Kinds of Questions

• Some questions ask for Yes or No answers. Yes/No questions often begin with Am, Is, or Are. A question ends with a question mark. Am I on time to play basketball? Yes. Is that your basketball? No, it is not. Are we ready to play? Yes, we are. Avoid these problems: Problem You are on a basketball team, yes? Is fun to play basketball?

LANGUAGE TRANSFER YES / NO QUESTIONS

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Are we ready to play? No. Yes.

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Solution Are you on a basketball team? Is it fun to play basketball?

Try It
A. Choose words from the box to begin each question. Then add the correct end mark. Is basketball 1. 2. 3. 4. Am I Are they Is she

a basketball player on your team your favorite sport on the school team

B. Now ask three Yes/No questions about the photo. Start one question with Am. Start one with Is. Start one with Are. Then write the questions.

Kinds of Questions

LANGUAGE TRANSFER INFORMATION QUESTIONS

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• A question often begins with a question word. Each question word asks for a different kind of information. Question Word Who? What? When?
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Asks About a person a thing a time a place a reason

Example Who sees the car? What color is the car? When can you drive? Where is the car? Why is she in the car?

Answer my friends black tomorrow It’s on the street. She wants a ride.

Where? Why?

Avoid this problem: Problem Solution The car is where? Where is the car?

Try It
A. Unscramble the words to ask a question. 1. drives / car / Who / the / ? 2. Where / trunk / the / is / ? 3. the / headlights / When / are / on / ? 4. a / steering wheel / is / What / ? 5. horn / is / important / a / Why / ? B. Ask five questions about the photo. Use a different question word to begin each question: Who, What, When, Where, and Why.

Kinds of Questions
• Some questions ask for Yes or No answers. You can start these questions with Am, Is, or Are. Am I early? Yes. Is that your book? No, it is not. Are they in the library? Yes, they are.

LANGUAGE TRANSFER YES / NO AND INFORMATION QUESTIONS

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• You can start with a question word to ask for specific information. Question
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The answer is: a person a thing a place a time a reason

Who sees my book? What color is the book? Where is the book? When is the test? Why are you here? Avoid these problems: Problem You are at the library, no? The test is when?

Solution Are you at the library? When is the test?

Try It
A. Unscramble the words to ask a question. 1. has / book / Who / the / ? 2. do / study / Why / they / ? 3. the / tomorrow / test / Is / ? 4. can / study / you / When / ? B. Talk about the photo. Write five questions and answers about the students.

Word Order in Statements
subject verb • In most statements, the subject comes before the verb. My friends ride bikes. The bikes stay on the path. Mr. Hernandez sees the bikes. Avoid these problems: Problem Pedals Max the bike. The girl a helmet wears.
© Hampton-Brown

LANGUAGE TRANSFER WORD ORDER: SUBJECT-VERB

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Solution Max pedals the bike. The girl wears a helmet.

Try It
A. Unscramble the words to make new statements. Then say the new sentence. 1. ride / Max and Lilia / bikes / . 2. The friends / through the park / go / . 3. likes / bike / his / Max / . 4. Lilia / a / red bike / rides / . 5. exercise / The friends / every week / . B. Imagine you are Max or Lilia. Write three sentences about your bike ride. Put the subject before the verb.

A Noun Changes to Show “One” or “More Than One”

LANGUAGE TRANSFER PLURAL NOUNS

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© Hampton-Brown

When you talk about more than one friends person, place, or thing, you use nouns that end in -s or -es. I have many friends. My friends are in my classes. We carry our books in backpacks. Avoid these problems: Problem Solution We study with three other student. We study with three other students. They have good idea. They have good ideas.

Try It
A. Say each pair of nouns. Listen for how the plural noun sounds. 1. boy / boys 2. girl / girls 3. book / books 4. game / games B. Now tell what you see in this picture. Write three sentences to describe it. Use plural nouns. 5. tree / trees 6. cake / cakes 7. bike / bikes 8. kite / kites 9. bus / buses 10. dish / dishes 11. box / boxes 12. lunch / lunches

Now plan a picnic. paper. I eat sandwiches with wheat bread . . wood Groups fruit. milk. These nouns do not have a special ending to show “more than one. Say each noun. rice. money You Can Count These Nouns apples chairs chips cups dollars hats napkins oranges sandwiches shoes B. furniture. Try It A. Write three sentences to tell what you will bring and where you will go. .If You Can Count It. Then use it in one of these sentences: • Do you need some • Do you like ? ? • I ate two • I used three . I eat sandwiches with wheat breads. You Cannot Count These Nouns Food bread.” We sit in the sand. mail. I eat a lot of food. Use nouns from each box. meat. Avoid these problems: © Hampton-Brown LANGUAGE TRANSFER NONCOUNT NOUNS 11 water sand bread Problem Solution Most people enjoy fresh airs. water. tea Materials cloth. You Can Make It Plural • Some things cannot be counted. Most people enjoy fresh air . salt. plastic. It’s fun to play in the water.

one bar of soap 7. Write a list to tell how much of each thing she should get. They need four piece of meats. one carton of milk 6. 1. but you can count bottles of water. How many cartons of milk do you need? © Hampton-Brown LANGUAGE TRANSFER NONCOUNT NOUNS 12 cartons of milk Avoid these problems: Problem The two cup of tea is hot. . one teaspoon of salt 5. These bunches of bananas are fresh.If You Can’t Count It. Change the word “one” to “two. When you use a noun that names a measurement. one glass of water 4. Try It A.” Use plural nouns to say the new phrase. Maybe You Can Measure It • You cannot count water. Solution The two cups of tea are hot. you can make it plural. one tub of butter 8. They need four pieces of meat. one slice of cheese 2. one piece of paper 3. Now tell what the girl in the photo buys at the supermarket. one can of soup 9. one box of cereal B. Then use some of the phrases in a sentence. Say each phrase. She is buying two bottles of juice.

5. The boy’s parents wash cars. the car of Teresa = Teresa’s car the sign of the boy = the boy’s sign the parents of all the boys = the boys’ parents the clothes of all the children = the children’s clothes Avoid these problems: Problem The signs of the boys are big.A Noun Can Show Who Owns Something • Use a possessive noun to show who has something. (Mario) come with their cars. helps the students. 1. (the plan of the members) club is having a car wash. (the mom of Jennie) is to raise $250. Use the correct possessive noun and say the sentence. . LANGUAGE TRANSFER POSSESSIVE NOUNS 13 © Hampton-Brown Solution The boys’ signs are big. Try It A. the students) 3. (the parents of B. Write three sentences about the photo. (the goal of the club) is to help the community center. The parents of the boy wash cars. Use possessive nouns. 4. 2.

Use a. The class is doing a play. an. • Use a or an when you can’t be specific. Examples: • costume • a costume • I found a costume. an. Try It A. Put a. audience 3. place.Put Articles in Their Place • When you talk about one person. Now tell about a movie or a play. or the in front of it and then use the words in a sentence. I want to watch the school play. Say each noun. script • costume • the costume • Give me the costume on the hanger. LANGUAGE TRANSFER ARTICLES BEFORE NOUNS 14 © Hampton-Brown Solution We went to a theater. . Avoid these problems: Problem We went to theater. • Use the when you are talking about something specific. or the before the noun. or the before nouns. an. Marc wants to be an actor. Marc wants to be the actor. Marc wants to be an actor. use a. Write three sentences to describe it. stage B. or thing. 1. 4. We saw play you liked. actor 2. play 5. We saw the play you liked.

Try It A. You are 5. © Hampton-Brown LANGUAGE TRANSFER ARTICLES BEFORE PROFESSIONS 15 Avoid these problems: Problem Is she scientist? I am a architect.Use a or an Before a Person’s Profession • Use a before the name of a profession. Choose three people you know. too? • Use an before a profession. space engineer? doctor. that begins with a consonant. . Add a or an before the profession. Use a or an. She is a pilot. Is she an astronaut? I am an engineer. ls Javier 2. Then say each sentence. Tell or ask what each person’s profession is. or job. Yoko is astronaut at NASA? scientist who works for NASA. accountant. Write sentences about each person. that begins with a vowel. B. Solution Is she a scientist? I am an architect. What is 4. 1. or job. Are you a pilot. l am 3.

Use a different subject in each sentence. 1. Read the sentence. ls Naomi buying clothes? 4. 2. Try It A. Some shoppers buy clothes. That backpack is on sale. . The hat is purple. Naomi is at the mall. Avoid these problems: Problem Solution Buys a new hat. Naomi buys a new hat. Write three sentences. What does the store sell? B. the store is near the entrance. In many questions. the subject comes after the verb. Now tell about the photo.Don’t Leave Out the Subject • Always name the subject in a statement or a question. 5. What is the subject? Make a new sentence with the same subject. Where is Naomi now? © Hampton-Brown LANGUAGE TRANSFER NOUNS IN THE SUBJECT 16 Is the store at the mall? Yes. 3. Make one sentence a question. Is purple. Naomi likes to shop.

She is happy. Are working hard. We are painting together. © Hampton-Brown LANGUAGE TRANSFER PRONOUNS IN THE SUBJECT 17 Try It A. Am having fun. Use subject pronouns in some of your sentences. Does Maria have a paintbrush? 2. Now tell what you see in the photo. Always include the subject in your sentence even if it is a pronoun. It is a colorful mural. Can Maria and Benny finish their mural? 5. . I am having fun. They are working hard. Avoid these problems: Problem Solution Is a colorful mural. Will she buy more paint? 3. Does Benny like to paint? 4. Use a subject pronoun in your answer. Write four sentences to describe it. Answer these questions about the photo.Don’t Leave Out the Subject • The subject of a sentence can be a noun or a pronoun. Is the mural dry? B. You can help us. 1.

He lives far away. 5. © Hampton-Brown Solution Carlos talks to Ana every week. . Carlos smiles when he hears the phone. Add -s to the verb. you have to change the action verb. or thing. The news makes Carlos happy. He asks questions. He knows that Ana calls every Friday. 3. Avoid these problems: Problem Carlos talk to Ana every week. or thing does. B. 2. Ana says that she will come to visit him. Ana calls Carlos at his new home. Use action verbs that tell about one person. Ana calls her friend Carlos. 4. Try It A. place. She talks about her week. LANGUAGE TRANSFER SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT: ACTION VERBS 21 FPO Ana calls Carlos. How does each underlined verb end? Use each verb in a new sentence. place.Verbs Have Different Forms • When you tell what one other person. Carlos listens. 1. He live far away. Write three more sentences about the photos.

Then finish it with words from the third column. . photos of everyone. Subject We Andy She The friends A squirrel Verb takes munches runs walk like Rest of Predicate down the trail. B. -ch. Now talk about the photo. Add -s to the verb if the subject is he. -x. She pushes the button. it. she.Don’t Forget the -s LANGUAGE TRANSFER SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT: ACTION VERBS 22 • Action verbs change to go with the subject of a sentence. He looks through the camera. Try It A. Use action verbs. Make as many sentences as you can. Add -es if the verb ends in -s. -sh. Choose a subject and verb to start a sentence. Andy takes pictures. She push the button. FPO © Hampton-Brown Avoid these problems: Problem His friend smile at the camera. or -z. It works well. to go camping. His friend flashes a big smile when Andy snaps the picture. Solution His friend smiles at the camera. Write three sentences about a boy or girl in the photo. or a singular noun. in the woods. seeds and nuts.

Get the Meaning of the Verb • Some verbs are made up of two words. Read the questions. Use two-word verbs from the chart. Did you turn in your homework? Please turn down the radio. Their meaning changes based on the second word. give back give in give up turn down turn in turn up Try It A. Do you turn up the music or turn in the music? 4. I give up. Do you give in something you borrowed or give back something you borrowed? B. 1. Do you turn up your homework or turn in your homework? 3. Turn up the heat. Do you give up hope or give in hope? 2. Do you give up candy or give in candy? 5. Write three sentences about your ideas. please. I will turn in my homework. . He argues until we give in. What is the answer? Please turn down the volume. LANGUAGE TRANSFER TWO-WORD VERBS 23 Verb © Hampton-Brown Meaning return agree quit decrease hand in increase Examples We give back the money we borrowed. Tell about the photo. Use a two-word verb in your answers.

1. Use two-word verbs in your answers. Sometimes the verb and the small word are separated. do you pick them out or pick them up? 3. You can check two library books out. Those boys pick on other kids. Before you turn in your homework. do you check it over or check it off? B. Can I check some out? I always check over my work. I will check this book off my list. LANGUAGE TRANSFER TWO-WORD VERBS 24 Verb © Hampton-Brown Meaning to mark off a list to borrow examine bother choose gather Examples They check the books off their lists. Now tell about the photo. Use two-word verbs from the chart. When you borrow a library book. out. You can pick ten books out today. I need books. do you check it out or check it off? 4. or off. . Do you check a book off a list or check a book over a list? 2. Write three sentences to describe what is happening.Get the Meaning of the Verb • Two-word verbs are made of a verb plus a small word like in. If you drop your books. Read the questions. Can you help me pick my books up? check off check out check over pick on pick out pick up Try It A.

Try It A. Do I kick the football now? Do you throw the football? Do we run to the goal? Do they have fun? LANGUAGE TRANSFER QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS WITH DO 4 • You can use do or don’t (do not) to answer questions. . no? Do you want to play? Play. you. Do you want to keep score? No. I do. Do you play other sports? No. Avoid these problems: Problem They catch the football. Then answer your question. I / Do / run / the / ball / with / ? 4. Write answers to your questions. we.Questions and Answers with Do • You can use do to ask questions. we / Do / a / football / have / ? 2. they / practice / Do / football / ? B. Then use Do to write two questions about it. Unscramble the words to ask a question. I do not. Talk about the photo. I do. 1. © Hampton-Brown Solution Do they catch the football? Do you want to play? Yes. Do you want to play football? Yes. and they. Use do with I. football / they / kick / Do / the / ? 3. I don’t.

she does. Avoid these problems: Problem Solution She learns Spanish. yes? Does she learn Spanish? Does it help with math? No helps. . Does she like math? Yes. Use does with he. and it. he does not. Does it help with math? No. Unscramble the words to ask a question. book / Does / the / she / read / ? 2. she. it does not. Write answers. she doesn’t. Then answer your question.Questions and Answers with Does • You can use does to ask questions. 1. he / answer / Does / the / questions / ? B. Does she teach the class? Does he go to Lakeside School? Does it have a computer lab? LANGUAGE TRANSFER QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS WITH DOES 5 © Hampton-Brown • You can use does or doesn’t (does not) to answer questions. Use Does to write two questions about the photo. Does she ask a question? No. Does he know the answer? No. she / Does / finish / homework /her / ? 3. study / late / Does / he / ? 4. Try It A.

Choose the correct word and ask the question. Does he like this store? Yes. he does. they do not. Do you think I should buy them? No. (Do / Does) the shoes come in other colors? B. I do. . no? They look good? Does he want to buy them? Buy. (Do / Does) he find a good pair? 3. (Do / Does) they need new shoes? 2. 1. Then write your questions and answers. Avoid these problems: Problem He needs new shoes. Then answer it. Try It A. and it. Does he have enough money? No. © Hampton-Brown Solution Does he need new shoes? Do they look good? Does he want to buy them? Yes. he does. Does it have cheap shoes? No. she. LANGUAGE TRANSFER QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS WITH DO AND DOES 6 • Use does or doesn’t (does not) with he. (Do / Does) he think the shoes will fit? 4. we. Ask two questions about the photo. and they. I don’t.Questions and Answers with Do and Does • Use do or don’t (do not) with I. it doesn’t. he does not. you. Use Do in one question and Does in the other. Do you like these shoes? Yes. Do they feel comfortable? No.

ls Naomi buying clothes? 4. The hat is purple. Read the sentence. the store is near the entrance. Naomi likes to shop. What is the subject? Make a new sentence with the same subject. 3. . Avoid these problems: Problem Solution Buys a new hat. Write three sentences. Some shoppers buy clothes. What does the store sell? B. In many questions. That backpack is on sale. Is purple. 1. Naomi buys a new hat. Where is Naomi now? © Hampton-Brown LANGUAGE TRANSFER NOUNS IN THE SUBJECT 16 Is the store at the mall? Yes.Don’t Leave Out the Subject • Always name the subject in a statement or a question. Try It A. Make one sentence a question. the subject comes after the verb. Naomi is at the mall. Now tell about the photo. 2. 5. Use a different subject in each sentence.

Avoid these problems: Problem Solution Is a colorful mural. It is a colorful mural. Now tell what you see in the photo. 1. Are working hard. They are working hard. Does Maria have a paintbrush? 2. Answer these questions about the photo. .Don’t Leave Out the Subject • The subject of a sentence can be a noun or a pronoun. Does Benny like to paint? 4. Will she buy more paint? 3. Is the mural dry? B. Always include the subject in your sentence even if it is a pronoun. She is happy. We are painting together. Am having fun. Write four sentences to describe it. You can help us. I am having fun. © Hampton-Brown LANGUAGE TRANSFER PRONOUNS IN THE SUBJECT 17 Try It A. Use a subject pronoun in your answer. Use subject pronouns in some of your sentences. Can Maria and Benny finish their mural? 5.

How many ways can you complete these sentences? 1. He + is He is scared. subject verb glad to get off the ride. Subject + Verb Examples I + am I am ready. The girls be always careful. expensive. subject ready to go on the next ride. You + are You are brave. They + are They are happy. It + is It is fast. is. verb B.Verbs Have Different Forms LANGUAGE TRANSFER SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT: FORMS OF BE 18 © Hampton-Brown • Use the form of the verb be that goes with the subject. and are. The girls are always careful. We + are We are excited. but subject verb subject verb 2. Write three sentences to describe it. but far away. Use am. . 3. Avoid these problems: Problem The ride are fast. Try It A. Now tell what you see in the photo. subject verb worth it. Solution The ride is fast. She + is She is worried.

fiesta. Choose the correct verb and say the sentence. is. 1. has. Elena (is / has) very excited. Spanish English Tengo quince años. She is hungry. Avoid these problems: Problem He has sixteen years. Spanish English Ella tiene un She has a party. Use have. 5. Write sentences to tell about Elena and the party. am. 3. Ella tiene hambre. B. I have a cake. I am thirsty. Tengo una torta. I am fifteen years old. Elena (is / has) seventeen years old today. you use have or has. The friends (are / have) happy for her. Imagine that you are someone in the photo. I (am / have) a present for her. We (are / have) hungry at the party. I have thirst. 4. or are. Try It A. © Hampton-Brown Solution He is sixteen years old.When to Use Have • In Spanish. you use tener to tell how old you are or how you feel. . is. In English. 2. LANGUAGE TRANSFER FORMS OF BE AND HAVE 19 • In Spanish. In English. you use am. you use tener to tell what you own or possess. or are.

Try It A.Don’t Leave Out the Verb LANGUAGE TRANSFER SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT: FORMS OF 20 © Hampton-Brown • The verbs am. Avoid these problems: Problem The music loud. Tim is a great dancer. A band is on the stage. I am happy. is. is. Subject The dance Tim My friends The teachers I am is are Verb Rest of Predicate fun. Use words from each column to make five sentences. They often appear in sentences that give a description. Now talk about the photo. Write three more sentences to tell where they are. at our table. • Sentences like these need the verbs to be complete. . awesome. and are are very useful. and are. Write three sentences to describe the people and things. Decorations on the walls. FPO Solution The music is loud. thirsty. B. • They also appear in sentences that tell where someone or something is. Use am. We are at the dance. at school. Decorations are on the walls.

5. How does each underlined verb end? Use each verb in a new sentence. He asks questions. Ana calls Carlos at his new home. Try It A. She talks about her week. 2.Verbs Have Different Forms • When you tell what one other person. Avoid these problems: Problem Carlos talk to Ana every week. He lives far away. Ana calls her friend Carlos. Write three more sentences about the photos. He knows that Ana calls every Friday. Add -s to the verb. you have to change the action verb. place. LANGUAGE TRANSFER SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT: ACTION VERBS 21 FPO Ana calls Carlos. . Carlos listens. or thing. place. 4. Use action verbs that tell about one person. 3. He live far away. 1. Ana says that she will come to visit him. The news makes Carlos happy. or thing does. B. © Hampton-Brown Solution Carlos talks to Ana every week. Carlos smiles when he hears the phone.

Say each sentence. Write two pairs of sentences about the photos. too. He uses bright colors. helps shows the is proud of it. When you talk about one female. • When you talk about one male. Mike loves art. 4. She draws cartoons. Mike make blue and white paper. Jeff likes photos.Use He for Males and She for Females • A pronoun can be a subject. Try It A. students different kinds of art. He draws cartoons. is in the art club. He takes many pictures. 1. use she. It takes many pictures. Tyrone paints. Jenny shapes a vase. Cindy teaches Mike how to make paper. Cindy is in the art club. . Use he and she. Mr. She uses clay. she He paints. Jeff likes photos. Solution Tina is in my art class. Cindy finishes the vase. She shapes. Hassan is the art teacher. use he. SHE 30 he Avoid these problems: Problem Tina is in my art class. makes paper. It refers to a noun. © Hampton-Brown LANGUAGE TRANSFER SUBJECT PRONOUNS: HE. B. 2. 5. Use he or she. 3.

. season.Use It to Talk About the Weather and More • Use it to talk about certain subjects. Answer each question with the pronoun it. It is February 2nd. Try It A. Imagine you are a snowboarder in the photo. Avoid these problems: Problem Solution What time? What time is it? Two o’clock already. What season is it? 4. Topic weather seasons time dates © Hampton-Brown LANGUAGE TRANSFER SUBJECT PRONOUN: IT 31 Example It is cold outside! It is winter. What day is it today? 2. It is one o’clock. 1. What time is it? 5. Use it. and date. What is the weather today? 3. Describe the weather. Write three sentences. time. Is it fun to snowboard? more topics • Your sentence will not be complete if you leave out the pronoun it. It is two o’clock already. Is it hard to learn to snowboard? B. Ask the questions.

Is it famous? No. Is he an artist? Yes. he is. Is she smiling? No. he is. is. it is not. Is it 2. 1. Is it 3. Is he a friend? Yes. Use these questions to guess about the person or thing. Then change roles.Many Questions Start with Is • When you ask about one person or thing. use the same pronoun in your answer. isn’t. © Hampton-Brown LANGUAGE TRANSFER SUBJECT PRONOUNS: 32 Is it a photo? Avoid these problems: Problem Is your sister? No. she isn’t. . Write three questions using is. Solution Is she your sister? No. Listen to your partner’s answers. Have a partner find a person or a thing in your classroom. Is a friend? Yes. Then trade questions with a partner and answer them. Is she ? ? ? ? B. • When you respond to a guess. Is he 4. use Is. Try It A. she isn’t. Now make guesses about the photo.

The music is new. It. is a singer. 1. like the music. The friends visit. B. Use he she it they To Tell About one male one female one thing more than one Examples Eric sings. Julio.Use the Correct Pronoun one one one LANGUAGE TRANSFER PRONOUN AGREEMENT 33 more than one he © Hampton-Brown she it they • A pronoun can be the subject of a sentence. Start your sentences with He. They hear the music. Eric is in a band. She. 3. and Judy come to listen. Use the pronoun that goes with the subject. Sara. Paula listens. 4. Write four sentences. Say each sentence. wants to join the band. She likes the same music. . or They. He loves music. has a special sound. It stores songs. 2. Paula plays the guitar. Try It A. Use the correct pronoun in the blanks. Now tell about people and things you know. The MP3 player is new.

Does Monica want a sandwich? B. he is. it is. Then write answers for your questions. Use it he © Hampton-Brown LANGUAGE TRANSFER SUBJECT PRONOUNS 34 To Tell About one thing one male one female two or more Example Is the pizza good? Yes.Answer a Question with the Right Pronoun • Use a subject pronoun when you answer a question. Is the girl still hungry? No. is. Think of four Yes/No questions about the photo. . 1. Solution Is cheese on the pizza? Yes. Try It A. Are the friends meeting for lunch? 2. Are the friends happy? Yes. Is Dan ready to order? 4. it tastes great. Is the boy thirsty? Yes. she is not. Are the menus on the table? 3. Listen to each question. they are. Who or what does it ask about? Answer the question with the right words. she they Avoid this problem: Problem Is cheese on the pizza? Yes. Use subject pronouns.

. Alina visited the beach. Listen and repeat each verb. she watched her vacation videos. I traveled to the beach with my family. I • Last year. splashed talked walked played showed traveled ended visited wanted . LANGUAGE TRANSFER VERB TENSE: REGULAR VERBS 25 © Hampton-Brown • Many verbs add -ed to show a past action. Alina visits the beach. I B. Try It A. Avoid these problems: Problem Last year. she to watch her vacation videos. my family • Yesterday. Solution Last year. Last year. Yesterday. Now imagine you are someone in the photo. One day. we walked on the beach. . you have to change the verb when you talk about the past. we talked about going there again. Last night. Yesterday.Change the Verb to Show Past Tense • In English. Use past tense verbs. Write a note to a friend to describe your vacation. . • When I was young. What does the -ed sound like? Then use the verbs in new sentences.

Write three sentences to describe an exciting time from last week. . I my mother my father my brother my friends at home at school at the mall at a game . Choose words from each box to tell a story. • Do not leave the verb out of the sentence. or they. Use was with I. you. I was at the mall yesterday. Tell what you felt. she. was were B. I my mother my father my brother my friends nervous happy sad scared sick . The girls are at the mall yesterday. It was fun! 2. I my mother my father my brother my friends nervous happy sad scared sick . Last week. We were surprised to see you.Don’t Leave Out the Verb • In English. was were At first. Avoid these problems: Problem Natalie happy. he. too. The girls were at the mall yesterday. or it. you have to change the verb when you tell about the past. Use was and were. Use were with we. You were there. Try It A. was were By the end. Solution Natalie was happy. 1. LANGUAGE TRANSFER VERB TENSE: FORMS OF BE 26 © Hampton-Brown • The verb be has special forms in the past.

we went downtown. Listen to each sentence. Change the verb to the past tense. you have to change the verb when you talk about the past. She feels sad about missing the fun. I saw my friends. At night. After school. Avoid this problem: Problem Yesterday. 1. Now tell about the photo. Try It A.Change the Verb to Show Past Tense • In English. . Write three sentences about it. Julia has to go home to study. 4. LANGUAGE TRANSFER VERB TENSE: IRREGULAR VERBS 27 © Hampton-Brown Present have go feel think Past had went felt thought Example Yesterday. Use irregular past tense verbs. 3. I go out with my friends. My friends think we should go downtown. We thought about seeing a movie. I see my friends. we had a great time. 2. B. Solution Yesterday. It felt good to relax after school. • Some verbs have special forms to tell about the past. Then use the past tense verb in a new sentence.

Tell about the teens in the photo. In the Future Tomorrow I will play soccer. LANGUAGE TRANSFER VERB TENSE: FUTURE 28 What will you do in the future? © Hampton-Brown Now Today I play basketball. a great time. Today Tomorrow In the future I he she they goes will go have has a test. Tomorrow I will play soccer. You will meet my girlfriend next week. Choose words from each column to make five sentences. Now we have English class. . Write sentences to tell what they will do in the future. Use will in each sentence. Later we will have math. to basketball practice. Next year they will be seventeen.Add Will to Signal the Future • In English. Try It A. We will finish it tomorrow. a lesson. Add will before the verb. you have to change the verb to tell about the future. Next week we will start practice. You meet my girlfriend next week. B. This year they are sixteen years old. Avoid these problems: Problem Solution We finish it tomorrow.

Lilia / a / red bike / rides / . The bikes stay on the path.Word Order in Statements subject verb • In most statements. The girl wears a helmet. Hernandez sees the bikes. The girl a helmet wears. 2. Avoid these problems: Problem Pedals Max the bike. Then say the new sentence. 5. ride / Max and Lilia / bikes / . Imagine you are Max or Lilia. B. Try It A. 4. the subject comes before the verb. . likes / bike / his / Max / . exercise / The friends / every week / . © Hampton-Brown LANGUAGE TRANSFER WORD ORDER: SUBJECT-VERB 7 Solution Max pedals the bike. My friends ride bikes. Put the subject before the verb. Unscramble the words to make new statements. 1. Mr. The friends / through the park / go / . Write three sentences about your bike ride. 3.

We studied Martin Luther King. Subject Martin Luther King. B. Do they follow the subject-verb-object pattern? . He wanted equal rights . Heard people his words . His followers I My class Everyone Verb heard discusses wanted share needs Object equal rights. Choose words from each column to make five statements. Jr. speaks to a crowd in Washington. Martin Luther King. D. Jr. Martin Luther King. Solution He made great speeches . the subject comes first. Jr. Jr. People heard his words . The verb comes next. His followers changed the world . © Hampton-Brown LANGUAGE TRANSFER WORD ORDER: SUBJECT-VERB-OBJECT 8 Avoid these problems: Problem He great speeches made.Word Order in Statements subject verb object • In most statements.. Try It A. Jr. You may use words more than once.C. Now write three statements about Martin Luther King. his ideas. his speeches. respect.. and the object is last.

SHE 30 he Avoid these problems: Problem Tina is in my art class. too. © Hampton-Brown LANGUAGE TRANSFER SUBJECT PRONOUNS: HE. Try It A. 4. 5. He draws cartoons. students different kinds of art. 2. He takes many pictures. Mike make blue and white paper. Use he and she. Tyrone paints. she He paints. is in the art club.Use He for Males and She for Females • A pronoun can be a subject. Jeff likes photos. Jenny shapes a vase. It takes many pictures. use he. 3. Mr. He uses bright colors. Cindy teaches Mike how to make paper. Solution Tina is in my art class. She shapes. 1. Mike loves art. • When you talk about one male. She uses clay. It refers to a noun. helps shows the is proud of it. Cindy is in the art club. Jeff likes photos. use she. B. Hassan is the art teacher. makes paper. Use he or she. Write two pairs of sentences about the photos. Say each sentence. She draws cartoons. When you talk about one female. Cindy finishes the vase. .

The music is new. Write four sentences. is a singer. Julio. He loves music. Try It A. Eric is in a band. 4. Sara. The MP3 player is new. Say each sentence. 3. Use the correct pronoun in the blanks. She likes the same music. It. They hear the music. has a special sound. 2. . Now tell about people and things you know. It stores songs. like the music. She. Paula listens. wants to join the band. Start your sentences with He. Use the pronoun that goes with the subject. or They. 1. The friends visit. B. and Judy come to listen.Use the Correct Pronoun one one one LANGUAGE TRANSFER PRONOUN AGREEMENT 33 more than one he © Hampton-Brown she it they • A pronoun can be the subject of a sentence. Use he she it they To Tell About one male one female one thing more than one Examples Eric sings. Paula plays the guitar.

Are the friends meeting for lunch? 2. . they are. Is Dan ready to order? 4. Who or what does it ask about? Answer the question with the right words. Then write answers for your questions. is. it is. Are the friends happy? Yes. Listen to each question. 1. she is not. Think of four Yes/No questions about the photo. Use subject pronouns. Solution Is cheese on the pizza? Yes.Answer a Question with the Right Pronoun • Use a subject pronoun when you answer a question. he is. Is the girl still hungry? No. Use it he © Hampton-Brown LANGUAGE TRANSFER SUBJECT PRONOUNS 34 To Tell About one thing one male one female two or more Example Is the pizza good? Yes. Does Monica want a sandwich? B. she they Avoid this problem: Problem Is cheese on the pizza? Yes. Is the boy thirsty? Yes. Are the menus on the table? 3. it tastes great. Try It A.

Oak Avenue. • Use in to show an even bigger area. and in are prepositions. The friends are at the school. on. Write three sentences that use at. I meet my friend 2. Los Angeles is in the West. Try It A. . Every morning. B. Avoid these problems: Problem Our school bus stops on the park. • Use on to show a more general area. My teacher lives at Riverside County. Main Street. My teacher lives in Riverside County. on.Use the Right Preposition • At. Use at. Their school is on Whittier Boulevard. the music store. They can tell where something is. or in. • Use at to show an exact location. We walk to our school 3. Sometimes we ride to the bus stop 4. We meet our friends 5. Say each sentence. LANGUAGE TRANSFER PREPOSITIONS 41 © Hampton-Brown Solution Our school bus stops at the park. Now tell about places near your school. Whittier Boulevard is in Los Angeles. It has the best music the Youth Center. or in. on. our city. Their school is on a corner. 1.

Use the Right Preposition LANGUAGE TRANSFER PREPOSITIONS 42 © Hampton-Brown • You can use prepositions like at. 1. Try It A. The winter dance is Thanksgiving. This year. New Year’s Eve is on Saturday. Presidents’ Day is 2. My birthday is 5. My birthday is at Tuesday. • Use in to tell about an even longer period of time. My birthday is on Tuesday. B. Now tell about a celebration you know. People celebrate at midnight on New Year’s Eve. October 31. 5 o’clock. on. Avoid these problems: Problem Thanksgiving is on November. on. Solution Thanksgiving is in November. The new year begins at 12 o’clock midnight. and in to write sentences about when it happens. 3. or in. Say each sentence. • Use on to tell about a longer period of time. New Year’s Day is the first day in January. Use at. the month of December. on. • Use at to tell about an exact time. Our Fourth of July party will start 4. and in to talk about time. Halloween is February. . Use at.

or tell more about. 1. (wounded) 4. They also use quick reflexes. Animal rescuers are courageous and kind people. Tell about the rescue. They find lost. Solution Animal rescuers have special tools. The rescuers rushed to the disaster. (tired and frightened) B. sick. She washed them with soap. (mild) 5. (helpless) 3. or hurt animals. nouns.Adjectives Usually Come Before Nouns LANGUAGE TRANSFER PLACEMENT OF ADJECTIVES 35 Adjectives describe. © Hampton-Brown Avoid these problems: Problem Animal rescuers have tools special . (brave) 2. Try It A. . They usually come before the nouns they describe. Christine picked up the animals. The animals were safe. Imagine you are an animal rescuer in the photo. Write an e-mail to a friend. Say each sentence with the adjective in parentheses. They also use reflexes quick . Use adjectives to describe your experience. brave rescue The frightened. dangerous animals need help. They searched for the animals. An incredible.

B. babies play outside.Never Make an Adjective Plural • Adjectives are words that describe nouns. Solution The cubs are small tigers. Now tell about another animal. Write four sentences to describe it. Use an before an adjective that begins with a vowel. A adult. male tiger lives alone. The tiger babies cannot see at birth. An adult. Add an adjective to each sentence. . 2. Add a or an before the adjective if needed. baby might bite his mother’s tail. The adjective does not change. male tiger lives alone. We have two large zoos in the city. Avoid these problems: Problem The cubs are smalls tigers. • Use a before an adjective that begins with a consonant. mother watches over her babies. 4. the 3. © Hampton-Brown A male tiger may weigh up to 500 pounds. Use adjectives. An old tiger may hunt people. Try It A. even if the noun is plural. 1. After a few months. LANGUAGE TRANSFER ADJECTIVES 36 We see powerful tigers. This is a large zoo. More than one answer is possible.

• Use some and any to ask about things you can and cannot count. Write four questions and answers about groceries. and any in your questions and answers. we don’t have any. How much jam do we have? We have two jars. Answer with a specific amount. or a specific amount. Use many. some. and Any • Indefinite adjectives can be used in questions and answers. any. How (many / much) butter do we need? 4. I see five boxes of pasta. Do we have any yogurt? No. Some. Choose a word to complete each question. • Use many to ask about things you can count. Much. How many pineapples do we need? We need one pineapple. . 1. Can you look for (much / some) sugar? B. Can you buy some milk? Yes. Can you see any pasta? Yes. I see some here. Answer with some. Then answer the questions with some.Use Many. or a specific amount. Do you have (many / any) juice in your cart? 3. Do you see (some / many) soup on the shelf? 5. We have some groceries. Now talk about the photo. How (many / much) carrots do you want? 2. much. Try It A. © Hampton-Brown LANGUAGE TRANSFER INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES 37 • Use much to ask about things you can’t count. any.

and are.Place Not After Am. Write three sentences about bowling. 2. I not am a good bowler. Tell about the photo. It is not my turn.” Place not after a form of the verb be. I am not a good bowler. B. The pins are not all down. in the off.I .I . the lights . © Hampton-Brown LANGUAGE TRANSFER PLACEMENT OF NOT 38 Solution Bowling balls are not light. here. Are the lights off? 3. the teacher . Use not and a form of the verb be. Use am. Are you sick? . Is. Avoid these problems: Problem Bowling balls not are light. My friend’s turn is not over.” . Then add not to make your sentences mean “no. Is the teacher there? 4. Try It A. the door sick. open. Are you in the classroom? classroom. 1. is. Is the door open? 5. I am not ready to bowl. and Are • The word not makes a sentence mean “no. Answer these questions.

Mr. We are getting a lot of work done. My friends are not waiting for me.Put Not Between the Helping Verb and the Main Verb • Some sentences tell what is not happening. Lee is reading poetry. Charlie not is reading a book. Some people are doing homework. Put not between the helping verb and the main verb to show what is not happening right now. © Hampton-Brown Try It A. Charlie is not reading a book. The girls are not jogging in the park. LANGUAGE TRANSFER PLACEMENT OF NOT 39 Avoid these problems: Problem Solution The girls not are jogging in the park. 4. Say what is not happening right now. . It is not raining today. 2. Write three sentences that put not in the right place. 5. I am whispering to my friends. 1. I am not playing soccer. Tell about the photo. 3. We are sitting in the school library. Put not in the right place. B.

© Hampton-Brown LANGUAGE TRANSFER NEGATIVE SENTENCES 40 Solution I never get any of the popcorn. Answer the questions. .Watch Out for Double Negatives • Use negative words to tell what is not true or not happening. Now talk with a partner about the photo. Choose words from the word box to give negative answers. My sisters are afraid of nothing. . 4. Try It A. We never see violent movies. . Joey does not like scary movies. No one went nowhere. Write three sentences about it. . 1. Make at least two of the sentences negative. no nobody not no one none never nothing nowhere . Do you have enough money? 2. Avoid these problems: Problem I never get none of the popcorn. Is the movie theater crowded? 5. Did Jorge tell you about the movie? B. • Use only one negative word in a sentence. No one went anywhere. Did anybody save us a seat? . Is a good movie playing? 3.

Naomi likes to shop. Use a different subject in each sentence. Read the sentence.Don’t Leave Out the Subject • Always name the subject in a statement or a question. What is the subject? Make a new sentence with the same subject. Naomi buys a new hat. In many questions. the store is near the entrance. Now tell about the photo. 1. . The hat is purple. Write three sentences. 3. Is purple. That backpack is on sale. ls Naomi buying clothes? 4. What does the store sell? B. the subject comes after the verb. 2. 5. Make one sentence a question. Try It A. Some shoppers buy clothes. Where is Naomi now? © Hampton-Brown LANGUAGE TRANSFER NOUNS IN THE SUBJECT 16 Is the store at the mall? Yes. Naomi is at the mall. Avoid these problems: Problem Solution Buys a new hat.

Don’t Leave Out the Subject • The subject of a sentence can be a noun or a pronoun. Write four sentences to describe it. Use subject pronouns in some of your sentences. Am having fun. Will she buy more paint? 3. . Avoid these problems: Problem Solution Is a colorful mural. 1. Now tell what you see in the photo. Does Benny like to paint? 4. She is happy. Use a subject pronoun in your answer. Are working hard. Answer these questions about the photo. Is the mural dry? B. Always include the subject in your sentence even if it is a pronoun. You can help us. They are working hard. Does Maria have a paintbrush? 2. © Hampton-Brown LANGUAGE TRANSFER PRONOUNS IN THE SUBJECT 17 Try It A. I am having fun. We are painting together. Can Maria and Benny finish their mural? 5. It is a colorful mural.

place. 2. Ana calls Carlos at his new home. Add -s to the verb. He live far away. B. . Carlos smiles when he hears the phone. He asks questions. Ana says that she will come to visit him. 1. or thing does. you have to change the action verb. He knows that Ana calls every Friday. 4. The news makes Carlos happy. Use action verbs that tell about one person. place. Carlos listens. She talks about her week. How does each underlined verb end? Use each verb in a new sentence. He lives far away. 3. Write three more sentences about the photos. Try It A.Verbs Have Different Forms • When you tell what one other person. © Hampton-Brown Solution Carlos talks to Ana every week. Ana calls her friend Carlos. Avoid these problems: Problem Carlos talk to Ana every week. LANGUAGE TRANSFER SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT: ACTION VERBS 21 FPO Ana calls Carlos. 5. or thing.

Choose a subject and verb to start a sentence. or a singular noun. FPO © Hampton-Brown Avoid these problems: Problem His friend smile at the camera. in the woods. she.Don’t Forget the -s LANGUAGE TRANSFER SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT: ACTION VERBS 22 • Action verbs change to go with the subject of a sentence. B. Subject We Andy She The friends A squirrel Verb takes munches runs walk like Rest of Predicate down the trail. Then finish it with words from the third column. He looks through the camera. -ch. photos of everyone. Add -es if the verb ends in -s. . -sh. Write three sentences about a boy or girl in the photo. Use action verbs. Make as many sentences as you can. She pushes the button. Andy takes pictures. Try It A. Solution His friend smiles at the camera. It works well. it. His friend flashes a big smile when Andy snaps the picture. to go camping. seeds and nuts. Add -s to the verb if the subject is he. Now talk about the photo. or -z. She push the button. -x.

we talked about going there again. Write a note to a friend to describe your vacation. my family • Yesterday. she to watch her vacation videos. . • When I was young. you have to change the verb when you talk about the past. Now imagine you are someone in the photo. Avoid these problems: Problem Last year. we walked on the beach. Listen and repeat each verb. Use past tense verbs. Solution Last year. . Alina visited the beach. .Change the Verb to Show Past Tense • In English. One day. Yesterday. Last night. I • Last year. Alina visits the beach. LANGUAGE TRANSFER VERB TENSE: REGULAR VERBS 25 © Hampton-Brown • Many verbs add -ed to show a past action. Try It A. What does the -ed sound like? Then use the verbs in new sentences. I B. she watched her vacation videos. Last year. splashed talked walked played showed traveled ended visited wanted . Yesterday. I traveled to the beach with my family.

or it. Last week. Solution Natalie was happy. We were surprised to see you. You were there. Tell what you felt. The girls were at the mall yesterday. . too. Use was and were.Don’t Leave Out the Verb • In English. Write three sentences to describe an exciting time from last week. I was at the mall yesterday. LANGUAGE TRANSFER VERB TENSE: FORMS OF BE 26 © Hampton-Brown • The verb be has special forms in the past. Avoid these problems: Problem Natalie happy. 1. Try It A. I my mother my father my brother my friends nervous happy sad scared sick . you have to change the verb when you tell about the past. she. he. • Do not leave the verb out of the sentence. Use was with I. It was fun! 2. Use were with we. you. was were By the end. I my mother my father my brother my friends nervous happy sad scared sick . was were At first. was were B. or they. Choose words from each box to tell a story. I my mother my father my brother my friends at home at school at the mall at a game . The girls are at the mall yesterday.

It felt good to relax after school. Now tell about the photo. We thought about seeing a movie. 4. At night. you have to change the verb when you talk about the past. After school.Change the Verb to Show Past Tense • In English. we went downtown. LANGUAGE TRANSFER VERB TENSE: IRREGULAR VERBS 27 © Hampton-Brown Present have go feel think Past had went felt thought Example Yesterday. Then use the past tense verb in a new sentence. 3. Try It A. 1. Use irregular past tense verbs. • Some verbs have special forms to tell about the past. Write three sentences about it. Change the verb to the past tense. we had a great time. . I go out with my friends. 2. Listen to each sentence. I saw my friends. I see my friends. B. Avoid this problem: Problem Yesterday. Solution Yesterday. Julia has to go home to study. My friends think we should go downtown. She feels sad about missing the fun.

B. Use will in each sentence. Tomorrow I will play soccer. Choose words from each column to make five sentences. you have to change the verb to tell about the future. Later we will have math. LANGUAGE TRANSFER VERB TENSE: FUTURE 28 What will you do in the future? © Hampton-Brown Now Today I play basketball. You will meet my girlfriend next week. Tell about the teens in the photo. Add will before the verb. You meet my girlfriend next week. This year they are sixteen years old. to basketball practice. Write sentences to tell what they will do in the future. Try It A. a great time. Next year they will be seventeen. a lesson. . Today Tomorrow In the future I he she they goes will go have has a test. In the Future Tomorrow I will play soccer. Next week we will start practice. Now we have English class. We will finish it tomorrow.Add Will to Signal the Future • In English. Avoid these problems: Problem Solution We finish it tomorrow.

. Use the past tense and the present perfect tense. For a long time. you need to use the present perfect tense. have lived in New York. This morning. Solution Since last month. my family (wants / has wanted) to move. Last month. I en Nueva York. my sister has been sad. we (wait / have waited) for this moment! B. • In English. we (pack / have packed) every day. 3. we (move / moved) all our things.Don’t Use the Present Tense When You Tell About the Past LANGUAGE TRANSFER VERB TENSE: PRESENT PERFECT 29 © Hampton-Brown • In Spanish. Write four sentences about the family. For a long time. 4. Now tell about the photo. 2. you can use the present tense when you tell about an action that started in the past and is still happening now. she wants to go back to Puerto Rico. she has wanted to go back to Puerto Rico. Spanish English Desde enero. we (look / looked) for a new home. For a long time. Avoid these problems: Problem Since last month. my sister is sad. 5. 1. For a long time. Say each sentence with the correct verb. Since we bought the house. vivo Since January. Try It A. Then we found one.