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Acknowledgements

Authors: Artists:

William Marion and Stephen Wilcox Joe Woodburn, Phyllis S. Kabins, and John Leedholm

Cover photographs: Editor:

Warren Gretz Mary Anne Dunlap

ii

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............................................Table of Contents Preface.........250 Deriving Climatic Data............1 Revision ....................................iii Introduction ...5 Climatic Conditions ..............................................KnowledgePublications..........................................................................................249 Estimating the Uncertainty of Solar Radiation Data......................................................................................................................3 Solar Radiation Graph ..............................................................................................................................6 Data Tables .......................................................7 Appendix—Methodology...............................3 Station Description ..............248 Calculating Solar Radiation for Flat-Plate and Concentrating Collectors...1 Technical Background ...........2 Interpreting the Data Tables ..............................................................................247 National Solar Radiation Data Base Version 1......................................................................................................252 Unit Conversion Factors ...................................3 Solar Radiation Data for Flat-Plate and Concentrating Collectors ................Inside back cover iv reprinted by www........5 Other Data Formats ....................com ...............................................................

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which describe the contents of the data sets. “Readme” files. 6 reprinted by www.KnowledgePublications. with the exception of the solar radiation graph.Other Data Formats The data presented on the data pages in this manual. are included on the floppy disks. These data can be imported into popular spreadsheet programs. These data could be useful for identifying extended periods of low or high solar radiation or plotting graphs of monthly solar radiation for any of the flatplate and concentrating collectors. please contact the NREL Technical Inquiry Service at (303) 275-4099. To obtain either of these data sets on floppy disks. Also available on floppy disks are averages of solar radiation for each of the flat-plate and concentrating collectors for each month for the period of 1961-1990 (360 months).com . are also available on floppy disks in ASCII format. The printed manual includes graphs only for flat-plate collectors tilted at an angle equal to the latitude.

.......................................................................................................................45 (Connecticut) ..............................172 (Pennsylvania) .................................................................................................111 (Missouri)...........................221 (Virginia).....................................170 (Oregon)..................................................................93 (Massachusetts)..............................................................................................................234 (West Virginia)........................................................242 reprinted by www..................................................................77 (Indiana)......145 (New Jersey) .........189 (Puerto Rico)....................................................................................................................................................................156 (Ohio)...............................................229 (Wisconsin) .....................................................35 (Colorado)..............................................................................................................8 (Alabama) .....................................Data Tables AK AL AR AZ CA CO CT DE FL GA HI IA ID IL IN KS KY LA MA MD ME MI MN MO MS MT NC ND NE NH NJ NM NV NY OH OK OR PA PI PR RI SC SD TN TX UT VA VT WA WI WV WY (Alaska)...........................................................223 (Vermont).......199 (Texas) ..........................................90 (Louisiana)................................................................................................................................................................com 7 ........................120 (Montana) .................................................................................................29 (Arizona)................................204 (Utah)........................................116 (Mississippi) ........................................................................................................75 (Illinois) ..61 (Hawaii) .........................................................................................................190 (Rhode Island) .........................99 (Maine) ............140 (New Hampshire) ..............................150 (New York) ............................................163 (Oklahoma) ......KnowledgePublications..........................................................................................................................54 (Georgia)..............................131 (North Dakota)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................148 (Nevada) ........................................................................................................................................................................................146 (New Mexico).....................82 (Kansas) ....................................122 (North Carolina) .........31 (California) .....191 (South Carolina) ...................................................................137 (Nebraska)....................................................................................................................................................................................................228 (Washington)................51 (Delaware) ....................................................................................................................................71 (Idaho)..........................................................53 (Florida) ....................................100 (Michigan) ................................................67 (Iowa)...............97 (Maryland) .............................................................................................195 (Tennessee) .................................................................................................................................239 (Wyoming)....................................................................192 (South Dakota).........................86 (Kentucky) ........................................25 (Arkansas)................181 (Pacific Islands) ..102 (Minnesota) ...

.252 reprinted by www...................1 Revision ..Appendix ....................com 247 .................................................................................249 Estimating the Uncertainty of Solar Radiation Data........Methodology National Solar Radiation Data Base Version 1.................KnowledgePublications.250 Deriving Climatic Data ......248 Calculating Solar Radiation for Flat-Plate and Concentrating Collectors ....

0 was completed in August 1992. AK Gulkana. AK Kodiak. from 1 to 3 months per station had some hourly solar radiation values that were unrealistically low.1 revisions of the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) and describes the method used to calculate the monthly and yearly averages of solar radiation for flat-plate and concentrating collectors. HI Lihue. TX Seattle. Version 1. AK Nome.Appendix .1 corrects two types of errors discovered in Version 1. and data values were mismatched with their time stamp by 1 or 2 hours. AK King Salmon. It also describes how the solar radiation data uncertainties were determined and how the climatic information was derived.0: (1) for 23 stations. NV Version 1. HI Evansville. WY 248 reprinted by www. FL Great Falls. MT Ely. AK Talkeetna. IN Louisville. AK Cold Bay. AK Big Delta. Paul Island. AK Honolulu. AK Bettles. the wrong time zones were used. AK McGrath. NV Albany. completed in March 1994. and (2) for 8 stations that measured solar radiation.1 corrects time zone errors for the following stations: Anchorage.Methodology This Appendix describes Version 1. AK Kotzebue. KY Lewistown. IN South Bend. AK Fairbanks. NY Brownsville. Version 1. AK Annette. National Solar Radiation Data Base Version 1. AK Bethel.com . WA Lander.KnowledgePublications. the previous Version 1.1 This data manual is based on the NSRDB Version 1.1 replaces erroneous measured solar radiation data with modeled data for the following stations: Montgomery.1. MT Ely. AK Barrow. AK St. AL Miami.

com .KnowledgePublications.reprinted by www.

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com . Michalsky. NCDC used procedures.3°C. NM: Sandia National Laboratories. B. R. Ringhiser. average heating degree days base 18.C. (1990).. but no attempt was made to estimate missing data or to correct for other inconsistencies.. New York: American Institute of Astronautics and Aeronautics. when possible. to estimate missing data and to correct for other inconsistencies by using data from neighboring stations. R.E. Albuquerque. record minimum and maximum temperatures are based on NSRDB data. R. the averages were computed using NSRDB data. among other useful parameters. For this station. Seals. Stewart. pp. “Comparative Climatic Data Tables—1991. 252 reprinted by www. Record minimum and maximum temperatures were obtained primarily form NCDC’s data diskette. McKay. NSRDB data were used to calculate average relative humidity and average wind speed. J.” Solar Energy. The normals are averages computed by NCDC for the period of 1961-1990. References Abernethy. User’s Manual for PVFORM: A Photovoltaic System Simulation Program for Stand-Alone and Grid-Interactive Applications. “1961-1990 Monthly Station Normals All Elements. Menicucci.P. J. SAND85-0376. “Modeling Daylight Availability and Irradiance Components from Direct and Global Irradiance. For this data set. average daily minimum temperature. International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Programme. and average cooling degree days base 18. data were not available on NCDC’s data tape. in Arcata. J. For the remaining 10% of the stations..” 20th AIAA/SAE/ASME Joint Propulsion Conference (July 1985) AIAA-85-1403.” This data diskette contains.KnowledgePublications.3°C were extracted from NCDC’s data tape. “The History and Statistical Development of the New ASME-SAE-AIAAISO Measurement and Uncertainty Methodology. Perez. Fernandez. California.” This data tape includes temperature and degree day normals for about 4775 stations in the United States and its territories. (1985). Final Report IEA Task IX—Calculation of Solar Irradiances for Inclined Surfaces: Verification of Models Which Use Hourly and Daily Data. For one of the stations in this data manual. R. 44(5).. (1988). D. (1988). Asheville.. North Carolina (704) 271-4994..Appendix . Ineichen. 271-289.Methodology Deriving Climatic Data The climatic data presented in the manual were derived using both data from the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) and from climatic data sets provided by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). D. average daily maximum temperature. record minimum and maximum temperatures for about 90% of the stations in this manual and spans periods of record back to 1948 and earlier. P. Hay.. Climatic data pertaining to average temperatures.

04 3.20 0.017453 1.KnowledgePublications.com .237 100.Unit Conversion Factors To Convert kilowatt-hours per square meter kilowatt-hours per square meter kilowatt-hours per square meter kilowatt-hours per square meter meters meters per second millibars millibars millibars millibars degrees Centigrade degrees (angle) degree days (base 18.281 2.2 86.0145 °C x 1.0 0.8 + 32 0.0009869 10.60 317.04 86.8 reprinted by www.3°C) Into megajoules per square meter Btus per square foot Langleys calories per square centimeter feet miles per hour pascals atmospheres kilograms per square meter pounds per square inch degrees Fahrenheit radians degree days (base 65°F) Multiply By 3.

Department of Energy NREL/TP-463-5607 DE93018229 April 1994 Printed with a renewable source ink on paper containing at least 50% wastepaper reprinted by www.KnowledgePublications. Colorado 80401-3393 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden.com M35-A0266 .S.

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