the processor socket. [BREAK=Layout] Layout: The most common layout in modern motherboards is described by the Standard ATX form factor . Motherboards can also be classified by other standards such as: 1)The Socket for the microprocessor which determines what kind of Central Processing Unit (CPU) the motherboard uses. Examples: Socket[7/19/2012 9:40:28 PM] .Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners.BTX. which is part of the motherboard's logic system (the chipset is discussed in a later section). 2)The Chipset. Following is a layout diagram of ASUS P5Q PRO with every component tagged and named. The processor socket is the connector on the motherboard that houses a CPU and forms the electrical interface and contact with the CPU. http://www. mentions the specifications of the cases and power supplies that can be used in combination with the motherboard. Micro-ATX.techenclave.Socket 1366 etc.

the motherboard's chipset must work optimally with the CPU. This means that not only must the motherboard's socket fit the CPU.P45. Examples of chipsets are P35. RAM etc to process. it cannot proceed further without passing through the chipset.x58 etc (for Intel boards) and 680i. so it cannot be removed or upgraded. The chipset is usually made of two parts: the Northbridge and the Southbridge.Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners.techenclave. Whatever information is passed to the CPU.750i etc(for nForce boards) Basic Layout of a Chipset: http://www.x48. Chipsets are optimized by manufacturers to work with specific CPUs. [BREAK=Chipset] Chipset: The chipset is the nervous system of the motherboard. It is a collection of different chips where the logic to control the functioning of the motherboard[7/19/2012 9:40:28 PM] . The chipset is an integrated part of the motherboard. These two bridges connect the CPU to other parts of the computer such as the DRAM slots or the I/O devices.

com/guides-tutorials/motherboard-walkthrough-beginners-66102/[7/19/2012 9:40:28 PM] . one type of Northbridge only supports one particular technology in a device.Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners. Exceptions are made to this mechanism during the transition period between two technologies such as DDR2 to DDR3 RAM or the 65nm to 45nm CPU chips.techenclave. which brings upon limitations on the functioning of the technologies which are available to the Southbridge. It plays a major part in defining the specifications such as maximum speed of CPU. number of CPUs on the board. Since the Northbridge is clearly predefined to work with particular devices. Similarly.RAM. [BREAK=Northbridge] Northbridge: The Northbridge can be thought of as the “Big Daddy†of all components on the motherboard.AGP or PCI Express and the Southbridge. Other factors such as voltage regulation and available number of connectors also play a role. Traditional Northbridge based on Intel’s P45 chipset: http://www. the maximum amount of Memory (RAM) that can be accommodated on the board. The traditional Northbridge handles the communication between the CPU. The Northbridge also contains integrated graphics controllers on motherboards which have included them on the board itself. one Northbridge will only work with one or two different Southbridges.

This method significantly reduces the communication delay caused in the traditional Northbridge . has been moved onto the processor[7/19/2012 9:40:28 PM] . In AMD64 processors.Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners.techenclave. The Traditional Northbridge may become obsolete in the coming years. new designs are being made to overcome the problems and hurdles in the traditional Northbridge. Also. the memory controller. This will render one of the main features of the Northbridge (communication with AGP slots) useless. AGP graphics cards are becoming obsolete by rapidly being replaced by PCI Express cards. which handles communication between the CPU and RAM. AMD’s 790FX chipset where the Memory Controller is directly built into the processor: Front Side Bus (FSB): http://www.

and the floppy drive controller. the serial port.By varying either the FSB or the multiplier. One Southbridge can be paired with Northbridges on a chipset but the combination must be designed to work together by the manufacturer.Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners. This access of data is much faster that accessing the RAM through the FSB although the size is significantly lower than RAM. the PS/2 interface for keyboard and mouse. and in that case the southbridge provides an interface to this chip.ETHERNET. [BREAK=Southbridge] Southbridge: The Southbridge can be thought of as the Second-in-Command on the motherboard after the Northbridge.the serial ATA interface (SATA). For example. Some southbridges implement additional features such as a RAID controller or an integrated sound card.techenclave. The Intel ICH10R Southbridge: http://www. All the functions which do not require direct interaction with the Northbridge components are connected to the south bridge. This data bus is used to transfer data (in form of information signals) from the CPU to the Northbridge. The Southbridge is in charge of functions including the PCI. The front side bus has been a part of computer architecture since applications first started using more memory than a CPU could reasonably hold. In modern systems. the southbridge is also in charge of the parallel ATA interface (PATA) . The frequency at which a processor (CPU) operates is determined by applying a clock multiplier to the front side bus (FSB) speed. a processor running at 2400 MHz might be using a 266 MHz FSB. The Front Side Bus (FSB) is a bi-directional data bus on the motherboard that connects the processor (CPU) to the Northbridge.USB and FIREWIRE. This delay in communication does not affect the smooth functioning of the chipset because all the southbridge functions mainly deal with Input/output and are not as critical as the northbridge functions to the[7/19/2012 9:40:28 PM] . [LEFT][LEFT]There is also another bus on some motherboards called the Back Side Bus which connects the external L1 and L2 cache to the CPU. This means there is an internal clock multiplier setting (also called bus/core ratio) of 9. Since Southbridge is located farther away from the CPU than the Northbridge. Some of these functions are often handled by a secondary I/O controller. the CPU is set to run at 9 times frequency of the front side bus: 266 MHz x 9 = 2400 MHz . the parallel port. different CPU speeds can be achieved. there is a small amount of delay in the information reaching the processor compared to Northbridge.

Floppy disk Controller . These devices include: . http://www. The Back Panel of the Motherboard where the Super I/O devices have their output connectors: [BREAK=CMOS and Jumpers] CMOS: CMOS is short for Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor . In general. However. Jumper pins (points to be connected by the jumper) are arranged in groups called jumper blocks.Parallel Port (Used for Printers) -Keyboard and Mouse Interface -Serial Ports The I/O chip is integrated in the Motherboard itself. Jumpers: A jumper is two or more connecting points that can be conveniently shorted together. The standard lifetime of a CMOS battery is around 10 Years.techenclave. Secondary Super I/O Controller: [LEFT] The Super I/O controller is a chip designed especially for interaction of low-bandwidth I/O devices with the Southbridge.Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners. each group having at least one pair of contact points and often more. Sometimes these groups are referred to as headers. each contact in a jumper block terminates in a small metal pin. It is powered by a lithium battery called the CMOS[7/19/2012 9:40:28 PM] . this amount of time can change depending on the use and environment that the computer resides.It is a type of non-volatile memory used for storing the system time and the system settings for your computer configuration.

http://www. If it rises above it. They produce the power supply for the CPU itself. they let fewer pulses through. Electrolytic Capacitor: There’s a certain type of capacitor called an electrolytic capacitor that uses an electrolyte between the electrodes or plates in order to increase its capacitance. which is typically around 1.techenclave.Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners. They clean up power (spikes. The capacitors are kind of like the gas tank in your car. If the voltage drops below the CPU’s VID.) On the motherboard is a set of components known as the "VRM" (voltage regulator module). sound etc. This is especially the case in power-supply filters. they let more pulses through. [BREAK=Capacitors] Capacitors: A capacitor is a mini battery or charge storage. so some components rely on them when you cut power to the computer. The pulses stop it from getting too empty.5 volts for a modern CPU(Which is also call VID or Voltage Identification Data).com/guides-tutorials/motherboard-walkthrough-beginners-66102/[7/19/2012 9:40:28 PM] . They are used a lot when certain components need a clean steady source of power too. The CPU empties it by using power stored there.They do this by letting small pulses from the 12 volt supply into a bank of capacitors through several coils. This provides a smooth.They are valuable in relatively high-current and low-frequency electrical circuits. where they store charge needed to moderate output voltage and current fluctuations in rectifier output. regulated voltage to the CPU.

Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners. they don't experience leaking or exploding. the faulty capacitors have even been reported to pop or explode forcefully. As there is no liquid component to solid capacitors. and eventual venting of the electrolyte. In rare cases. while electrolytic capacitors use a common liquid electrolyte. In http://www. Capacitor Plague: An incorrect electrolyte formula within a faulty capacitor causes the production of hydrogen gas. leading to bulging or deformation of the capacitor's case. Electrolytic Capacitors infected with Capacitor Plague: Solid State Capacitors: The difference between solid state capacitors and electrolytic capacitors is that solid capacitors contain a solid organic[7/19/2012 9:40:28 PM] .

addition. Thanks Again could Share vinayaga and leonine10 like this. Reply With Quote 30-04-09. make them much more suited to extreme stress[7/19/2012 9:40:28 PM] . I know the images are edited badly but i have done the best i .Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners.techenclave. their ability to tolerate extreme conditions and their overall robustness.Please Leave a comment on how i have written/compiled this walkthrough. Solid State Capacitor: Thanks: Thanks guys for bearing with me. 06:04 AM Join Date: Posts: #2 Dec 2008 1.686 MohitPreet Privileged Users http://www.

very nice Share Reply With Quote 30-04-09. page6: you could have explained the diff between two modern southbridges . Share Reply With Quote ich10r and amd sb750.. 11:29 AM Join Date: Posts: #3 Apr 2009 197 halo_3 Upgraded User Re: Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners. good job... last page: no mention of digital voltage regulation which is present in the latest mobos.Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners. 06:04 PM #5 http://www. amd processors use zif-pga sockets. good effort. not everyone owns a c2d or c2q. you could have explained that. @ halo 3 thanks for the input will try to update it as soon as i can. overall. page5: some mobos come integrated with on-board gfx like geforce 9400 etc. Share Reply With Quote 30-04-09. page2: not all sockets use[7/19/2012 9:40:28 PM] . Re: Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners. 12:48 PM Join Date: Posts: #4 Nov 2008 431 vrd Privileged Users Re: Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners. @MohitPreet thanks dude.

thanks buddy for the write up. Great article.. 06:25 PM Join Date: Posts: #7 May 2008 245 mathew_p_a Privileged Users Re: Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners. 01:00 PM #6 Join Date: Posts: Apr 2009 289 Crossx Privileged Users Re: Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners..very informative. Share Reply With Quote[7/19/2012 9:40:28 PM] .but informative Share Reply With Quote 16-05-09. decent presentation.Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners. 12:46 PM Join Date: Posts: #8 Mar 2009 36 ironman Upgraded User Re: Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners. helped a lot.. Share Reply With Quote 04-05-09. very minor points.. 10:21 PM Join Date: Posts: #9 Apr 2008 156 Srini Upgraded User http://www.keep it up Share Reply With Quote 07-05-09. Euro_Rules Upgraded User Join Date: Posts: Nov 2008 125 Re: Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners. Thanks Dude Very important Info.

^ Thanks Guys Share Reply With Quote 24-05-09. 07:27 AM Join Date: Location: Posts: #10 May 2009 Kolkata 282 demonic Privileged Users Re: Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners. 02:36 AM Join Date: Posts: #11 May 2009 6 noeth2 Upgraded User Re: Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners. Thanks a lot.techenclave. diffenetly usefull for newbies. Excellent Share http://www. Excellent writeup. 02:20 PM Join Date: Posts: #12 Nov 2008 431 vrd Privileged Users Re: Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners. I have printed it out for reference. Share Reply With Quote 17-05-09. Share Reply With Quote 24-05-09. Re: Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners. 03:17 PM Join Date: Posts: #13 Jan 2009 765 É±É‘É–É–Ê Upgraded User Re: Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners.Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners. pretty elaborate and really good for the newbies!! Share Reply With Quote[7/19/2012 9:40:28 PM] .

thanks very much. really helpful for beginers ! Share Reply With Quote 11-06-09. 07:35 PM Join Date: Posts: #16 Jan 2009 232 sachin1 Upgraded User Re: Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners. 11:38 PM Join Date: Posts: #14 Jul 2006 55 WildRazor Upgraded User Re: Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners. 02:57 AM Join Date: Posts: #15 Jun 2006 226 ajish65 Privileged Users Re: Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners.. almost perfect Share Reply With Quote 04-06-09. Awesome! Thanks again! Share Reply With Quote[7/19/2012 9:40:28 PM] .. bookmarked for later. Am in the middle of buying a new rig and any and all info helps! Edit: Finally got around to reading it... Nice guide. 02:18 AM Join Date: Posts: #17 Jun 2009 64 bs0409 Upgraded User Re: Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners...... Share http://www.techenclave.. Thanks a lot! Haven't read it yet...Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners... Very informative and in terms that newbies can understand too. Reply With Quote 03-06-09..... good info.

i appreciate ur efforts made spread knowledge about the motherboards. this topic guide has already helped me a lot! Share Reply With Quote 09-07-09.i ve gone through it and its fantastic.keep it up dude Share Reply With Quote[7/19/2012 9:40:28 PM] .063 phoenix844884 Privileged Users Re: Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners.. 11:29 AM #18 Join Date: Apr 2009 Location: New Delhi/Chicago Posts: 1.techenclave. wow! thanks for explaining all that! as a beginner.. 11:17 PM Join Date: Posts: #19 Mar 2009 75 sahil678 Upgraded User Re: Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners. WOW!! gud review Share Reply With Quote 11-07-09. Reply With Quote 11-06-09.. 12:20 PM Join Date: Posts: #20 Jul 2009 4 vbhanujirao Upgraded User Re: Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners.Motherboard: A Walkthrough for Beginners...

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